Arthur Krock

Arthur Bernard Krock (November 16, 1886 – April 12, 1974) was a Pulitzer Prize winning American journalist. In a career spanning several decades covering the tenure of eleven United States presidents he became known as the "Dean of Washington newsmen".

Arthur Krock
BornNovember 16, 1886
DiedApril 12, 1974 (aged 87)
Washington, DC, USA
Alma materLewis Institute
OccupationJournalist
Known for"In the Nation" column (The New York Times)
Spouse(s)Marguerite Pollys (first), Martha Granger Blair (second)
Children3 sons
Parent(s)Joseph Krock, Caroline Morris
AwardsPresidential Medal of Freedom
Pulitzer Prize (1935, 1938, 1951)

Career

Background

Cypriot ambassador's residence
Arthur Krock's former residence in Washington, DC

Arthur Krock was born in Glasgow, Kentucky in 1887.[1] He was the son of German-Jewish bookkeeper Joseph Krock and Caroline Morris, who was half-Jewish.[2] His mother became blind subsequent to his birth and Krock was raised by his grandparents, Emmanuel and Henrietta Morris until he was six years old. When his mother regained her sight, he joined his parents in Chicago, graduating from high school there in 1904.

Krock went on to Princeton University but dropped out in his first year owing to financial problems. He returned home, and in 1906 graduated with an associate degree from the Lewis Institute in Chicago.

Journalism

Krock began his career in journalism with the Louisville Herald, then went to Washington as a correspondent for the Louisville Times and Louisville Courier-Journal. In 1927, he joined The New York Times and soon became its Washington correspondent and bureau chief. His column, "In the Nation", was noted for its opinions on public policy.

For example, amid the HissChambers and Coplon spy cases and the investigation of David E. Lilienthal's management of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Krock observed:

The persons whose names have entered the trials and investigations, fairly and unfairly, include none who was affiliated with the Republican party ... The ideal solution from the standpoint of these strategists [President Truman's] would be: (1) the acquittal of Hiss ... (2) a find by the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy that Lilienthal has been a good manager ... (3) repudiation by public opinion of the more sensational testimony before the third Un-American Committee; (4) at least one substantial trial victory for the Department of Justice. This is a large order. But the deep-thinking Democratic politicos think there is a good chance for it.[3]

Despite his stature, according to historian David Nasaw, from the earliest days of their friendship in Washington beginning in the mid-1930s, Krock became so staunch an advocate of Joseph P. Kennedy and his ambitions that he seemed to be all but in the pocket of the powerful millionaire (with one son who would later be U.S. president and two others who would contend for that office). Citing the correspondence between the two men in his authorized, yet highly researched and critically acclaimed, 2012 biography of Joe Kennedy, Professor Nasaw chronicles how it "reveals something quite disturbing, if not corrupt, about Krock's willingness to do Kennedy's bidding, to advise him or write a speech for him, then praise it in his column ..." [2]

Less than two months before the assassination of Joe Kennedy's son, President John F. Kennedy, in his October 3, 1963 New York Times column titled "The Intra-Administration War in Vietnam", Krock quoted a high-ranking official in the government as saying:

The CIA's growth was 'likened to a malignancy' which the 'very high official was not even sure the White House could control ... any longer.' 'If the United States ever experiences [an attempted coup to overthrow the Government] it will come from the CIA and not the Pentagon. The agency 'represents a tremendous power and total unaccountability to anyone.'[4]

Awards

Over his 60-year career, Krock won three Pulitzer Prizes:

The organization now explains the special Pulitzer thus: "The Advisory Board on the Pulitzer Prizes as a policy does not make any award to an individual member of the Board. In 1951, the Board decided that the outstanding instance of National Reporting done in 1950 was the exclusive interview with President Truman obtained by Arthur Krock of The New York Times, while Mr. Krock was a Board member. The Board therefore made no award in the National Reporting category."[6]

He was awarded a French citation for his coverage of the Versailles Peace Conference.

On April 22, 1970, he was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon.[7]

Personal life

He was married twice, first to Marguerite Pollys, daughter of a Minneapolis railroad official, from 1911 to her death following a long illness in 1938. They had one son, Thomas. In 1939, he wed Martha Granger Blair of Chicago, a divorced society columnist for the Washington Times-Herald, who had two sons.[1][8]

References

  1. ^ a b Leab, Daniel J. (July 9, 2008). "Krock, Arthur". American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2013-03-23.
  2. ^ a b Nasaw, David (2012). The Patriarch: The Remarkable Life and Turbulent Times of Joseph P. Kennedy. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. pp. 211–12. ISBN 9781594203763.
  3. ^ Krock, Arthur (June 19, 1949). "Loyalty Trials Shape Political Issue for 1950". The New York Times.
  4. ^ Krock, Arthur (October 3, 1963). "The Intra-Administration War in Vietnam with High Frequency Disorderly Government" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-23. (subscription required)
  5. ^ a b "Correspondence". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
  6. ^ a b "Special Citations and Awards". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
  7. ^ Nixon, Richard (April 22, 1970). "Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Eight Journalists". The American Presidency Project, eds. Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, UCSB. Retrieved 2011-12-25.
  8. ^ Belair, Felix, Jr. (April 13, 1974). "Arthur Krock of the Times is Dead at 86" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-24.

