Arthur Harden

Sir Arthur Harden, FRS[1] (12 October 1865 Manchester, Lancashire – 17 June 1940 Bourne End, Buckinghamshire) was a British biochemist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1929 with Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin for their investigations into the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes.[2][3] He was a founding member of the Biochemical Society and editor of its journal for 25 years.

Sir Arthur Harden
ArthurHarden
Born12 October 1865
Died17 June 1940 (aged 74)
NationalityUnited Kingdom
Alma materUniversity of Manchester MSc,
University of Erlangen PhD
Known forthe chemistry of the yeast cell
AwardsNobel Prize in Chemistry (1929)
Davy Medal (1935)
Scientific career
FieldsBiochemistry
InstitutionsLister Institute
Doctoral advisorOtto Fischer
Doctoral studentsRoland Victor Norris
Ida Maclean

Biography

Early years

Arthur was born to Scottish Prsebyterian businessman Albert Tyas Harden and Eliza Macalister. His early education was at a private school in Victoria Park run by Dr Ernest Adam. He went to study in 1877 at a Tettenhall College, Staffordshire, and entered Owens College in 1882, now the University of Manchester, in 1882, graduating in 1885. He studied chemistry under Professor Roscoe at Owens College and was influenced by J.B. Cohen.[4]

Research

In 1886 Harden was awarded the Dalton Scholarship in Chemistry and spent a year working with Otto Fischer at Erlangen where he worked on the synthesis of β-nitroso-α-naphthylamine and studied its properties. After receiving a Ph.D. he returned to Manchester as a lecturer and demonstrator and H.B. Dixon and taught along with Sir Philip Hartog. He researched the life and work of Daltonduring these years. In 1895 he wrote a textbook on Practical Organic Chemistry along with F.C. Garrett. Harden continued to work at Manchester until 1897 when he was appointed chemist to the newly founded British Institute of Preventive Medicine, which later became the Lister Institute. He earned the degree Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) from the Victoria University (which included Owens College) in June 1902.[5] Five years later, in 1907 he was appointed Head of the Biochemical Department, a position which he held until his retirement in 1930 (though he continued his scientific work at the Institute after his retirement).[4]

At Manchester, Harden had studied the action of light on mixtures of carbon dioxide and chlorine, and when he entered the Institute he applied his methods to the investigation of biological phenomena such as the chemical action of bacteria and alcoholic fermentation. He studied the breakdown products of glucose and the chemistry of the yeast cell, and produced a series of papers on the antiscorbutic and anti-neuritic vitamins.[4]

Harden was knighted in 1926, and received several honorary doctorates. A Fellow of the Royal Society,[1] he received the Davy Medal in 1935.

Personal life

Harden married Georgina Sydney Bridge (died January, 1928) in 1900 and they had no children.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Hopkins, F. G.; Martin, C. J. (1942). "Arthur Harden. 1865-1940". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 4 (11): 2. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1942.0001.
  2. ^ Manchester, K. (2000). "Arthur Harden: An unwitting pioneer of metabolic control analysis". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 25 (2): 89–92. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(99)01528-5. PMID 10664590.
  3. ^ Manchester, K. (2000). "Biochemistry comes of age: A century of endeavour". Endeavour. 24 (1): 22–27. doi:10.1016/S0160-9327(99)01224-7. PMID 10824440.
  4. ^ a b c Smedley-Maclean, Ida (1941). "Arthur Harden". Biochemical Journal. 35 (10–11): 1071.b2–1081. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1265611.
  5. ^ "University intelligence". The Times (36794). London. 14 June 1902. p. 13.
  6. ^ Nobel Lectures Chemistry, 1922-1941. World Scientific. 1999. pp. 142–143.

External links

1865 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1865 in the United Kingdom.

1929 in science

The year 1929 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

1929 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1929 in the United Kingdom. This year sees the start of the Great Depression.

Biochemical Journal

The Biochemical Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of biochemistry, as well as cell and molecular biology. It is published by Portland Press and was established in 1906.

Davy Medal

The Davy Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "for an outstandingly important recent discovery in any branch of chemistry". Named after Humphry Davy, the medal is awarded with a monetary gift, initially of £1000 (currently £2000). The medal was first awarded in 1877 to Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff "for their researches & discoveries in spectrum analysis", and has since been awarded 140 times. The medal is awarded annually, and unlike other Royal Society medals, such as the Hughes Medal, it has been awarded annually without ever missing a year.

The medal has been awarded to multiple individuals in the same year: in 1882 it was awarded to Dmitri Mendeleev and Julius Lothar Meyer "for their discovery of the periodic relations of the atomic weights"; in 1883 to Marcellin Berthelot and Julius Thomsen "for their researches in thermo-chemistry"; in 1893 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff and Joseph Achille Le Bel "In recognition of their introduction of the theory of asymmetric carbon, and its use in explaining the constitution of optically active carbon compounds"; in 1903 to Pierre Curie and Marie Curie "for their researches on radium" and in 1968 to John Cornforth and George Joseph Popják "in recognition of their distinguished joint work on the elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway to polyisoprenoids and steroids".

