Artaxerxes I of Persia

Artaxerxes I (/ˌɑːrtəˈzɜːrksiːz/, Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaça,[2] "whose rule (xšaça < *xšaϑram) is through arta ("truth");[3] Hebrew: אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא, Modern: ʾArtaḥšásta, Tiberian: ʾArtaḥšasetāʾ; Ancient Greek: Ἀρταξέρξης, romanizedArtaxérxēs[4]) was the sixth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, from 465-424 BC.[5] He was the third son of Xerxes I.

He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria.

In Greek sources he is also surnamed "long-handed" (Ancient Greek: μακρόχειρ Makrókheir; Latin: Longimanus), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left.[6]

Artaxerxes I
King of Kings
Great King
King of Persia
Pharaoh of Egypt
King of Countries
Artaxerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam
Relief of Artaxerxes from his tomb in Naqsh-e Rustam
King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire
Reign465–424 BC
PredecessorXerxes I
SuccessorXerxes II
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign465–424 BC
PredecessorXerxes I
SuccessorXerxes II
BornUnknown
Died424 BC, Susa
Burial
SpouseQueen Damaspia
Alogyne of Babylon
Cosmartidene of Babylon
Andia of Babylon
IssueXerxes II
Sogdianus
Darius II
Arsites
Parysatis
HouseAchaemenid
FatherXerxes I
MotherAmestris
ReligionZoroastrianism
Hiero Ca1.svg
G1E23
N17
Aa1M8M8s
Hiero Ca2.svg
nomen or birth name
Artaxerxes[1]
in hieroglyphs

Succession to the throne

Artaxerxes was probably born in the reign of his grandfather Darius I, to the emperor's son and heir, Xerxes I. In 465 BC, Xerxes I was murdered by Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard and the most powerful official in the Persian court (Hazarapat/commander of thousand), with the help of a eunuch, Aspamitres.[7] Greek historians give contradicting accounts of events. According to Ctesias (in Persica 20), Artabanus then accused the Crown Prince Darius, Xerxes's eldest son, of the murder and persuaded Artaxerxes, to avenge the patricide by killing Darius. But according to Aristotle (in Politics 5.1311b), Artabanus killed Darius first and then killed Xerxes. After Artaxerxes discovered the murder, he killed Artabanus and his sons.[8][9]

Egyptian revolt

Cartouche Artaxerxes I Lepsius
The ancient Egyptian god Amun-Min in front of Artaxerxes' cartouche.

Artaxerxes had to face a revolt in Egypt in 460–454 BC led by Inaros II, who was the son of a Libyan prince named Psamtik, presumably descended from the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. In 460 BC, Inaros II revolted against the Persians with the help of his Athenian allies, and defeated the Persian army commanded by satrap Akheimenes. The Persians retreated to Memphis, and the Athenians were finally defeated in 454 BC, by the Persian army led by Megabyzus, after a two-year siege. Inaros was captured and carried away to Susa.

Relations with Greece

He stoods silent before King
Themistocles stands silently before Artaxerxes

After the Achaemenid Empire had been defeated at the Battle of the Eurymedon (c. 469 BC), military action between Greece and Persia was at a standstill. When Artaxerxes I took power, he introduced a new Persian strategy of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece. This indirectly caused the Athenians to move the treasury of the Delian League from the island of Delos to the Athenian acropolis. This funding practice inevitably prompted renewed fighting in 450 BC, where the Greeks attacked at the Battle of Cyprus. After Cimon's failure to attain much in this expedition, the Peace of Callias was agreed among Athens, Argos and Persia in 449 BC.

Artaxerxes I offered asylum to Themistocles, who was probably his father Xerxes's greatest enemy for his victory at the Battle of Salamis, after Themistocles was ostracized from Athens. Also, Artaxerxes I gave him Magnesia, Myus, and Lampsacus to maintain him in bread, meat, and wine. In addition, Artaxerxes I gave him Skepsis to provide him with clothes, and he also gave him Percote with bedding for his house.[10] Themistocles would go on to learn and adopt Persian customs, Persian language, and traditions.[11][12]

Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah

A King Artaxerxes (Hebrew: אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא‎, pronounced [artaχʃast]) is described in the Bible as having commissioned Ezra, a kohen and scribe, by means of a letter of decree (see Cyrus's edict), to take charge of the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of the Jewish nation.

