Artaxerxes II Mnemon /ˌɑːrtəˈzɜːrksiːz/ (Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was the King of Kings (Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm) of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius II and Parysatis.
|Artaxerxes II Mnemon|
|King of Kings|
King of Persia
King of Countries
Relief of Artaxerxes II on his tomb at Persepolis, Iran.
|King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire|
|Reign||404 to 358 BC (46 years)|
435 or 445 BC
|Died||358 BC (aged 77 or 87)|
Darius II died in 404 BC, just before the final victory of the Egyptian general, Amyrtaeus, over the Persians in Egypt.
His successor was his eldest son Arsames who was crowned as Artaxerxes II in Pasargadae.
Before Artaxerxes II could take to the throne he encountered an issue that would threaten his legitimacy as ruler of the Achaemenid Empire. Cyrus the Younger, who at the time was the appointed governor of Asia Minor had also made claims to the throne. These claims of dethroning Artaxerxes II came to his attention from Tissaphernes who was a satrap of Caria at the time. Tissapherenes noted that Cyrus the Younger's claims to be on a military expedition to attack the Pisidians had many flaws that led him to believe that Cyrus was planning to revolt. These claims became realized when Cyrus began to seek political support for his campaign. Cyrus found support with Sparta who sent soldiers to aid the campaign against Artaxerxes II. Notably Cyrus found support with a Persian kingdom of Cilicia who contributed to the effort through funds. During this time due to Tissaphernes reports Artaxerxes II began to build up a force to contend with his younger brothers revolt. 
By the time of Darius II's death, Cyrus had already been successful in defeating the Syrians and Cilicians and was commanding a large army made up of his initial supporters plus those who had joined him in Phrygia and beyond.
Upon hearing of his father's death, Cyrus the Younger declared his claim to the throne, based on the argument that he was born to Darius and Parysatis after Darius had ascended to the throne, while Artaxerxes was born prior to Darius II gaining the throne .
Artaxerxes II initially wanted to resolve the conflict peacefully, however the negotiations fell through. Cyrus also ran into issues with the locals who were loyal to Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger who, with the aid of a large army of Greek mercenaries called the "Ten Thousand", attempted to usurp the throne. Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at the Battle of Cunaxa in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the exchange by Mithridates, rendering his victory irrelevant. (The Greek historian Xenophon, himself one of the leaders of the Greek troops, would later recount this battle in the Anabasis, focusing on the struggle of the now-stranded Greek mercenaries to return home.)
Artaxerxes became involved in a war with Persia's erstwhile allies, the Spartans, during the Corinthian war (395-387 BC). The Spartans under their king Agesilaus II had started by invading Asia Minor in 396-395 BC. In order to redirect the Spartans' attention to Greek affairs, Artaxerxes subsidized their enemies through his envoy Timocrates of Rhodes: in particular the Athenians, Thebans and Corinthians received massives subsidies. Tens of thousands of Darics, the main currency in Achaemenid coinage, were used to bribe the Greek states to start a war against Sparta. These subsidies helped to engage the Spartans in what would become known as the Corinthian War. According to Plutarch, Agesilaus said upon leaving Asia Minor "I have been driven out by 10,000 Persian archers", a reference to "Archers" (Toxotai) the Greek nickname for the Darics from their obverse design, because that much money had been paid to politicians in Athens and Thebes in order to start a war against Sparta.
The Achaemenids, allied with Athens, managed to utterly destroy the Spartan fleet at the Battle of Cnidus (494 BC). After that the Achaemenid satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia Pharnabazus II together with former Athenian admiral Conon, raided the coasts of Peloponnesia, putting increased pressure on the Spartans. This encouraged the resurgence of Athens, which started to bring back under her control the Greek cities of Asia Minor, thus worrying Artaxerxes II that his Athenian allies were becoming too powerful.
In 386 BC, Artaxerxes II betrayed his allies and came to an arrangement with Sparta, and in the Treaty of Antalcidas he forced his erstwhile allies to come to terms. This treaty restored control of the Greek cities of Ionia and Aeolis on the Anatolian coast to the Persians, while giving Sparta dominance on the Greek mainland. In 385 BC he campaigned against the Cadusians.
