Arthur Andersen

Arthur Andersen LLP, based in Chicago, was an American holding company. Formerly one of the "Big Five" accounting firms (along with PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Ernst & Young, and KPMG), the firm had provided auditing, tax, and consulting services to large corporations. By 2001, it had become one of the world's largest multinational companies.

In 2002, the firm voluntarily surrendered its licenses to practice as Certified Public Accountants in the United States after being found guilty of criminal charges relating to the firm's auditing of Enron, an energy corporation based in Texas, which filed for bankruptcy in 2001.[1] In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously reversed Arthur Andersen's conviction due to serious errors in the trial judge's instructions to the jury that convicted the firm.[2]

The former consultancy and outsourcing practice of the firm separated from the firm's accountancy practice and split from Andersen Worldwide in 2000 whereby it renamed itself Accenture. It continues to operate.

Arthur Andersen
Limited liability partnership
IndustryAccounting
Professional services
Tax
Consulting
Licenses of Certified Public Accountants surrendered in 2002
FateSplit after being charged in the Enron Scandal. Auditing portion went out of business.
SuccessorAccenture
Andersen Tax LLC
Founded1913
FounderArthur E. Andersen
DefunctAugust 2002
HeadquartersChicago, Illinois, United States
ProductsProfessional services
RevenueUS$9.3 billion (in 2002)
Number of employees
approx. 200 as of 2007
85,000 (in 2002)

History

Founding

Andersen revenue
Revenue per year in million U.S. dollars.
Source: corporate press releases

Born 30 May 1885 in Plano, Illinois, and orphaned at the age of 16, Arthur E. Andersen began working as a mail boy by day and attended school at night, eventually being hired as the assistant to the comptroller of Allis-Chalmers in Chicago. In 1908, after attending courses at night while working full-time, he graduated from the Kellogg School at Northwestern University with a bachelor's degree in business.[3] That same year, at age 23, he became the youngest CPA in Illinois.

The firm of Arthur Andersen was founded in 1913 by Arthur Andersen and Clarence DeLany as Andersen, DeLany & Co.[4] The firm changed its name to Arthur Andersen & Co. in 1918. Arthur Andersen's first client was the Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee.[5] In 1915, due to his many contacts there, the Milwaukee office was opened as the firm's second office.

Andersen had an unwavering faith in education as the basis upon which the new profession of accounting should be developed. He created the profession's first centralized training program and believed in training during normal working hours. He was generous in his commitment to aiding educational, civic and charitable organizations. In 1927, he was elected to the board of trustees of Northwestern University and served as its president from 1930 to 1932. He was also chairman of the board of certified public accountant examiners of Illinois.

Reputation

Andersen, who headed the firm until his death in 1947, was a zealous supporter of high standards in the accounting industry. A stickler for honesty, he argued that accountants' responsibility was to investors, not their clients' management. For many years, Andersen's motto was "Think straight, talk straight"–an axiom passed on from his mother.[6] During the early years, it is reputed that Andersen was approached by an executive from a local rail utility to sign off on accounts containing flawed accounting, or else face the loss of a major client. Andersen refused in no uncertain terms, replying that there was "not enough money in the city of Chicago" to make him do it. The railroad fired Andersen, only to go bankrupt a few months later.

Arthur Andersen also led the way in a number of areas of accounting standards. Being among the first to identify a possible sub-prime bust, Arthur Andersen dissociated itself from a number of clients in the 1970s. Later, with the emergence of stock options as a form of compensation, Arthur Andersen was the first of the major accountancy firms to propose to the FASB that stock options should be included on expense reports, thus impacting on net profit just as cash compensation would.

By the 1980s, standards throughout the industry fell as accountancy firms struggled to balance their commitment to audit independence against the desire to grow their burgeoning consultancy practices. Having established a reputation for IT consultancy in the 1980s, Arthur Andersen was no exception. The firm rapidly expanded its consultancy practice to the point where the bulk of its revenues were derived from such engagements, while audit partners were continually encouraged to seek out opportunities for consulting fees from existing audit clients. By the late-1990s, Arthur Andersen had succeeded in tripling the per-share revenues of its partners.