External links

1935 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1935.

1938 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1938.

1951 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1951.

American Liberty League

The American Liberty League was an American political organization formed in 1934, primarily of wealthy business elites and prominent political figures, who were conservatives opposed to the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its principles emphasized private property and individual liberties. Its leader Jouett Shouse called on members to:

defend and uphold the constitution of the United States ... to teach the necessity of respect for the rights of persons and property as fundamental to every successful form of government ... teach the duty of government to encourage and protect individual and group initiative and enterprise, to foster the right to work, earn, save, and acquire property, and to preserve the ownership and lawful use of property when acquired.It was highly active in spreading its message for two years. Following the landslide re-election of Roosevelt in 1936, it sharply reduced its activities. It disbanded entirely in 1940.

C. P. Trussell

Charles Prescott Trussell (3 August 1892 – 2 October 1968) was an American journalist and Pulitzer Prize winner. His front-page bylines in the Baltimore Sun and the New York Times were familiar to generations of newspaper readers. He was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for journalism in 1949.

Double Indemnity (novel)

Double Indemnity is a 1943 crime novel, written by American journalist-turned-novelist James M. Cain. It was first published in serial form in Liberty magazine in 1936 and then was one of "three long short tales" in the collection Three of a Kind. The novel later served as the basis for the film of the same name in 1944, adapted for the screen by the novelist Raymond Chandler and directed by Billy Wilder.

Frank Kent

Frank Richardson Kent (1877–1958) was an American journalist and political theorist of the 1920s and 1930s. Although a nominal member of the Democratic Party, by the 1930s he was one of the leading conservative critics of the New Deal programs of the incoming administration of 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945, served 1933-1945), which attempted to fight and counteract the deepening Great Depression since the Wall Street Stock Market Crash of October 1929, at the beginning of the previous Republican Party administration of 31st President Herbert Hoover. Writing from the Washington Bureau of The Sun of Baltimore, Kent espoused his viewpoints with a daily column that beside informing just Baltimoreans and Marylanders but that reached millions of readers in syndicated additional newspapers across the country. Media historians group him with

commentators/columnists David Lawrence, Walter Lippmann, Mark Sullivan, and Arthur Krock as influential political commentators in the 1930s.He was based in Baltimore, where he started as a cub reporter for the Baltimore Sun in 1900. After 1922 the Sun papers syndicated his daily column of political commentary to 140 papers nationwide. Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1922 so admired Kent that he helped him to get his column syndicated. He was one of the big-name journalists who covered the Scopes "Monkey Trial" in 1925.

But by 1934 Kent, a lifelong Democrat, turned against the New Deal. He criticized FDR and liberals who tried to disrupt his cherished Jeffersonian principles - the balanced budget, limited spending by the federal government, and a limited government. As his criticism became more severe, he charged that the Democrats no longer stood for states' rights.

Kent pronounced the New Deal's AAA farm program a failure and was astonished that the Roosevelt administration did not propose to abandon it, but intended, instead, "to proceed from one experiment that has failed to a more drastic experiment along the same line" in the direction of greater control over agricultural production. As for the centerpiece of New Deal efforts to promote economic recovery, NRA, Kent found no enthusiasm for it any longer. People no longer looked to see if there was an NRA Blue Eagle in the windows of the stores where they shopped. But the principal objection to the NRA was the growing conviction that the Roosevelt administration had ceased to consider the NRA and AAA as "merely temporary devices for the duration of the emergency."Kent rejoiced when the Supreme Court invalidated the National Recovery Act. Desiring Roosevelt's defeat in the 1936 election, Kent was crushed by the election results.Kent served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known and Society for Science & the Public, from 1923-1927.

Glasgow, Kentucky

Glasgow is a home rule-class city in Barren County, Kentucky, United States. It is the seat of its county. The population was 14,028 at the 2010 U.S. census. The city is well known for its annual Scottish Highland Games. In 2007, Barren County was named the number one rural place to live by The Progressive Farmer magazine. Glasgow is the principal city of the Glasgow micropolitan area, which comprises Barren and Metcalfe counties.

John Henry Whallen

John Henry Whallen (May 1, 1850 – December 3, 1913) was a Democratic Party political boss in Louisville, Kentucky during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Born in New Orleans, he moved with his family to Cincinnati, Ohio in his youth. As a boy during the Civil War he served the Confederate Army in Schoolfield's Battery as a "powder monkey", a boy who carried gunpowder. He later served as a courier for General John Hunt Morgan.His nicknames included "The Buckingham Boss" and "Napoleon".