Although successful against the Greeks, Artaxerxes had more trouble with the Egyptians, who had successfully revolted against him at the beginning of his reign. An attempt to reconquer Egypt in 373 BC under the command of Pharnabazus, satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, was completely unsuccessful, but in his waning years the Persians did manage to defeat a joint Egyptian–Spartan effort to conquer Phoenicia.
In 377 BC, Pharnabazus was reassigned by Artaxerxes II to help command a military expedition into rebellious Egypt, having proven his ability against the Spartans.
After 4 years of preparations in the Levant, Pharnabazus gathered an expeditionary force had 200,000 Persian troops, 300 triremes, 200 galleys, and 12,000 Greeks under Iphicrates. The Achaemenid Empire had also been applying pressure on Athens to recall the Greek general Chabrias, who was in the service of the Egyptians, but in vain. The Egyptian ruler Nectanebo I was thus supported by Athenian General Chabrias and his mercenaries.
The Achaemenid force landed in Egypt with the Athenian general Iphicrates near Mendes in 373 BC. The expedition force was too slow, giving time to the Egyptians to strengthen defenses. Pharnabazus and Iphicrates appeared before Pelusium, but retired without attacking it, Nectanebo I, king of Egypt, having added to its former defences by laying the neighboring lands under water, and blocking up the navigable channels of the Nile by embankments. (Diodorus Siculus xv. 42; Cornelius Nepos, Iphicrates c. 5.) Fortifications on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile ordered by Nectanebo forced the enemy fleet to seek another way to sail up the Nile. Eventually the fleet managed to find its way up the less-defended Mendesian branch. At this point, the mutual distrust that had arisen between Iphicrates and Pharnabazus prevented the enemy from reaching Memphis. Then the annual Nile flood and the Egyptian defenders' resolve to defend their territory turned what had initially appeared as certain defeat for Nectanebo I and his troops into a complete victory.
After several weeks the Persians, and their Greek mercenaries under Iphicrates, had to reembark. The expedition against Egypt had failed. It was the end of the career of Pharnabazus, who was now over 70 years old. Pharnabazes was replaced by Datames to lead a second expedition to Egypt, but he failed and then started the "Satraps' Revolt" against the Great King.
The Achaemenid defeat in Egypt led to unrest among the Achaemenid nobility. From 372 BC many western satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire started to rebel against Artaxerxes II, in the Great Satraps' Revolt, starting with the powerful satrap Datames. Following the failure of Pharnabazus II in Egypt, Datames had been entrusted by the Persian king with the chief command of a force designed for the recovery of Egypt. But the machinations of his enemies at the Persian court, and the risks to which he was in consequence exposed, induced him to change his plan, and throw off his allegiance to the king. He withdrew with the troops under his command into Cappadocia, and made common cause with the other satraps who were revolting from Persia.
Artaxerxes again attempted to mediate in conflicts between the Greek city-states at the time of the Theban hegemony, especially the Theban–Spartan War. He sent Philiscus of Abydos, a hyparch ('vice-regents') and military commander of the Achaemenid satrap Ariobarzanes, to Delphi in order to help the Greek negotiate peace. The objective of Philicus of Abydos was such to help broker a Common Peace between the Greek belligerants reunited at Delphi. The negotiation collapsed when Thebes refused to return Messenia to the Spartans.
Before returning to Abydos, Philicus used Achaemenid funds to finance an army for the Spartans, suggesting that he was acting in support of the Spartans from the beginning. With the Achaemenid financing of a new army, Sparta was able to continue the war. Among the mercenaries whom he had recruited, Philiscus gave 2,000 to the Spartans. He also probably provided funds to the Athenians and promised them, on behalf of the King, to help them recover the Chersonese militarily. Both Philiscus and Ariobarzanes were made citizens of Athens, a remarkable honor suggesting important services rendered to the city-state.
