Arthur Marder

Arthur Jacob Marder (8 March 1910 – 25 December 1980) was an American historian specializing in British naval history in the period 1880–1945.

Early life and education

Born and raised in Boston, Massachusetts, Arthur Marder was the son of Maxwell J. Marder and Ida Greenstein. He attended Harvard University, where he obtained his bachelor's degree in 1931, his master's degree in 1934, and his Ph.D. in 1936 with a study of British naval policy 1880–1905.

He married Jan North in September 1955. They had three children.


Marder began his teaching career as an assistant professor of history at the University of Oregon in 1936–38. In 1939, he returned to Harvard in 1939-41 as a research associate at the Bureau of International Research and Radcliffe College. In 1941–42, he was a research analyst in the Office of Strategic Services, before becoming an associate professor of history at Hamilton College in 1943–44.

In 1944, he was appointed associate professor at the University of Hawaii, where he remained for twenty years, becoming a full professor in 1951, then senior professor in 1958. In 1964, he was appointed professor of history at the University of California, Irvine, remaining there until he retired as professor emeritus in 1977.

He was visiting lecturer at Harvard University in 1949–50; George Eastman Professor at Oxford University and fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, in 1969–70.

Marder died 25 December 1980 of cancer in Santa Barbara, California.


Arthur Marder was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1941, 1945–46, and 1958. The American Historical Association awarded him the George Louis Beer Prize in 1941 for his Harvard doctoral thesis, published as Anatomy of British Sea Power.[1] He was a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow in 1942–43, American Philosophical Society Fellow in 1956, 1958, 1963, and 1966. The Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies awarded him the Chesney Gold Medal in 1968. He was made an honorary commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1970. Oxford University awarded him the degree of Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) in 1971 and a Fellow of the Royal United Services Institute in 1977. He was a Fellow of the National Endowment for the Humanities, 1978–79, and the Australian-American Education Foundation awarded him a distinguished visitor award in 1979.

Published works

  • The anatomy of British sea power: a history of British naval policy in the pre-dreadnought era, 1880–1905 (1940, 1964, 1972, 1976)
  • Portrait of an admiral: the life and papers of Sir Herbert Richmond (1952)
  • Fear God and dread nought : the correspondence of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher of Kilverstone selected and edited by Arthur J. Marder, three volumes. v. 1. The making of an Admiral, 1854–1904.—v. 2. Years of power, 1904–1914.—v. 3. Restoration, abdication, and last years, 1914–1920 (1952–59)
  • From the Dreadnought to Scapa Flow: the Royal Navy in the Fisher era, 1904–1919, five volumes (1961–70, 1978)
  • Winston is back : Churchill at the Admiralty, 1939–40 (1972)
  • From the Dardanelles to Oran: studies of the Royal Navy in war and peace, 1915–1940 (1974)
  • Operation 'Menace': the Dakar expedition and the Dudley North affair (1976)
  • Naval warfare in the twentieth century, 1900–1945: essays in honour of Arthur Marder edited by Gerald Jordan (1977)
  • Old friends, new enemies: the Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy two volumes. [v. 1]. Strategic illusions, 1936–1941 by Arthur J. Marder—v. 2. The Pacific war, 1942–1945 by Arthur J. Marder, Mark Jacobsen, and John Horsfield. (1981–1990)


  1. ^ "George Louis Beer Prize Recipients". American Historical Association. Retrieved December 24, 2017.


  • Seligmann, Matthew S. "A Great American Scholar of the Royal Navy? The Disputed Legacy of Arthur Marder Revisited" international History Review 38#5 (2016): 1040–54
  • Eugene L. Rasor, British Naval History Since 1815: A Guide to the Literature. New York: Garland, 1990, pp. 34–38.
  • Barry M. Gough, Historical Dreadnoughts: Arthur Marder, Stephen Roskill and Battles for Naval History. Seaforth/Pen and Sword, 2010.

External links


1940 (MCMXL)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

1940 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1940.


Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict. The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of the British governments of Prime Ministers Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy between 1935 and 1939.