Predictably, Arthur Andersen struggled to balance the need to maintain its faithfulness to accounting standards with its clients' desire to maximize profits, particularly in the era of quarterly earnings reports. Arthur Andersen has been alleged to have been involved in the fraudulent accounting and auditing of Sunbeam Products, Waste Management, Inc, Asia Pulp & Paper,[7] the Baptist Foundation of Arizona, WorldCom, as well as the infamous Enron case, among others.[8][9]

Two of the last three Comptrollers General of the US General Accounting Office (now the Government Accountability Office) were top executives of Arthur Andersen.[10]

Andersen Consulting and Accenture

The consulting wing of the firm became increasingly important during the 1970s and 1980s, growing at a much faster rate than the more established accounting, auditing, and tax practice. This disproportionate growth, and the consulting division partners' belief that they were not garnering their fair share of firm profits, created increasing friction between the two divisions.

In 1989, Arthur Andersen and Andersen Consulting became separate units of Andersen Worldwide Société Coopérative. Arthur Andersen increased its use of accounting services as a springboard to sign up clients for Andersen Consulting's more lucrative business.

The two businesses spent most of the 1990s in a bitter dispute. Andersen Consulting saw a huge surge in profits during the decade. The consultants, however, continued to resent transfer payments they were required to make to Arthur Andersen. In August 2000, at the conclusion of International Chamber of Commerce arbitration of the dispute, the arbitrators granted Andersen Consulting its independence from Arthur Andersen, but awarded US$1.2 billion in past payments (held in escrow pending the ruling) to Arthur Andersen, and declared that Andersen Consulting could no longer use the Andersen name. As a result, Andersen Consulting changed its name to Accenture on New Year's Day 2001 and Arthur Andersen meanwhile now having the right to the Andersen Consulting name rebranded itself as "Andersen".

Four hours after the arbitrator made his ruling, Arthur Andersen CEO Jim Wadia suddenly resigned. Industry analysts and business school professors alike viewed the event as a complete victory for Andersen Consulting.[11] Jim Wadia would provide insight on his resignation years later at a Harvard Business school case activity about the split. It turned out that the Arthur Andersen board passed a resolution saying he had to resign if he didn't get at least an incremental US$4 billion (either through negotiation or via the arbitrator decision) for the consulting practice to split off, hence his quick resignation once the decision was announced.[12]

Accounts vary on why the split occurred — executives on both sides of the split cite greed and arrogance on the part of the other side. The executives on the Andersen Consulting side maintained breach of contract when Arthur Andersen created a second consulting group, AABC (Arthur Andersen Business Consulting) which competed directly with Andersen Consulting in the marketplace. AABC grew quickly, most notably its healthcare and technology practices. Many of the AABC firms were bought out by other consulting companies in 2002, most notably, Deloitte (especially in Europe), Hitachi Consulting, PwC Consulting, which was later acquired by IBM, and KPMG Consulting, which later changed its name to BearingPoint.

Enron scandal

Following the 2001 scandal in which energy giant Enron was found to have reported $100bn in revenue through institutional and systematic accounting fraud, Andersen's performance and alleged complicity as an auditor came under intense scrutiny. The Powers Committee (appointed by Enron's board to look into the firm's accounting in October 2001) came to the following assessment: "The evidence available to us suggests that Andersen did not fulfill its professional responsibilities in connection with its audits of Enron's financial statements, or its obligation to bring to the attention of Enron's Board (or the Audit and Compliance Committee) concerns about Enron's internal contracts over the related-party transactions".[13]

On June 15, 2002, Andersen was convicted of obstruction of justice for shredding documents related to its audit of Enron, resulting in the Enron scandal. Although the Supreme Court reversed the firm's conviction, the impact of the scandal combined with the findings of criminal complicity ultimately destroyed the firm. Nancy Temple (in the firm's legal department) and David Duncan (lead partner for the Enron account) were cited as the responsible managers in this scandal because they ordered subordinates to shred relevant documents.

Because the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission will not accept audits from convicted felons, the firm agreed to surrender its CPA licenses and its right to practice before the SEC on August 31, 2002—effectively putting the firm out of business. It had already started winding down its American operations after the indictment, and many of its accountants joined other firms. The firm sold most of its American operations to KPMG, Deloitte & Touche, Ernst & Young and Grant Thornton LLP. The damage to Andersen's reputation also destroyed the firm's international practices. Most of them were taken over by the local firms of the other major international accounting firms.