Krock

Krock or variant thereof may refer to:

MusicKorean rock, rock music from Korea

K-Rock (radio station), a common radio brand for rock music radio stations

95.5 K-Rock, Geelong, AustraliaPlacesRogers K-Rock Centre, arena in Kingston, Ontario, CanadaPeopleArthur Krock (1886-1974), U.S. journalist

Gus Krock (1866-1905), U.S. baseball player

Hendrick Krock (1671-1738), Danish painter

List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times

Since 1918, The New York Times daily newspaper has won 125 Pulitzer Prizes, a prize awarded for excellence in journalism in a range of categories.

Pulitzer Prize Special Citations and Awards

The Pulitzer Prize jury has the option of awarding special citations and awards where they consider necessary. Since 1918, forty-four such special citations and awards have been given. The awards are sixteen journalism awards, twelve letters awards, fourteen music awards, and five service awards. Prizes for the award vary. The Pulitzer Foundation has stated that the Special Citations given to George Gershwin, Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane and Duke Ellington were in response to criticism for the failure of the Foundation to cite the four.

Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence

The Pulitzer Prize for Correspondence was awarded from 1929 to 1947.

Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library

The Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library is the institutional archives of Princeton University and is part of the Princeton University Library's department of rare books and special collections. The Mudd Library houses two major collection areas: the history of Princeton and the history of twentieth century public policy.

The Mudd Library was designed by Hugh Stubbins and cost $2.5 million at the time of its construction. It was the first building to be designed under the University's energy conservation program and was dedicated on October 16, 1976. Its creation was supported by the Seeley G. Mudd Foundation. The Library currently holds 45,000 linear feet of archived material.

Sumner Welles

Benjamin Sumner Welles (October 14, 1892 – September 24, 1961) was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service. He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1936 to 1943, during FDR's presidency.

Born in New York City to a well-connected political family, Welles graduated from Harvard in 1914 and soon entered the Foreign Service at the advice of Roosevelt, who was a family friend. He became an expert on Latin American diplomatic affairs, and served several posts in the U.S. and Latin America. After a personal conflict with President Calvin Coolidge caused him to leave public service, he spent time in quiet retirement, penning a book on the history of the Dominican Republic.

When Roosevelt was elected President in 1932, he installed Welles as Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American Affairs, in which role he was heavily involved in negotiations that removed Cuban president Gerardo Machado from power and replaced him with rival Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada. He was later promoted to Under Secretary of State, in which role he continued to be active in Latin American issues, but also expanded into European affairs as World War II (which America was not yet formally involved in) began in Europe. In 1940, he issued the Welles Declaration which condemned Soviet occupation of the Baltic states and proved to be a minor point of contention among the Soviets and their Western allies once the U.S. entered the war.

Welles was forced out of government service when it was revealed he had solicited two men for sex. Returning to private life, he continued to author books on foreign relations and became an advisor to media organizations. He was a target of the House Un-American Activities Committee during the post-war "red scare", though he was never formally sanctioned. He died in New Jersey in 1961, survived by his third wife and several children.

Tax and spend

"Tax and spend" is a pejorative epithet applied to politicians or policies that increase the size of government.

USS Greer (DD-145)

USS Greer (DD–145) was a Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy, the first ship named for Rear Admiral James A. Greer (1833–1904). In what became known as the "Greer incident," she became the first US Navy ship to fire on a German ship, three months before the United States officially entered World War II. The incident led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue what became known as his "shoot-on-sight" order. Roosevelt publicly confirmed the "shoot on sight" order on 11 September 1941, effectively declaring naval war against Germany and Italy in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Greer was launched by William Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., Philadelphia, 1 August 1918; sponsored by Miss Evelina Porter Gleaves, daughter of Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves; and commissioned 31 December 1918, Commander C. E. Smith in command.

Vostok 1

Vostok 1 (Russian: Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA space capsule was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 12, 1961, with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard, making him the first human to cross into outer space.

The orbital spaceflight consisted of a single orbit around Earth which skimmed the upper atmosphere at 169 kilometers (91 nautical miles) at its lowest point. The flight took 108 minutes from launch to landing. Gagarin parachuted to the ground separately from his capsule after ejecting at 7 km (23,000 ft) altitude.

Why England Slept

Why England Slept is the published version of a thesis written by John F. Kennedy while in his senior year at Harvard College. Its title is an allusion to Winston Churchill's 1938 book While England Slept, which also examined the buildup of German power. Published in 1940, Kennedy's book examines the failures of the British government to take steps to prevent World War II, and its initial lack of response to Adolf Hitler's threats of war.

It is notable for its uncommon stance of suggesting instead that an earlier confrontation between the United Kingdom and Nazi Germany could well have been more disastrous in the long run, rather than castigating the appeasement policy which the British government pursued at the time.

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