Glucose

Glucose (also called dextrose) is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. There it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, which is the most abundant carbohydrate. In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. Glucose for metabolism is partially stored as a polymer, in plants mainly as starch and amylopectin and in animals as glycogen. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. The naturally occurring form of glucose is D-glucose, while L-glucose is produced synthetically in comparably small amounts and is of lesser importance.

Glucose, as intravenous sugar solution, is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine. The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a sugar.

Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). Glycolysis is a sequence of ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Most monosaccharides, such as fructose and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates. The intermediates may also be directly useful. For example, the intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a source of the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form fat.

Glycolysis is an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway. The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is an ancient metabolic pathway. Indeed, the reactions that constitute glycolysis and its parallel pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, occur metal-catalyzed under the oxygen-free conditions of the Archean oceans, also in the absence of enzymes.In most organisms, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP pathway), which was discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, and Jakub Karol Parnas. Glycolysis also refers to other pathways, such as the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and various heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways. However, the discussion here will be limited to the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway.The glycolysis pathway can be separated into two phases:

The Preparatory/Investment Phase – wherein ATP is consumed

The Pay Off Phase – wherein ATP is produced.

Hans von Euler-Chelpin

Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (15 February 1873 – 6 November 1964) was a German-born Swedish biochemist. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1929 with Arthur Harden for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and enzymes. He was a professor of general and organic chemistry at Stockholm University (1906–1941) and the director of its Institute for organic-chemical research (1938–1948). Euler-Chelpin married Astrid Cleve, the daughter of the Uppsala chemist Per Teodor Cleve and was the great-great-great grandson of Leonhard Euler. In 1970, his son Ulf von Euler, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1909

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1909.

List of people from Manchester

This is a list of people from Manchester, a city in North West England. The demonym of Manchester is Mancunian. This list is arranged alphabetically by surname. For people from Greater Manchester see List of people from Greater Manchester.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor found in all living cells. The compound is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively.

In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The cofactor is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD. However, it is also used in other cellular processes, most notably a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins, in posttranslational modifications. Because of the importance of these functions, the enzymes involved in NAD metabolism are targets for drug discovery.

In organisms, NAD can be synthesized from simple building-blocks (de novo) from the amino acids tryptophan or aspartic acid. In an alternative fashion, more complex components of the coenzymes are taken up from food as niacin. Similar compounds are released by reactions that break down the structure of NAD. These preformed components then pass through a salvage pathway that recycles them back into the active form. Some NAD is converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP); the chemistry of this related coenzyme is similar to that of NAD, but it has different roles in metabolism.

Although NAD+ is written with a superscript plus sign because of the formal charge on a particular nitrogen atom, at physiological pH for the most part it is actually a singly charged anion (charge of minus 1), while NADH is a doubly charged anion, because of the two bridging phosphate groups.

October 12

October 12 is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 80 days remaining until the end of the year.

Roland Victor Norris

Roland Victor Norris (1888 - 28 April 1950, Port Shepstone) was a biochemist and agricultural scientist who worked in India and Sri Lanka. He served as the first agricultural chemist to the government of Madras.

He graduated from Manchester University and worked as an assistant to W.H. Perkin. He then worked at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine in London. In 1910 he worked with Professor Arthur Harden on yeast fermentation and received a D.Sc. from London University. In 1914 he took up the post of Physiological Chemist at the Imperial Bacteriological Laboratory in India. In 1918 he became the first Agricultural Chemist to the government of Madras. From 1924 to 1929 he worked as a professor of biochemistry at the Indian Institute of Science working on a range of agricultural problems including soil fertility, the chemistry of shellac and the spike disease of sandalwood. He moved to Sri Lanka in 1929 where he served as director of the Tea Research Institute.He was married to Wendy Elizabeth Marie and a daughter, Wendy Elizabeth Anne Jill, was born in Sri Lanka.

School of Chemistry, University of Manchester

The School of Chemistry at the University of Manchester is one of the largest Schools of Chemistry in the United Kingdom, with over 600 undergraduate and more than 200 postgraduate research students.

The School has comprehensive academic coverage across the chemical sciences and in all the core sub-disciplines of chemistry, with over 120 postdoctoral researchers.

Tettenhall College

Tettenhall College is a co-educational independent day and boarding school located in the Wolverhampton suburb of Tettenhall in England.

Walter Thomas James Morgan

Walter Thomas James Morgan CBE FRS (5 October 1900 – 10 February 2003) was a British biochemist noted for his work on the immunochemistry of antigens and described as 'one of the pioneers of immunochemistry'.

William John Young

William John Young (26 January 1878 – 14 May 1942) was an English biochemist.

Zymase

Zymase is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. It occurs naturally in yeasts. Zymase activity varies among yeast strains.Zymase is also the brand name of the drug pancrelipase.

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