The indictment also put a spotlight on the firm's faulty audits of other companies, most notably Waste Management, Sunbeam, the Baptist Foundation of Arizona and WorldCom. The subsequent bankruptcy of WorldCom, which quickly surpassed Enron as the biggest bankruptcy in history (and has since been passed by the bankruptcies of Lehman Brothers and WaMu in the 2008 financial crisis) led to a domino effect of accounting and corporate scandals.

On May 31, 2005, in Arthur Andersen LLP v. United States, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously reversed Andersen's conviction because of serious errors in the trial judge's jury instructions.[2] The Supreme Court held that the instructions were too vague to allow a jury to find that obstruction of justice had occurred. The court found that the instructions were worded in such a way that Andersen could have been convicted without any proof that the firm knew it had broken the law or that there had been a link to any official proceeding that prohibited the destruction of documents. The opinion, written by Chief Justice William Rehnquist, also expressed skepticism of the government's concept of "corrupt persuasion"—persuading someone to engage in an act with an improper purpose without knowing that the act is unlawful.

Demise

The 2005 ruling theoretically left Andersen free to resume operations. However, CNN reported that by then, Andersen was "nearly defunct," with about 200 employees remaining from a high of 28,000 in 2002.[14] Following the ruling, William Mateja, a former counsel to the Attorney General who had supervised the Andersen appeal, told NPR that he did not believe the government would seek a retrial because "obviously there's nothing left of Arthur Andersen, and to spend the taxpayers' money on another prosecution would be just—defy common sense." Echoing this, United States Chamber of Commerce vice president Stephen Bokat pronounced Andersen "dead," and said that "there is no putting the company back together."[15]

Indeed, Andersen has never returned as a viable business on even a limited scale. Ownership of the partnership has been ceded to four limited liability corporations named Omega Management I through IV.

Arthur Andersen LLP operated the Q Center conference center in St. Charles, Illinois, until day-to-day management was turned over to Dolce Hotels and Resorts in 2014, but Andersen retains ownership.[16] The Q Center is currently used for training, primarily for internal Accenture personnel, and other large-scale companies.[17]

In 2014, Wealth Tax and Advisory Services (WTAS), a tax and consulting firm started by several former Andersen partners, changed its name to Andersen Tax after acquiring the rights to the Andersen name. It rebranded its year-old international arm, WTAS Global, as Andersen Global.[18] As of 2018, Andersen Global took over the former URL for the Andersen accounting firm.

Migration of partners and local offices to new firms

Many partners formed new companies or were acquired by other consulting firms. Examples include:

  • 60% of the total Andersen practices globally merged into Ernst & Young, with some going to Deloitte (notably UK and Spain).
  • Accuracy which was founded in 2004 by a team of seven former partners and is headquartered in Paris.
  • Andersen Tax LLC which acquired the rights and changed their name from WTAS in 2014.[19]
  • BearingPoint, formerly the US consulting unit spun off by KPMG, which purchased Andersen business consulting practices in France and Spain
  • Huron Consulting Group
  • West Monroe Partners which was founded in 2002 by four former consultants, and is based in Chicago.
  • KPMG which absorbed the Computer Forensics division based in Cypress, CA and the Boise, Kansas City, Philadelphia, Portland, Salt Lake City and Seattle offices, among others
  • Navigant Consulting which absorbed eleven partners in Chicago and Washington D.C.
  • Perot Systems which absorbed six partners in the East
  • Protiviti hired approximately 800 former workers
  • SMART Business Advisory and Consulting which absorbed some of the Philadelphia office
  • jcba Limited which was founded by a partner from the aviation practice[20][21]
  • Grant Thornton International which absorbed the North Carolina, South Carolina, Albuquerque, and Tulsa offices.
  • True Partners Consulting