Ezra thereby left Babylon in the first month of the seventh year[13] of Artaxerxes' reign, at the head of a company of Jews that included priests and Levites. They arrived in Jerusalem on the first day of the fifth month of the seventh year according to the Hebrew calendar. The text does not specify whether the king in the passage refers to Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or to Artaxerxes II (404–359 BCE).[14][15] Most scholars hold that Ezra lived during the rule of Artaxerxes I, though some have difficulties with this assumption:[16] Nehemiah and Ezra "seem to have no knowledge of each other; their missions do not overlap", however, in Nehemiah 12, both are leading processions on the wall as part of the wall dedication ceremony. So, they clearly were contemporaries working together in Jerusalem at the time the wall and the city of Jerusalem was rebuilt in contrast to the previously stated viewpoint.;."[17] These difficulties have led many scholars to assume that Ezra arrived in the seventh year of the rule of Artaxerxes II, i.e. some 50 years after Nehemiah. This assumption would imply that the biblical account is not chronological. The last group of scholars regard "the seventh year" as a scribal error and hold that the two men were contemporaries.[16][18]

The rebuilding of the Jewish community in Jerusalem had begun under Cyrus the Great, who had permitted Jews held captive in Babylon to return to Jerusalem and rebuild Solomon's Temple. Consequently, a number of Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 BC, and the foundation of this "Second Temple" was laid in 536 BC, in the second year of their return (Ezra 3:8). After a period of strife, the temple was finally completed in the sixth year of Darius, 516 BC (Ezra 6:15).

In Artaxerxes' twentieth year, Nehemiah, the king's cup-bearer, apparently was also a friend of the king as in that year Artaxerxes inquired after Nehemiah's sadness. Nehemiah related to him the plight of the Jewish people and that the city of Jerusalem was undefended. The king sent Nehemiah to Jerusalem with letters of safe passage to the governors in Trans-Euphrates, and to Asaph, keeper of the royal forests, to make beams for the citadel by the Temple and to rebuild the city walls.[19]

Interpretations of actions

Tomb of Artaxerxes I ethnicities with labels
Ethnicities of the Empire on the tomb of Artaxerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam.

Roger Williams, a 17th-century Christian minister and founder of Rhode Island, interpreted several passages in the Old and New Testament to support limiting government interference in religious matters. Williams published The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience, arguing for a separation of church and state based on biblical reasoning. Williams believed that Israel was a unique covenant kingdom and not an appropriate model for New Testament Christians who believed that the Old Testament covenant had been fulfilled. Therefore, the more informative Old Testament examples of civil government were "good" non-covenant kings such as Artaxerxes, who tolerated the Jews and did not insist that they follow his state religion.[20]

Medical analysis

According to a paper published in 2011,[21] the discrepancy in Artaxerxes’ limb lengths may have arisen as a result of the inherited disease neurofibromatosis.

Children

By queen Damaspia

By Alogyne of Babylon

By Cosmartidene of Babylon

By Andia of Babylon

By another(?) unknown wife

  • An unnamed daughter, wife of Hieramenes, mother of Autoboesaces and Mitraeus[22]

By various wives

  • Eleven other children

See also

References

  1. ^ Henri Gauthier, Le Livre des rois d'Égypte, IV, Cairo 1916 (=MIFAO 20), p. 152.
  2. ^ Ghias Abadi, R. M. (2004). Achaemenid Inscriptions (کتیبه‌های هخامنشی)‎ (in Persian) (2nd ed.). Tehran: Shiraz Navid Publications. p. 129. ISBN 964-358-015-6.
  3. ^ Artaxerxes at Encyclopædia Iranica
  4. ^ The Greek form of the name is influenced by Xerxes, Artaxerxes at Encyclopædia Iranica
  5. ^ James D. G. Dunn; John William Rogerson (19 November 2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0.
  6. ^ Plutarch, Artaxerxes, l. 1. c. 1. 11:129 - cited by Ussher, Annals, para. 1179
  7. ^ Iran-e-Bastan/Pirnia book 1 p 873
  8. ^ Dandamayev
  9. ^ History of Persian Empire-Olmstead p 289/90
  10. ^ Plutarch. "Themistocles, Part II". Archived from the original on 2015-10-01.
  11. ^ Thucydides I, 137
  12. ^ Plutarch, Themistocles, 29
  13. ^ The Book of Daniel. Montex Publish Company, By Jim McGuiggan 1978, p. 147.
  14. ^ Porter, J.R. (2000). The Illustrated Guide to the Bible. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. pp. 115–16. ISBN 978-0-7607-2278-7.
  15. ^ The dates of Nehemiah's and Ezra's respective missions, and their chronological relation to each other, are uncertain, because each mission is dated solely by a regnal year of an Achaemenian King Artaxerxes; and in either case we do not know for certain whether the Artaxerxes in question is Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or Artaxerxes II (404–359 BCE). So we do not know whether the date of Ezra's mission was 458 BCE or 397 BCE' Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, vol. 12 (1961) Oxford University Press, 1964 pp. 484–85 n.2
  16. ^ a b "Ezra". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  17. ^ Winn Leith, Mary Joan (2001) [1998]. "Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period". In Michael David Coogan (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Google Books). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2. LCCN 98016042. OCLC 44650958. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  18. ^ John Boederman, The Cambridge Ancient History, 2002, p. 272
  19. ^ Nehemiah 2:1-9
  20. ^ James P. Byrd, The challenges of Roger Williams: Religious Liberty, Violent Persecution, and the Bible (Mercer University Press, 2002)[1] (accessed on Google Book on July 20, 2009)
  21. ^ Ashrafian, Hutan. (2011). "Limb gigantism, neurofibromatosis and royal heredity in the Ancient World 2500 years ago: Achaemenids and Parthians". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 64 (4): 557. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2010.08.025. PMID 20832372.
  22. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica, Book II, Chapter 1