At the beginning of the 1930s, such concessions were widely seen as positive due to the trauma of World War I, second thoughts about the treatment of Germany in the Treaty of Versailles, and a perception that Fascism was a useful form of anti-communism. However, by the time of the Munich Pact—concluded on 30 September 1938 among Germany, Britain, France, and Italy—the policy was opposed by most of the British left and Labour Party, by Conservative dissenters such as Winston Churchill and Duff Cooper, and even by Anthony Eden, a former proponent of appeasement. As alarm grew about the rise of fascism in Europe, Chamberlain resorted to news censorship to control public opinion. Nonetheless, Chamberlain confidently announced after Munich that he had secured "peace for our time".The policies have been the subject of intense debate for more than seventy years among academics, politicians, and diplomats. The historians' assessments have ranged from condemnation for allowing Adolf Hitler's Germany to grow too strong, to the judgment that Germany was so strong that it might well win a war and that postponement of a showdown was in their country's best interests.

Barry M. Gough

Barry Morton Gough (born 17 September 1938) is a global maritime and naval historian based on Canada's Pacific coast. Gough has made in the British Columbia and western North American context a number of monographic contributions to ethnohistory, cross-cultural relations, patterns of missionary acceptance among Northwest Coast peoples, frontier–borderland studies and environmental history. With the perspective of British sea power worldwide, he has worked to explore the maritime dimensions of British Columbia history and to recast and reaffirm the imperial foundations of Canadian history.

Convoys in World War I

The convoy—a group of merchantmen or troopships traveling together with a naval escort—was revived during World War I (1914–18), after having been discarded at the start of the Age of Steam. Although convoys were used by the Royal Navy in 1914 to escort troopships from the Dominions, and in 1915 by both it and the French Navy to cover their own troop movements for overseas service, they were not systematically employed by any belligerent navy until 1916. The Royal Navy was the major user and developer of the modern convoy system, and regular transoceanic convoying began in June 1917. They made heavy use of aircraft for escorts, especially in coastal waters, an obvious departure from the convoy practices of the Age of Sail.

As historian Paul E. Fontenoy put it, "[t]he convoy system defeated the German submarine campaign." From June 1917 on, the Germans were unable to meet their set objective of sinking 600,000 long tons (610,000 t) of enemy shipping per month. In 1918, they were rarely able to sink more than 300,000 long tons (300,000 t). Between May 1917 and the end of the war on 11 November 1918, only 154 of 16,539 vessels convoyed across the Atlantic had been sunk, of which 16 were lost through the natural perils of sea travel and a further 36 because they were stragglers.

Felix von Bendemann

Felix von Bendemann (8 August 1848 – 31 October 1915) was an Admiral of the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine).

Bendemann was born in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony. He was the son of the painter Eduard Julius Friedrich Bendemann (1811–1889) and Lida Schadow, who was the daughter of the sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow. The painter Rudolf Bendemann was his brother.

Francis Bridgeman (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir Francis Charles Bridgeman Bridgeman (7 December 1848 – 17 February 1929) was a Royal Navy officer. As a captain he commanded a battleship and then an armoured cruiser and then, after serving as second-in-command of three different fleets, he twice undertook tours as Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet with a stint as Second Sea Lord in between those tours. He became First Sea Lord in November 1911 but clashed with First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill on technical issues as well as matters relating to a perceived overriding of naval traditions by Churchill: this led to Bridgeman's resignation just a year later.

George Louis Beer Prize

The George Louis Beer Prize is a book prize awarded by the American Historical Association for the best book in European international history from 1895 to the present written by a United States citizen or permanent resident. The prize was created in 1923 to honor the memory of George Beer, a prominent historian, member of the U.S. delegation at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference and senior League of Nations official. Described by Jeffrey Herf, the 1998 laureate, as "the Academy Award" of book prizes for modern European historians. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious historical prizes offered in the United States, and it is usually awarded to senior scholars in the profession. This in contrary to the American Historical Association's other distinguished European history award, the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize, which is restricted to young authors publishing their first substantial work. Only four historians, Edward W. Bennett, Carole Fink, Piotr S. Wandycz and Gerhard Weinberg, have won the Beer Prize more than once in its ninety-year history.

Herbert Richmond

Admiral Sir Herbert William Richmond (15 September 1871 – 15 December 1946) was a prominent Royal Navy officer, described as "perhaps the most brilliant naval officer of his generation." He was also a top naval historian, known as the "British Mahan", the leader of the British Royal Navy's intellectual revolution that stressed continuing education especially in naval history as essential to the formation of naval strategy. After serving as a "gadfly" to the British Admiralty, his constructive criticisms causing him to be "denied the role in the formation of policy and the reformations of naval education which his talents warranted", he served as the first Vere Harmsworth Professor of Imperial and Naval History at Cambridge University in 1934-1936, and Master of Downing College, Cambridge in 1934-1946.