See also

References

  1. ^ Brown, Ken; Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne (June 7, 2002). "Arthur Andersen's Fall from Grace Is a Sad Tale of Greed and Miscues". Wall Street Journal.
  2. ^ a b Arthur Andersen LLP v. United States, 544 U.S. 696 (2005).
  3. ^ Arthur Anderson: Challenging the Status Quo (Moore, Mary Virginia and John Crampton)
  4. ^ Moore, Mary Virginia; Crampton, John (2000). "Arthur Andersen: Challenging the Status Quo" (PDF). The Journal of Business Leadership. American National Business Hall of Fame. 11 (3): 71–89. Retrieved May 5, 2008.
  5. ^ Squires, Susan (2003). Inside Arthur Andersen: Shifting Values, Unexpected Consequences. FT Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780131408968. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  6. ^ Toffler, Barbara Ley; Reingold, Jennifer (2004). Final Accounting: Ambition, Greed, and the Fall of Arthur Andersen. Currency/Doubleday. p. 9. ISBN 9780767913836. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  7. ^ Sara Webb (August 20, 2001). "APP and Arthur Andersen Face Class-Action Lawsuits". Wall Street Journal.
  8. ^ Terry Greene Sterling (October 1, 2006). "Executives Sentenced in Church Fraud". The Washington Post.
  9. ^ Dan Ackman (June 27, 2002). "WorldCom: Too Easy, Too Late". Forbes.
  10. ^ "U.S. GAO – Video Gallery". Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  11. ^ Mitchell Martin (August 8, 2000). "Arbitrator's Ruling Goes Against Accounting Arm: Consultants Win Battle Of Andersen". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on March 8, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-05.
  12. ^ Philip Aldrick (August 8, 2000). "Andersen chief quits as $14bn claim fails". The Daily Telegraph.
  13. ^ Cornford, Andrew (June 2004). "Internationally Agreed Principles for Corporate Governance and the Enron Case" (PDF). G-24 Discussion Paper Series No. 30. New York: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. p. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2010.
  14. ^ "Arthur Andersen conviction overturned - May 31, 2005". www.cnn.com. 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  15. ^ "Supreme Court Throws Out Arthur Andersen Conviction". NPR.org. 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  16. ^ Menchaca, Charles (September 3, 2014). "Dolce Hotels named manager of the Q Center in St. Charles". Kane County Chronicle. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
  17. ^ "Our History – Q Center – The Dolce Conference Collection". Q Center. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
  18. ^ Rapoport, Michael. "Tax Firm to Revive Arthur Andersen Name" The Wall Street Journal, 2014 [1]
  19. ^ Rapoport, Michael. "Revive Arthur Andersen Name". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  20. ^ "ADA Millennium " About". Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  21. ^ "The jcba team " jcba – jcba". Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015.

External links

Accenture

Accenture is a global management consulting and professional services firm that provides strategy, consulting, digital, technology and operations services. A Fortune Global 500 company, it has been incorporated in Dublin, Ireland, since 1 September 2009. In 2018, the company reported net revenues of $39.6 billion, with more than 459,000 employees serving clients in more than 200 cities in 120 countries. In 2015, the company had about 150,000 employees in India, about 48,000 in the US, and about 50,000 in the Philippines. Accenture's current clients include 95 of the Fortune Global 100 and more than three-quarters of the Fortune Global 500.

Accounting

Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. The modern field was established by the Italian mathematician Luca Pacioli in 1494. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.

Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, external auditing, tax accounting and cost accounting. Accounting information systems are designed to support accounting functions and related activities. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to the external users of the information, such as investors, regulators and suppliers; and management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information for internal use by management. The recording of financial transactions, so that summaries of the financials may be presented in financial reports, is known as bookkeeping, of which double-entry bookkeeping is the most common system.Accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are usually audited by accounting firms, and are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the United States and the Financial Reporting Council in the United Kingdom. As of 2012, "all major economies" have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

Accounting scandals

Accounting scandals are business scandals which arise from intentional manipulation of financial statements with the disclosure of financial misdeeds by trusted executives of corporations or governments. Such misdeeds typically involve complex methods for misusing or misdirecting funds, overstating revenues, understating expenses, overstating the value of corporate assets, or underreporting the existence of liabilities. It involves an employee, account, or corporation itself and is misleading to investors and shareholders.This type of "creative accounting" can amount to fraud, and investigations are typically launched by government oversight agencies, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States. Employees who commit accounting fraud at the request of their employers are subject to personal criminal prosecution.

Alameda Community Learning Center

Alameda Community Learning Center (ACLC), formerly known as Arthur Andersen Community Learning Center, is a 6th-12th grade public charter school located in Alameda, California, United States. It currently shares a campus with Nea Community Learning Center, operating under the same charter.

Andersen Worldwide

Andersen Worldwide Société Coopérative (AWSC) was a Swiss-based entity which managed the global offices of accounting firm Arthur Andersen. It was also the parent corporation of Andersen Consulting (now called Accenture) before its split in 2000.

