Article-level metrics

Article-level metrics are citation metrics which measure the usage and impact of individual scholarly articles.


Traditionally, bibliometrics have been used to evaluate the usage and impact of research, but have usually been focused on journal-level metrics such as the impact factor or researcher-level metrics such as the h-index.[1] Article-level metrics, on the other hand, may demonstrate the impact of an individual article. This is related to, but distinct from, altmetrics.[2]

Starting in March 2009, the Public Library of Science introduced article-level metrics for all articles.[3] The open access publisher PLOS provides article level metrics for all of its journals[4] including downloads, citations, and altmetrics.[5] In March 2014 it was announced that COUNTER statistics, which measure usage of online scholarly resources, are now available at the article level.[6] The individual impact index statistic, known as the i3, was developed by Dr. Jacques Balayla and employs a novel method to provide a standardized article-level metric [7].

See also


  1. ^ "Article-Level Metrics". SPARC. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  2. ^ "Article-Level Metrics: A Sparc Primer" (PDF). SPARC. April 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  3. ^ "Article-Level Metrics Information". PLoS ONE. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
  4. ^ "Overview". PLOS: Article-Level Metrics. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  5. ^ Pattinson, Damian (March 2014). "The future is open: opportunities for publishers and institutions" (PDF). Insights. 27 (1): 38–44. doi:10.1629/2048-7754.139. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  6. ^ "Introduction to Release 1 of the COUNTER Code of Practice for Articles". COUNTER. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  7. ^ "The Individual Impact Index (i3) Statistic: A novel article-level metric". Dr. Jacques Balayla. Retrieved 4 March 2018.

Further reading


Alm may refer to:

Alm (surname)

Alm (pasture), a managed Alpine grazing or hay-producing area

Seiser Alm is the largest high-altitude Alpine meadow, for example

Alm (river), Austria

Almandine, a garnet mineral

The protagonist of Fire Emblem Gaiden and its remake, Fire Emblem Echoes: Shadows of Valentia

Bielefelder Alm, a stadium in Bielefeld, Germany

An historical liquid measure, see aamALM may refer to:

Abundant Life Ministries, a former name of LIFE Church UK

Additive layer manufacturing, a kind of 3D-printing

ALM Antillean Airlines, 1964–2001, previously Antilliaanse Luchtvaart Maatschappij

Alamein railway station in Melbourne, Australia, station code

Alamogordo–White Sands Regional Airport, New Mexico, USA, IATA airport code

Union Grand-Duc Adolphe, music organization in Luxembourg, originally Allgemeiner Luxemburger Musikverein

Alnmouth railway station in Northumberland, England, station code

ALM (company), formerly known as American Lawyer Media

Application lifecycle management of computer programs

Arab Liberation Movement, a Syrian political party 1952–63

Article-level metrics, which measure the usage and impact of individual scholarly articles

Artium Liberalium Magister, the Latin name for a Master of Arts in Liberal Studies

Asset and liability management

AG2R La Mondiale, a bicycle racing team, UCI code

Arabic letter mark, , a writing direction Unicode control character


In scholarly and scientific publishing, altmetrics are non-traditional bibliometrics proposed as an alternative or complement to more traditional citation impact metrics, such as impact factor and h-index. The term altmetrics was proposed in 2010, as a generalization of article level metrics, and has its roots in the #altmetrics hashtag. Although altmetrics are often thought of as metrics about articles, they can be applied to people, journals, books, data sets, presentations, videos, source code repositories, web pages, etc. Altmetrics use public APIs across platforms to gather data with open scripts and algorithms. Altmetrics did not originally cover citation counts, but calculate scholar impact based on diverse online research output, such as social media, online news media, online reference managers and so on. It demonstrates both the impact and the detailed composition of the impact. Altmetrics could be applied to research filter, promotion and tenure dossiers, grant applications and for ranking newly-published articles in academic search engines.

Author-level metrics

Author-level metrics are citation metrics that measure the bibliometric impact of individual authors, researchers, academics, and scholars. A prime example is the h-index. Other metrics originally developed for academic journals can be reported at researcher level, such as the author-level eigenfactor and the author impact factor.

Cameron Neylon

David Cameron Neylon is an advocate for open access and Professor of Research Communications at the Centre for Culture and Technology at Curtin University. From 2012 - 2015 they were the Advocacy Director at the Public Library of Science.

Impact factor

The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the yearly average number of citations to recent articles published in that journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field; journals with higher impact factors are often deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated yearly starting from 1975 for journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports.

Journal ranking

Journal ranking is widely used in academic circles in the evaluation of an academic journal's impact and quality. Journal rankings are intended to reflect the place of a journal within its field, the relative difficulty of being published in that journal, and the prestige associated with it. They have been introduced as official research evaluation tools in several countries.

PLOS Biology

PLOS Biology is a monthly Peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology. Publication began on October 13, 2003. It was the first journal of the Public Library of Science. The editor-in-chief is Emma Ganley.

In addition to research articles, the journal publishes magazine content aimed to be accessible to a broad audience. Article types in this section are: Essays, Unsolved Mysteries, Editorials, and Synopses.


PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006. The journal covers primary research from any discipline within science and medicine. The Public Library of Science began in 2000 with an online petition initiative by Nobel Prize winner Harold Varmus, formerly director of the National Institutes of Health and at that time director of Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center; Patrick O. Brown, a biochemist at Stanford University; and Michael Eisen, a computational biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. All submissions go through a pre-publication review by a member of the board of academic editors, who can elect to seek an opinion from an external reviewer. According to the journal, papers are not to be excluded on the basis of lack of perceived importance or adherence to a scientific field. In January 2010, the journal was included in the Journal Citation Reports and received its first impact factor of 4.411. PLOS One papers are published under Creative Commons licenses.

PLOS Pathogens

PLOS Pathogens is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal. All content in PLOS Pathogens is published under the Creative Commons "by-attribution" license.

PLOS Pathogens began operation in September 2005. It was the fifth journal of the Public Library of Science (PLOS), a non-profit open-access publisher. For a detailed timeline of PLOS publications see the PLOS history page.

Web of Science

Web of Science (previously known as Web of Knowledge) is an online subscription-based scientific citation indexing service originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), later maintained by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters), that provides a comprehensive citation search. It gives access to multiple databases that reference cross-disciplinary research, which allows for in-depth exploration of specialized sub-fields within an academic or scientific discipline.

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