List of Hamilton College people

Hamilton College is a private, independent liberal arts college located in Clinton, New York. It has been coeducational since 1978, when it merged with Kirkland College.

Below is a non-comprehensive list of Hamiltonians who have made notable achievements or contributions in their chosen fields.

List of historians

This is a list of historians.

The names are grouped by order of the historical period in which they were living and producing works, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialize.

Recruitment in the Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy was created in 1868, initially the officers and sailors who manned the new navy reflected the composition of the Meiji government's bureaucracy. Samurai who originated from the victorious coalition of south-western domains dominated the navy's small officer corps. These domains which had led the restoration, particularly Satsuma, also dominated the numbers of recruits sent to the new Naval Academy which had opened in October 1869. The leadership of the new navy later took steps to reform recruitment into the officer corps, and to establish the creation of a system of recruitment based on merit rather than on class or region. In 1871, the government announced that applicants would be accepted from the public at large and that entry would be based upon competitive examinations. Eventually, in the words of Arthur Marder, the Imperial Japanese Navy turned out officers of "unquestioned professional competence, fanatical courage, and extraordinary elan". The IJN molded among the ranks a standard of discipline, self-sacrifice, and devotion to duty that became the envy of all navies in the world. Japan's later victories at sea, one commentator has observed, "came as much from the training and morale of the average Japanese seaman as from the effectiveness of the navy's ships or the caliber of its guns".

SMS Baden

SMS Baden was a Bayern-class dreadnought battleship of the German Imperial Navy built during World War I. Launched in October 1915 and completed in March 1917, she was the last battleship completed for use in the war; two of her sisters—Sachsen and Württemberg—were incomplete when the war ended. The ship mounted eight 38-centimeter (15 in) guns in four twin turrets, displaced 32,200 metric tons (31,700 long tons; 35,500 short tons) at full combat load, and had a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph). Along with her sister Bayern, Baden was the largest and most powerfully armed battleship built by the Imperial Navy.

Upon commissioning into the High Seas Fleet, Baden was made the fleet flagship, replacing Friedrich der Grosse. Baden saw little action during her short career; the only major sortie in April 1918 ended without any combat. Following the German collapse in November 1918, Baden was interned with the majority of the High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow by the British Royal Navy. On 21 June 1919, Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter ordered the scuttling of the fleet. However, British sailors in the harbor managed to board Baden and beach her to prevent her sinking. The ship was refloated, thoroughly examined, and eventually sunk in extensive gunnery testing by the Royal Navy in 1921.

Scuttling of the German fleet at Scapa Flow

The scuttling of the German fleet took place at the Royal Navy's base at Scapa Flow, in Scotland, after the First World War. The High Seas Fleet was interned there under the terms of the Armistice whilst negotiations took place over the fate of the ships. Fearing that all of the ships would be seized and divided amongst the allied powers Admiral Ludwig von Reuter decided to scuttle the fleet.

The scuttling was carried out on 21 June 1919. Intervening British guard ships were able to beach a number of the ships, but 52 of the 74 interned vessels sank. Many of the wrecks were salvaged over the next two decades and were towed away for scrapping. Those that remain are popular diving sites.

Sir George Warrender, 7th Baronet

Vice-Admiral Sir George John Scott Warrender of Lochend, 7th Baronet, (31 July 1860 – 8 January 1917) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy during the First World War.

Stephen Roskill

Captain Stephen Wentworth Roskill, (1 August 1903 – 4 November 1982) was a senior career officer of the Royal Navy, serving during the Second World War and, after his enforced medical retirement, served as the official historian of the Royal Navy from 1949 to 1960. He is now chiefly remembered as a prodigious author of books on British maritime history.

William Goodenough

Admiral Sir William Edmund Goodenough (2 June 1867 – 30 January 1945) was a senior Royal Navy officer of World War I. He was the son of James Graham Goodenough.

William Wordsworth Fisher

Admiral Sir William Wordsworth Fisher (26 March 1875 – 24 June 1937) was a Royal Navy officer who captained a battleship at the Battle of Jutland and became Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet. Arthur Marder wrote that he was "the outstanding admiral of the inter-war period".

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