This umbrella organization was originally formed under the name of Arthur Andersen Société Coopérative as a Swiss cooperative in 1977 by the then partners of Arthur Andersen LLP and other professional services firms associated with it. The individual equity partners of Arthur Andersen LLP and the other firms associated with it became the individual members of the SC and the firms themselves became Member Firms by signing a formal agreement with the SC. The SC acted as the coordinator for the provision of common services between the Member Firms (the SC itself had very few employees and provided very few services directly). The SC never provided any professional services (which were provided in each country by a Member Firm) and did not pay any of its individual members (who were partners in the individual Member Firms and received any remuneration to which they were entitled through their Member Firm).

The key to the cohesion of the Andersen Worldwide Organization lay in the strict provision agreed to by each Member Firm in signing their agreement with the SC and in the individual membership of the SC held by each partner of each Member Firm. Most partners of individual Andersen practices thought of themselves as partners with every other individual partner worldwide - although legally they were working and being remunerated as partners in their individual Member Firm. This meant that they acted automatically to achieve the greatest benefit for the worldwide network as a whole - which gave the organization its dynamism and drive.

Following the substantial growth of the consulting services practices of the Member Firms, and the decision taken by the members of the SC to divide the individual national practices of Arthur Andersen into two separate sets of entities - Arthur Andersen and Andersen Consulting - in 1977, pressure primarily from the consulting partners led to an agreed change of name of the SC to Andersen Worldwide Société Coopérative.

In 1997, Andersen Consulting asked to break away from Andersen Worldwide. Three years later after a long arbitration process under the International Chamber of Commerce Andersen Consulting finally broke away agreeing to relinquish the use of the name "Andersen" by 1/1/2001. Sources often mis-reported that Andersen Consulting had to pay $1 billion for its independence. This is inaccurate. Andersen Consulting had been paying Arthur Andersen many millions per year, which was at the crux of why Andersen Consulting wanted to break away. The $1 billion payment at the time of the break-up was not a "payment for independence", rather, it was simply the regular annual payments which were held in escrow until a final arbitration decision was reached. 4 hours after the verdict was official, Arthur Andersen's CEO Jim Wadia promptly resigned. It was later reported by Wadia that a resolution had been passed by Arthur Andersen's board that Wadia had to get at least $4 billion (over and above the regular annual payments) from Andersen Consulting or step down.

Arthur Andersen LLP v. United States

Arthur Andersen LLP v. United States, 544 U.S. 696 (2005), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court unanimously overturned accounting firm Arthur Andersen's conviction of obstruction of justice in the fraudulent activities and subsequent collapse of Enron, on the basis that the jury instructions did not properly portray the law Arthur Andersen was charged with breaking. As the Arthur Andersen name had become infamous and the firm had been obligated to cease audit activities, the business was unable to recover even after the conviction was overturned in its favor.

Arthur E. Andersen

Arthur Edward Andersen (May 30, 1885 – January 10, 1947) was a founder of the accounting firm Arthur Andersen LLP.

Big Four accounting firms

The Big Four (Deloitte, Ernst & Young (EY), KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)) are the four biggest professional services networks in the world, offering audit, assurance services, taxation, management consulting, advisory, actuarial, corporate finance and legal services. They handle the vast majority of audits for public companies as well as many private companies.

Until the late 20th century, the market was dominated by eight networks but this gradually reduced due to mergers and the 2002 collapse of one firm, leaving four networks dominating the market in the early 21st century.

In the UK in 2011, it was reported that the Big Four audit 99% of the companies in the FTSE 100, and 96% of the companies in the FTSE 250 Index, an index of the leading mid-cap listing companies. Such industry concentration has caused concern and calls for the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) to consider breaking up the Big Four. In October 2018, the CMA announced it had launched a detailed study of the Big Four's dominance of the audit sector.

David Duncan (accountant)

David B. Duncan (born 1960) is a former employee of Arthur Andersen, and was the United States government's star witness in the Arthur Andersen trial. He has said fears over interpretation prompted him to order the shredding of documents relating to Enron.

He was an Andersen employee for 20 years, who was in charge of the Enron account since 1997, for which he was paid over $1 million. He was fired from Andersen in January 2002 and charged with obstruction of justice for ordering Andersen staff to shred over a ton of papers related to Enron. On April 9, 2002 he pleaded guilty; the maximum sentence for his crimes is ten years, but since he pleaded guilty and became a witness for the prosecution he would have presumably received a much smaller sentence. His sentencing date was postponed numerous times. He currently resides in Houston, Texas and has three daughters.