During autumn of 367 BCE, first the Spartans, soon followed by the Athenians, the Arcadians, the Argives, the Eleans, the Thebans and other Greek city-states sent envoys to Susa in attempts to obtain the support of Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II in the Greek conflict. The Achaemenid king proposed a new peace treaty, this time highly tilted in favour of Thebes, which required Messenia to remain independent and that the Athenian fleet to be dismantled. This Peace proposal was rejected by most Greek parties except Thebes.
Sparta and Athens, dissatified with the Persian king's support of Thebes, decided to provide careful military support to the opponents of the Achaemenid king. Athens and Sparta provided support for the revolted satraps, in particular Ariobarzanes: Sparta sent a force to Ariobarzanes under an aging Agesilaus II, while Athens sent a force under Timotheus, which was however diverted when it became obvious that Ariobarzanes had entered frontal conflict with the Achaemenid king. An Athenian mercenary force under Chabrias was also sent to the Egyptian Pharao Tachos, who was also fighting against the Achaemenid king.
Much of Artaxerxes' wealth was spent on building projects. He restored the Palace of Darius I at Susa, and also the fortifications; including a strong redoubt at the south-east corner of the enclosure and gave Ecbatana a new apadana and sculptures.
The tomb of Artaxerxes II is located at Persepolis, and was built on the model of his predecessors at Naqsh-e Rustam. On the upper register of the tomb appear reliefs of the Emperor, supported by the soldiers of all ethnicities of the Empire. On the lintel over each figure appears a trilingual inscription describing each ethnicity. These are known collectively as "Inscription A2Pa".
The Persian Empire under Artaxerxes II was viewed as a political power that had many unfortunate complications, such as the many wars with Greece. One aspect of his legacy which would have great influence upon his successors was his conflict with Cyrus the Younger. This conflict was remembered due to the power vacuum that followed, allowing the Satrap Revolt and the rebellion of Egypt. Artaxerxes II was also remembered for his works to restore monuments of his predecessors. His largest restoration was that of the Palace of Darius in Susa. He would also be remembered for his tomb in Persepolis.
The image of Artaxerxes from contemporary foreign sources depicts him in a similar light to his image among those in the Achaemenid Empire. The Greek portrayal highlights his long rule with many conflicts and shortcomings of Artaxerxes II in his ability to control his empire. Greek sources also focus on his problems in his court with his harem and eunuchs. Greek sources portray Artaxerxes II as sad in his reign. 
The Jewish high priest Johanan is mentioned in the Elephantine papyri dated to 407 BC, i.e., during Darius II's reign, and is also mentioned in Ezra 10:6 after the reign of Darius (Ezra 6:1) and during the rule of Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:1), thereby supporting the chronological sequence.
Amongst others, it has been suggested that Artaxerxes II was the Ahasuerus mentioned in the Book of Esther. Plutarch in his Lives (AD 75) records alternative names Oarses and Arsicas for Artaxerxes II Mnemon given by Deinon (c. 360–340 BC) and Ctesias (Artexerxes II's physician) respectively. These derive from the Persian name Khshayarsha as do "Ahasuerus" ("(Arta)Xerxes") and the hypocoristicon "Arshu" for Artaxerxes II found on a contemporary inscription (LBAT 162). These sources thus arguably identify Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes II in light of the names used in the Hebrew and Greek sources and accords with the contextual information from Pseudo-Hecataeus and Berossus as well as agreeing with Al-Tabari and Masudi's placement of events. The 13th century Syriac historian Bar-Hebraeus in his Chronography, also identifies Ahasuerus as Artaxerxes II citing the sixth century AD historian John of Ephesus.
Artaxerxes II is reported to have had a number of wives. His main wife was Stateira, until she was poisoned by Artaxerxes' mother Parysatis in about 400 BC. Another chief wife was a Greek woman of Phocaea named Aspasia (not the same as the concubine of Pericles). Artaxerxes II is said to have more than 115 sons from 350 wives.
Artaxerxes II of PersiaBorn: c. 436 BC Died: 358 BC
| Great King (Shah) of Persia
404 BC – 358 BC
Ahura Mazda (; also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, and Hurmuz) is the creator and highest deity of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna. The literal meaning of the word Ahura is "lord", and that of Mazda is "wisdom".