External links

Artaxerxes I of Persia
Born: ?? Died: 424 BC
Preceded by
Xerxes I
Kings of Persia
464 BC – 424 BC
Succeeded by
Xerxes II
Pharaoh of Egypt
465 BC – 424 BC
445 BC

Year 445 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Augurinus and Philo (or, less frequently, year 309 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 445 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

448 BC

Year 448 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Coritinesanus and Caeliomontanus (or, less frequently, year 306 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 448 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Amestris

Amestris (Greek: Άμηστρις, Amēstris, perhaps the same as Άμαστρις, Amāstris, from Old Persian Amāstrī-, "strong woman") was the wife of Xerxes I of Persia, mother of Achaemenid King of Kings Artaxerxes I of Persia.She was known to have been poorly regarded by ancient Greek historians.Amestris was the daughter of Otanes, one of the seven noblemen reputed to have killed the magus who was impersonating King Bardiya in 522 BC. After this, Darius I the Great of Persia assumed the throne. According to Herodotus, Otanes was honoured with royal marriages. Darius I married Otanes' daughter Phaedymia while Otanes married a sister of Darius, who gave birth to Amestris.

When Darius died in 486 BC, Amestris was married to the crown prince, Xerxes. Herodotus describes Amestris as a cruel despot:

I am informed that Amestris, the wife of Xerxes, when she had grown old, made return for her own life to the god who is said to be beneath the earth by burying twice seven children of Persians who were men of renown.

Herodotus, Histories 7.114.The origin of this story is unclear, since known records and accounts indicate that human sacrifices were not permitted within the Persian religion. Also since most accounts of the time are from Greek sources, and due to the involvement of Greece as an opponent of Persia, it is possible that not all accounts are accurate.

Circa 478 BC, her son Crown Prince Darius was married to his cousin Artaynte at Sardis. She was the daughter of Xerxes' brother Masistes. At the behest of Xerxes, Artaynte committed adultery with him (Xerxes). When Amestris found out, she did not seek revenge against Artaynte, but against her mother, Masistes' wife, as Amestris thought that it was her connivance. On Xerxes' birthday, Amestris sent for his guards and mutilated Masistes' wife by cutting off her breasts and threw them to dogs, and her nose and ears and lips also, and cutting out her tongue as well. On seeing this, Masistes fled to Bactria to start a revolt, but was intercepted by Xerxes' army who killed him and his sons.

Artaserse

Artaserse is the name of a number of Italian operas, all based on a text by Metastasio. Artaserse is the Italian form of the name of the king Artaxerxes I of Persia.

There are over 90 known settings of Metastasio's text. The libretto was originally written for, and first set to music by Leonardo Vinci in 1730 for Rome (Artaserse). It was subsequently set by Johann Adolph Hasse in 1730 (Artaserse) for Venice and in 1760 for Naples, by Christoph Willibald Gluck in 1741 for Milan, by Pietro Chiarini in 1741 for Verona, by Carl Heinrich Graun in 1743 for Stuttgart, by Domènec Terradellas in 1744 for Venice, by Baldassare Galuppi in 1749 for Vienna, by Johann Christian Bach in 1760 for Turin, by Josef Mysliveček in 1774 for Naples (Artaserse), by Marcos Portugal in 1806 for Lisbon and many other times. The text was often altered.

Thomas Arne's 1762 Artaxerxes is set to an English libretto that is based on Metastasio's. Mozart's aria for soprano and orchestra "Conservati fedele" (K. 23, 1765) is set to the parting verses of Mandane (Artaserse's sister) at the end of the first scene.