He withdrew his guilty plea on December 12, 2005 after the overturning of the Arthur Andersen conviction. This was approved by U.S. District Judge Melinda Harmon.

In January 2008 he settled charges with the SEC that he violated securities laws.

Enron scandal

The Enron scandal, publicized in October 2001, eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the de facto dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world. In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron was cited as the biggest audit failure.Enron was formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay after merging Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth. Several years later, when Jeffrey Skilling was hired, he developed a staff of executives that – by the use of accounting loopholes, special purpose entities, and poor financial reporting – were able to hide billions of dollars in debt from failed deals and projects. Chief Financial Officer Andrew Fastow and other executives not only misled Enron's Board of Directors and Audit Committee on high-risk accounting practices, but also pressured Arthur Andersen to ignore the issues.

Enron shareholders filed a $40 billion lawsuit after the company's stock price, which achieved a high of US$90.75 per share in mid-2000, plummeted to less than $1 by the end of November 2001. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began an investigation, and rival Houston competitor Dynegy offered to purchase the company at a very low price. The deal failed, and on December 2, 2001, Enron filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. Enron's $63.4 billion in assets made it the largest corporate bankruptcy in U.S. history until WorldCom's bankruptcy the next year.Many executives at Enron were indicted for a variety of charges and some were later sentenced to prison. Andersen was found guilty of illegally destroying documents relevant to the SEC investigation, which voided its license to audit public companies and effectively closed the firm. By the time the ruling was overturned at the U.S. Supreme Court, the company had lost the majority of its customers and had ceased operating. Enron employees and shareholders received limited returns in lawsuits, despite losing billions in pensions and stock prices.

As a consequence of the scandal, new regulations and legislation were enacted to expand the accuracy of financial reporting for public companies. One piece of legislation, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, increased penalties for destroying, altering, or fabricating records in federal investigations or for attempting to defraud shareholders. The act also increased the accountability of auditing firms to remain unbiased and independent of their clients.

Hitachi Consulting

Hitachi Consulting Corporation is an American international management and technology consulting firm with headquarters in Dallas, Texas. It was founded in November 2000 as a subsidiary of the Japanese corporation Hitachi, and it currently employs approximately 6,500 people in the US, Japan, Brazil, China, India, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, the UK, Germany, and Vietnam.

Jim Wadia

Jamshed "Jim" Wadia (born 1947) was a CEO of Arthur Andersen in August 1997, a post from which he resigned on 7 August 2000 due to his inability to favorably steer the then impending spinning off of Andersen Consulting, now known as Accenture, one of the largest consulting firms in the world at the time.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 544

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 544 of the United States Reports:

Tenet v. Doe, 544 U.S. 1 (2005)

Shepard v. United States, 544 U.S. 13 (2005)

Ballard v. Commissioner, 544 U.S. 40 (2005)

Wilkinson v. Dotson, 544 U.S. 74 (2005)

Muehler v. Mena, 544 U.S. 93 (2005)

Rancho Palos Verdes v. Abrams, 544 U.S. 113 (2005)

Brown v. Payton, 544 U.S. 133 (2005)

Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education, 544 U.S. 167 (2005)

City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of N. Y., 544 U.S. 197 (2005)

Smith v. City of Jackson, 544 U.S. 228 (2005)

Rhines v. Weber, 544 U.S. 269 (2005)

Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Saudi Basic Industries Corp., 544 U.S. 280 (2005)

Johnson v. United States, 544 U.S. 295 (2005)

Rousey v. Jacoway, 544 U.S. 320 (2005)

Dura Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. Broudo, 544 U.S. 336 (2005)

Pasquantino v. United States, 544 U.S. 349 (2005)

Small v. United States, 544 U.S. 385 (2005)

Pace v. DiGuglielmo, 544 U.S. 408 (2005)

Bates v. Dow Agrosciences LLC, 544 U.S. 431 (2005)

Granholm v. Heald, 544 U.S. 460 (2005)

Lingle v. Chevron U. S. A. Inc., 544 U.S. 528 (2005)

Johanns v. Livestock Marketing Association, 544 U.S. 550 (2005)

Clingman v. Beaver, 544 U.S. 581 (2005)

Deck v. Missouri, 544 U.S. 622 (2005)

Medellín v. Dretke, 544 U.S. 660 (2005) (per curiam)