Ahura Mazda first appeared in the Achaemenid period (c. 550 – 330 BCE) under Darius I's Behistun Inscription. Until Artaxerxes II of Persia (405–04 to 359–58 BCE), Ahura Mazda was worshipped and invoked alone in all extant royal inscriptions. With Artaxerxes II, Ahura Mazda was invoked in a triad, with Mithra and Anahita. In the Achaemenid period, there are no known representations of Ahura Mazda at the royal court other than the custom for every emperor to have an empty chariot drawn by white horses, to invite Ahura Mazda to accompany the Persian army on battles. Images of Ahura Mazda, however, were present from the 5th century BCE, but were stopped and replaced with stone carved figures in the Sassanid period and later removed altogether through an iconoclastic movement supported by the Sassanid dynasty.Ailill Finn
Ailill Finn, son of Art mac Lugdach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, he succeeded to the throne when his father was killed by Fíachu Tolgrach and his son Dui Ladrach. He ruled for nine years. Two years into his reign, Fíachu Tolgrach was killed in battle against Airgetmar, son of Sírlám. The men of Munster, led by Ailill's son Eochu and Lugaid, son of Eochu Fíadmuine, then drove Airgetmar into exile overseas. After seven years Airgetmar returned to Ireland and killed Ailill with the help of Dui Ladrach and his son Fíachu, but was unable to seize the throne, which was taken by Eochu.However, in Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn and the Annals of the Four Masters Fíachu Tolgrach succeeded to the throne after killing Art, and is later killed by Ailill, who then took the throne, and ruled for nine or eleven years, before being killed by Airgetmar and succeeded by Eochu.
The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes II of Persia (404–358). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 586–577 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 795–786 BC.
He is given as an ancestor of the Gamarad of Nephin, County Mayo.Amastris
Amastris may refer to :
Amastris, one of the Amazons.
Amastris (insect), type genus of the treehopper tribe AmastriniPersian royalty (also spelled Amestris)
Amastrine, daughter of Oxyathres, and wife of Dionysius of Heraclea
Amastris, daughter of Darius II, wife of Terituchmes
Amastris, daughter of Artaxerxes II of Persia
Amestris, wife of Achaemenid Persian King of Kings Xerxes I, mother of Artaxerxes IPlaces and jurisdictions
Ancient Amastris (city), now Amasra in Asian Turkey, in ancient Paphlagonia
Amestris, a fictional country in the anime/manga Fullmetal AlchemistApollonides of Boeotia
Apollonides (Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλωνίδης) of Boeotia was a soldier of ancient Greece who was an officer in the Greek army which supported the claims of Cyrus the Younger. He was a man of no courage, and the difficulties which the Greeks had to encounter led him to oppose Xenophon, and to urge the necessity of entering into friendly relations with king Artaxerxes II of Persia. He was rebuked by Xenophon, and deprived of his office for having said things unworthy of a Greek.Argeius
Argeius (Ancient Greek: Ἀργεῖος, but also sometimes Argeus) was one of the Elean deputies sent to the Persian Empire to co-operate with Pelopidas in 367 BCE on counteracting Spartan negotiation and attaching Artaxerxes II of Persia to the Theban cause.He is again mentioned by the writer Xenophon, in his account of the war between the Arcadians and Eleans in 365 , as one of the leaders of the democratic party at Elis.Ariaspes
Ariaspes (Ancient Greek: Ἀριάσπης; died between 360 and 358 BC) was one of the three legitimate sons of Artaxerxes II of Persia. He was, after the death of his eldest brother Darius, driven to commit suicide by the intrigues of his other brother, Ochus. He was called "Ariarates" by the Roman historian Justin.Artasyrus