The opera was famously performed in 1734 as a pastiche of songs by various composers such as Johann Adolf Hasse, Attilio Ariosti, Nicola Porpora and Riccardo Broschi. It was in this that Broschi's brother, Farinelli, sang one of his best-known arias, "Son qual nave ch'agitata".

Artaxerxes

Artaxerxes may refer to:

The throne name of several Achaemenid rulers of the 1st Persian Empire:

Artaxerxes I of Persia (died 425 BC), Artaxerxes I Longimanus, r. 466–425 BC, son and successor of Xerxes I

Artaxerxes II of Persia (436 BC–358 BC), Artaxerxes II Memnon, r. 404–358 BC, son and successor of Darius II

Artaxerxes III of Persia (425 BC–338 BC), Artaxerxes III Ochus, r. 358–338 BC, son and successor of Artaxerxes II

Artaxerxes IV of Persia (died 336 BC), Artaxerxes IV Arses, r. 338–336 BC, son and successor of Artaxerxes III

Artaxerxes V of Persia (died 329 BC), Artaxerxes V Bessus, r. 330–329 BC, nobleman who seized the throne from Darius IIIArtaxerxes may also refer to:

Ardeshir, the Middle and Modern Persian name descended from Old Persian equivalent of Artaxerxes, Artaxšacā

Artaxerxes (opera), a 1762 opera by Thomas Arne

7212 Artaxerxes, a main-belt asteroid

The wizard Artaxerxes, a character in J.R.R. Tolkien's novella "Roverandom"

Artaxerxes (opera)

Artaxerxes is an opera in three acts composed by Thomas Arne set to an English adaptation (probably by Arne himself) of Metastasio's 1729 libretto Artaserse. The first English opera seria, Artaxerxes premiered on 2 February 1762 at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden and continued to be regularly performed until the late 1830s. Its plot is loosely based on the historical figure, Artaxerxes I of Persia who succeeded his father Xerxes I after his assassination by Artabanus.

Book of Nehemiah

The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible. Before that date, it had been included in the Book of Ezra; but in Latin Christian bibles from the 13th century onwards, the Vulgate Book of Ezra was divided into two texts, called respectively the First and Second books of Ezra; a separation that became canonised with the first printed bibles in Hebrew and Latin. Mid 16th century Reformed Protestant bible translations produced in Geneva were the first to introduce the name 'Book of Nehemiah' for the text formally called the 'Second book of Ezra'. Told largely in the form of a first-person memoir, it concerns the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a Jew who is a high official at the Persian court, and the dedication of the city and its people to God's laws (Torah).

Eochu Fíadmuine

Eochu Fíadmuine was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, joint High King of Ireland with his brother or half-brother Conaing Bececlach. They took power after killing the previous High King, Eochu Uairches. Eochu ruled the southern half of Ireland, Conaing the north.

Their parentage is unclear. The Lebor Gabála Érenn reports two possibilities: that he and Conaing were the sons of Congal, son of Lugaid Cal of the Corcu Laigde of County Cork; or that Eochu was the son of Congal, and Conaing was the son of Dui Temrach, son of Muiredach Bolgrach, but both had the same mother, who was also the mother of Eochu Uairches. Geoffrey Keating makes them both sons of Dui Temrach, and the Four Masters make them the sons of Dui's son Congal Coscarach. After five years of joint rule, Eochu was killed by Eochu Uairches' son Lugaid Lámderg. According to the Lebor Gabála, Conaing remained in power in the north, while Lugaid took the south. The Annals of the Four Masters say Lugaid ousted Conaing and took complete control of Ireland.

The Lebor Gabála synchronises the reign of Eochu and Conaing with that of Artaxerxes I of Persia (465–424 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates their reign to 621–616 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 844–839 BC.

Eochu Uairches

Eochu (or Eochaid) Uairches, son of Lugaid Íardonn, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. After Lugaid was overthrown and killed by Sírlám, Eochu was driven into exile overseas, but he returned after twelve years, killed Sírlám with an arrow, and took the throne. His epithet is obscure: the Lebor Gabála Érenn says he gained it because of his exile, while Geoffrey Keating explains it as meaning "bare canoes", because he had canoes for a fleet, in which he and his followers used to plunder neighbouring countries. He ruled for twelve years, before he was killed by Eochu Fíadmuine and Conaing Bececlach. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes I of Persia (465–424 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 633–621 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 856–844 BC.

Haplochromis artaxerxes

Haplochromis artaxerxes was a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Victoria where it is only known from the Napoleon Gulf, in Uganda. This species can reach a length of 14.7 centimetres (5.8 in) SL. The specific name uses the name of Artaxerxes I of Persia who was known as "long-handed", a reference to this species extremely long pectoral fins.