Arthur Andersen LLP v. United States, 544 U.S. 696 (2005)

Cutter v. Wilkinson, 544 U.S. 709 (2005)

Tory v. Cochran, 544 U.S. 734 (2005)

Multimedia Holdings Corp. v. Circuit Court of Fla., St. Johns Cty., 544 U.S. 1301 (2005)

Melinda Harmon

Melinda Sue (Furche) Harmon (born November 1, 1946 in Port Arthur, Texas) is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, best known as the lead judge in the subsequently overruled Arthur Andersen trial. Civil lawsuits against Enron were consolidated in her court; she oversaw class action lawsuits on behalf of both Enron shareholders and its employees.

Nancy Temple

Nancy Anne Temple was an in-house attorney for Arthur Andersen who advised Michael Odom and David B. Duncan about Arthur Andersen policies regarding retention of documents from client engagements. Duncan oversaw the shredding of Arthur Andersen documents concerning their work for client Enron, between October 22 and November 9, 2001 (See the Timeline of the Enron scandal). A memo from Nancy Temple played a key role in the conviction of Arthur Andersen on charges of obstruction of justice. That conviction was later overturned.

Protiviti

Protiviti Inc. (Protiviti) is a global consulting firm headquartered in Menlo Park, California that provides consulting solutions in internal audit, risk and compliance, technology, business processes, data analytics and finance. It is a subsidiary under Robert Half International.

Protiviti was formed in 2002 when the Company hired more than 700 professionals who had been affiliated with the internal audit, business and technology risk consulting practice of Arthur Andersen LLP, including more than 50 individuals who had been partners of that firm. These professionals formed the base of Protiviti.Protiviti is listed as Forbes best management consulting firm in 2018. Protiviti has also been listed as the 100 Best Companies to Work For by Fortune Magazine for 5 consecutive years from 2015 to 2019.

Rupert Hoogewerf

Rupert Hoogewerf (born 1970 in Luxembourg), also known by his Chinese name Hu Run (Chinese: 胡润; pinyin: Hú Rùn), is the Chairman and Chief Researcher of Hurun Report, a research, media and investments business, best known for its "Hurun China Rich List", a ranking of the wealthiest individuals in China. A qualified chartered accountant, Hoogewerf worked for seven years at Arthur Andersen, before launching Hurun Report.

Hoogewerf graduated in Chinese and Japanese from Durham University (St Cuthbert's Society) in 1993. He went to Eton College.Hoogewerf founded the China Rich List in 1999 as an independent researcher. Other key lists produced by Hurun Report include the "Hurun Philanthropy List" (est. 2004), a ranking of the most generous individuals in China, and the "Hurun Art List" (est. 2008), a ranking of the top Chinese artists alive today, ranked according to their sales of art at public auction in the past year. The "Hurun Best of the Best Awards" (est. 2005) are the annual awards held in January for brands targeting China's richest.

"Hurun Report" launched the "Hurun Global Rich List", a ranking of the richest individuals in the world in 2012. "Hurun India" was launched in 2012 with the "Hurun India Rich List", the "Hurun India Philanthropy List" and the "Hurun Most Respected Indian Entrepreneurs Awards".

Hoogewerf was awarded the "Person of the Year Award" in 2002 by Neweekly magazine and in September 2009 was presented with the Magnolia Award. Named after Shanghai's official flower, the Magnolia Award is the highest honor bestowed by the city on foreigners.

Todd Hollenshead

Todd Hollenshead is the former President and CEO of id Software. In addition to his software work, he was known in the gaming community for his long hair and his role as "MC" at Quakecon, a LAN party and gaming convention in Dallas, Texas.

Hollenshead formerly worked as a tax consultant at Arthur Andersen, later joining id Software in 1996. He stayed on as President of id after it was acquired by ZeniMax in 2009, but left the company in 2013.As of February 2018, Hollenshead is working at Nerve Software.

Tom Daxon

Thomas E. "Tom" Daxon (born December 19, 1947) is an American businessman and politician from Oklahoma. Daxon has held numerous positions with the Oklahoma state government, including being elected Oklahoma State Auditor and Inspector in 1978 and serving as the Oklahoma Secretary of Finance and Revenue under Governor of Oklahoma Frank Keating. He was the Republican nominee for governor in 1982, ultimately losing to Democratic incumbent George Nigh.

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