Artasyrus or Ardashir was recorded as being the Satrap of Armenia during the reign of king Artaxerxes II. Referred to as the "King's Eye", Artasyrus was of Bactrian origin. His more "well known" son, Orontes, who was therefore sometimes referred to as "Orontes the Bactrian", served as the Satrap of Sophene and Matiene (Mitanni) during the reign of Artaxerxes II. There appears to be confusion in the historical records as to whether Artasyrus and Artaxerxes II were the same person. The daughter of Artaxerxes II, Rhodogune, was the wife of the satrap Orontes I. There are few English language sources to fully explain who he was, when he was born or died.According to H. Khachatrian, one of the rare accounts of Ardashir was that before his death he gathered his sons and told them that the duty of every king of the Orontid Dynasty was to build at least one water channel, which would last for centuries; as he had not managed to build one, he left all his fortune to his sons for them to build them for him.Artaxerxes
Artaxerxes may refer to:
The throne name of several Achaemenid rulers of the 1st Persian Empire:
Artaxerxes I of Persia (died 425 BC), Artaxerxes I Longimanus, r. 466–425 BC, son and successor of Xerxes I
Artaxerxes II of Persia (436 BC–358 BC), Artaxerxes II Memnon, r. 404–358 BC, son and successor of Darius II
Artaxerxes III of Persia (425 BC–338 BC), Artaxerxes III Ochus, r. 358–338 BC, son and successor of Artaxerxes II
Artaxerxes IV of Persia (died 336 BC), Artaxerxes IV Arses, r. 338–336 BC, son and successor of Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes V of Persia (died 329 BC), Artaxerxes V Bessus, r. 330–329 BC, nobleman who seized the throne from Darius IIIArtaxerxes may also refer to:
Ardeshir, the Middle and Modern Persian name descended from Old Persian equivalent of Artaxerxes, Artaxšacā
Artaxerxes (opera), a 1762 opera by Thomas Arne
7212 Artaxerxes, a main-belt asteroid
The wizard Artaxerxes, a character in J.R.R. Tolkien's novella "Roverandom"Aspas, Fars
Aspas (Persian: اسپاس, also Romanized as Āspās and Āsopās; also known as Āsupās) is a village in Aspas Rural District, Sedeh District, Eqlid County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 2,069, in 481 families.Aspas is in the Zagros mountain range at an altitude of 2362 m. It lies in the foothills above the Balengan valley between the Palangi range and the Abedīn range. Aspas means Strong Guard in Persian, and the village may have been named in honor of Aspas (Aspasia), the daughter of Artaxerxes II of Persia, who was also the commander of his secret police.According to Thomas Herbert, who was in Safavid Iran in the first half of the 17th century, Aspas was inhabited by some 40,000 transplanted Christian Circassians and Georgians.Battle of Cunaxa
The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in 401 BC between Cyrus the Younger and his elder brother Arsaces, who had inherited the Persian throne as Artaxerxes II in 404 BC. The great battle of the revolt of Cyrus took place 70 km north of Babylon, at Cunaxa (Greek: Κούναξα), on the left bank of the Euphrates. The main source is Xenophon, a Greek soldier who participated in the fighting.Cadusian campaign of Artaxerxes II
The Cadusian Campaign was a military campaign of King Artaxerxes II of Persia in 385 BC against the Cadusii. The origins of the campaign are not attested in historical sources, but it was probably in response to a revolt of the Cadusii and the refusal of paying tribute.The Cadusii people were an Iranian people that lived in a mountainous district of Media Atropatene on the south-west shores of the Caspian Sea, between the parallels of 39° and 37° North latitude, called for its inhabitants Cadusia. This district was probably bounded on the North by the river Cyrus (today Kura, in Azerbaijan, historically known as Arran and Caucasian Albania), and on the South by the river Mardus (today Sefid River), and corresponds with the modern Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil. They are described by Strabo as a warlike tribe of mountaineers, fighting chiefly on foot, and well skilled in the use of the short spear or javelin.