Longimanus

Longimanus may refer to:

Oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus), a tropical and warm temperate seas shark

Artaxerxes I of Persia, who was surnamed in Greek as μακρόχειρ Macrocheir or Longimanus in Latin.

Lugaid Íardonn

Lugaid Íardonn, son of Énna Derg, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. His epithet, Old Irish for "dark brown", came from the colour of his hair. He succeeded his father, who had died of plague, to the throne, and ruled for nine years before he was killed at Ráth Clochair by Sírlám, son of Finn mac Blatha. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes I of Persia (465–424 BC). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 658–649 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 881–872 BC.

Muiredach Bolgrach

Muiredach Bolgrach, son of Siomón Brecc, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Dui Finn, ruled for 13 months or four years depending on the source consulted, and was then killed by Dui's son Énna Derg. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes I of Persia (465–424 BC). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 674–670 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 894–893 BC.

His son was Fíachu Tolgrach.

Nehemiah

Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period. He was governor of Persian Judea under Artaxerxes I of Persia (c. 5th century BC). The name is pronounced or in English. It is in Hebrew נְחֶמְיָה, Nehemya, "Yahweh comforts".According to most scholars, Nehemiah was a real historical figure and the Nehemiah Memoir, a name given by scholars to certain portions of the book written in the first person, is historically reliable.

Percote

Percote or Perkote (Ancient Greek: Περκώτη) was a town or city of ancient Mysia on the southern (Asian) side of the Hellespont, to the northeast of Troy. Percote is mentioned a few times in Greek mythology, where it plays a very minor role each time. It was said to be the home of a notable seer named Merops, also its ruler. Merops was the father of Arisbe (the first wife of King Priam, and subsequently wife of King Hyrtacus), Cleite (wife of King Cyzicus), and two sons named Amphius and Adrastus who fought during the Trojan War. As an ally of Troy, Percote sent a contingent to help King Priam during the Trojan War - though this contingent was led not by Merops's sons, but by Asius, son of Hyrtacus, according to Homer's Iliad, one native from Percote was wounded in the Trojan War by Antilochus, two natives from Percote were killed in the Trojan War by Diomedes and Ullysses. The Meropidae (Amphius and Adrastus) instead lead a contingent from nearby Adrastea. A nephew of Priam, named Melanippus, son of Hicetaon, herded cattle (oxen) at Percote, according to Homer.

It is mentioned by numerous ancient writers, including Herodotus, Arrian, Pliny the Elder, Apollonius of Rhodes,, Stephanus of Byzantium, and in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax. According to Phanias of Eresus, Artaxerxes I of Persia had given to Themistocles the city of Percote with bedding for his house. (see: Percale)

Percote was no longer in existence during the time of Strabo, and in his Geography he mentions that the exact location of Percote on the Hellespont shore is unknown. Strabo also claims that Percote was originally called Percope, and that it was part of the Troad. The inhabitants of Percote (and neighboring places like Arisbe and Adrastea) were apparently neither Trojan or Dardanian, and the origins of the Meropidae and Hyrtacidae are unclear.

Its site is located 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Umurbey, Asiatic Turkey.

Scepsis

Scepsis or Skepsis (Ancient Greek: Σκῆψις or Σκέψις) was an ancient settlement in the Troad, Asia Minor that is at the present site of the village of Kurşunlutepe, near the town of Bayramiç in Turkey. The settlement is notable for being the location where the famous library of Aristotle was kept before being moved to Pergamum and Alexandria. It was also home to Metrodorus of Scepsis and Demetrius of Scepsis.

Sírlám

Sírlám, son of Finn mac Blatha, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, Lugaid Íardonn, in Ráth Clochair. His name means "long hand" or "long arm", and it is said his arms reached the ground when was standing up (compare the Irish god Lug, whose epithet lámfada also means "long arm"). He ruled for thirteen years according to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, or sixteen according to Geoffrey Keating and the Four Masters. He drove Lugaid's son Eochu Uairches into exile, but after twelve years overseas Eochu returned and killed him with an arrow. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes I of Persia (465–424 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 649–633 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 872–856 BC.

Énna Derg

Énna Derg, son of Dui Finn, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland, who took power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Muiredach Bolgrach. He was called derg, red, because he had a red face. It is said that coins were first used in Ireland during his reign. He ruled for twelve years, before dying of plague in Sliab Mis, surrounded by a large number of his troops. He was succeeded by his son Lugaid Íardonn. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes I of Persia (465–424 BC). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 670–658 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 893–881 BC.

Median and Achaemenid kings
Median (728–550 BC)
Achaemenid (550–330 BC)

Languages

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