Artaxerxes organized an expedition that, according to Plutarch, consisted of 300,000 infantry soldiers and 10,000 cavalry soldiers. He commanded the expedition in person and among the officers accompanying him were Tiribazus and Datames. Advancing inside enemy territory, it didn't take long before the army started to suffer from starvation. The mountainous terrain offered little food but some pears, apples, and other tree-fruits insufficient to feed such a host of fighting men. The army was reduced to eating their own beasts of burden first and later their own cavalry mounts.Tiribazus found a solution to resolve the campaign and save the King's army. He knew that the Cadusii were divided between two rival chiefs so he sent his son to negotiate with one while he negotiated with the other. Both Tiribazus and his son convinced the Cadusii chiefs that the other had sent envoys to the Persian King and sought an advantageous peace. Neither of the two chiefs wanting to be outmaneuvered by their rival, they submitted to Artaxerxes. With the successful negotiations concluded the army retreated, ending the campaign.Cyrus
Cyrus (Persian: کوروش) is a male given name. Etymologically it is the English transliteration of the Persian name Kourosh (کوروش). It is the given name of a number of Persian kings. Most notably it refers to Cyrus the Great. Cyrus is also the name of Cyrus I of Anshan (ca. 650 BC), King of Persia the grandfather of Cyrus the Great; and Cyrus the Younger (died 401 BC), brother to the Persian King Artaxerxes II of Persia.Eochu mac Ailella
Eochu (or Eochaid), son of Ailill Finn, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He succeeded to the throne after his father was killed by Airgetmar and his ally Dui Ladrach. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn, he was himself killed by Airgetmar and Dui. Geoffrey Keating says he ruled for seven years, resisted Airgetmar and made peace with Dui, who killed him treacherously at a meeting, allowing Airgetmar to take the kingship. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign with that of Artaxerxes II of Persia (404–358 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 577–570 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 785–778 BC.Great Satraps' Revolt
The Great Satraps' Revolt, or the Revolt of the Satraps (366-360 BC), was a rebellion in the Achaemenid Empire of several satraps against the authority of the Great King Artaxerxes II Mnemon. The Satraps who revolted were Datames, Ariobarzanes and Orontes of Armenia. Mausolus the Dynast of Caria participated in the Revolt of the Satraps, both on his nominal sovereign Artaxerxes Mnemon's side and (briefly) against him.
They were supported by the pharaohs of Egypt, Nectanebo I, Teos, and Nectanebo II, to whom was sent Rheomithres who came back with 50 ships and 500 talents, and all joined forces against Artaxerxes II.Indica (Ctesias)
Indica (Greek: Ἰνδικά Indika) is a book by the classical Greek physician Ctesias purporting to describe India. Written in the fifth century BC, it is the first known Greek reference to that distant land. Ctesias was the court physician to king Artaxerxes II of Persia, and the book is not based on his own experiences, but on stories brought to Persia by traders, along the Silk Road from Serica, a land north of China and India where domesticated silk originated.Orontes II
Orontes II (Armenian: Երուանդ Բ, Yervand II) was a Persian noble living in the 4th century BC. He is probably to be identified as the satrap of Armenia under Darius III, and may in fact have succeeded Darius in this position when Darius ascended the throne of Persia in 336 BC.Arrian lists Orontes and a certain Mithraustes as two commanders of Armenian forces in the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. The interpretation of this passage is controversial, with different historians interpreting it as indicating that Mithraustes commanded the infantry, or that there were two different contingents of Armenian cavalry in this battle, or even that Armenia was divided into two parts ruled by two satraps.Orontes fought at the Battle of Gaugamela on the Persian right flank with 40,000 units of infantry and 7,000 of cavalry under his command, where he died. His son, Mithrenes, Satrap of Lydia, had joined Alexander the Great after being defeated at Sardis in 334 BC, and fought at Gaugamela on the side of Alexander. After the battle, Mithrenes was made Satrap of Armenia by Alexander.The ultimate fate of Orontes is unknown. Diodorus and Polyaenus mention a man named Orontes, who was a Satrap of Armenia during the Second War of the Diadochi; Diodorus adds that this Orontes was a friend of Peucestas. Andrew Burn, Edward Anson and Waldemar Heckel consider this satrap to be the same Orontes who fought for Darius III in the Battle of Gaugamela; Anson and Heckel state that Mithrenes may have perished in an unsuccessful attempt to wrest Armenia from Orontes. Heckel stated that in all likehood Armenia, which was bypassed by the Macedonian army, was never part of Alexander's empire. Anson, on the other hand, considered it likely that at some point after the Battle of Gaugamela Orontes made his submission to Alexander, who later put him in charge of the Greater Armenia. N. G. L. Hammond interpreted the sources as indicating that Armenia was already in submission when Mithrenes was sent there from Babylon late in 331 BC, that Mithrenes took it over as satrap ruling on behalf of the new Macedonian regime, and that he was left as satrap in 323 BC when Perdiccas let some satrapies remain under the existing satraps; in 317 BC Mithrenes was no longer satrap but had been replaced by Orontes.One of the inscriptions from the Mount Nemrut detailing the ancestry of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene mentions an ancestor whose name was incompletely preserved, and who was a son of Aroandas. This Aroandas (Orontes) is inferred to be the second ancestor of Antiochus listed in the inscriptions from Mount Nemrut who bore that name, succeeding the first Aroandas, who in turn was the son of Artasyrus and who married Rhodogune, the daughter of Artaxerxes II of Persia. Friedrich Karl Dörner and John H. Young (1996) interpreted the first preserved letter of the name of the son of Aroandas II as a delta, so that the name ended with -δανης, -danes. The authors considered this reading to be important, because it settled the proposal of Ernst Honigmann's ([Mιθρ]άνην), as well as one of the suggestions presented by Salomon Reinach ([Όστ]άνην). Brijder (2014) also interpreted the inscription as indicating that name of the son of Orontes II ended with -danes.Aroandas II mentioned in an inscription from Mount Nemrut was identified with the Orontes who was a commander in the Battle of Gaugamela by Karl Julius Beloch and Herman Brijder. This Orontes was also inferred to be a descendant of Orontes I and his wife Rhodoghune, possibly their son or grandson. On the other hand, Friedrich Karl Dörner was unsure whether ancient citations of connections of the bearers of the name Aroandas/Orontes with Armenia or their status as leaders of Armenian military units are compelling reasons for assuming that they were relatives. Dörner considered it very questionable whether Aroandas II mentioned in an inscription from Mount Nemrut is identical with the Orontes of Alexander's time; the author stressed the need to consider that in the course of the 4th century BC, besides the two ancestors of Antiochus I of Commagene, other bearers of the same name may have played a part in Persian politics.Palace of Darius in Susa
The Palace of Darius in Susa was a palace complex in Susa, Iran, a capital of the Achaemenid Empire. The construction was conducted parallel to that of Persepolis. Man-power and raw materials from various parts of the empire contributed to its construction. It was once destroyed by fire and was partially restored later. Little has remained from this important complex.Peace of Antalcidas
The King's Peace (387 BC), also known as the Peace of Antalcidas, was a peace treaty guaranteed by the Persian King Artaxerxes II that ended the Corinthian War in ancient Greece. The treaty's alternate name comes from Antalcidas, the Spartan diplomat who traveled to Susa to negotiate the terms of the treaty with the king of Achaemenid Persia. The treaty was more commonly known in antiquity, however, as the King's Peace, a name that reflects the depth of Persian influence in the treaty, as Persian gold had driven the preceding war. The treaty was a form of Common Peace, similar to the Thirty Years' Peace which ended the First Peloponnesian War.Stateira (wife of Artaxerxes II)
Stateira (died about 400 BC) was the wife of King Artaxerxes II of Persia.
Asteroid 831 Stateira is named in her honour.
|Median (728–550 BC)|
|Achaemenid (550–330 BC)|
Italics indicate kings not directly attested and so possibly legendary.
Rulers of the Achaemenid Empire
|Kings of Kings|
of the Achaemenid Empire
|Satraps of Lydia|
|Satraps of Hellespontine Phrygia|
|Satraps of Cappadocia|
|Greek Governors of Asia Minor cities|
|Dynasts of Lycia|
|Dynasts of Caria|
|Kings of Macedonia|
|Kings of Tyre|
|Kings of Sidon|
|Satraps of Armenia|
|Satraps of Egypt|
|Satraps of Bactria|
|Satraps of Media|
|Satraps of Cilicia|
|Other known satraps|
In most territories, Achaemenid rulers were succeeded by Hellenistic satraps and Hellenistic rulers from around 330 BC
The works of Plutarch
|Translators and editors|