Artabanus V of Parthia

Artabanus V of Parthia, also known as Ardavan V (Parthian: 𐭍𐭐𐭕𐭓), was the last ruler of Parthian Empire from c. 213 to 224.[1] He was the younger son of Vologases V, who died in 208.

Artabanus V of Parthia
"King of kings of Iran"
Artabanusiv
Coin of Artabanus V.
Shahanshah of the Parthian Empire
Reign213–224
PredecessorVologases VI
SuccessorArdashir I (Sasanian Empire)
BornUnknown
Died28 April 224
Near Shushtar
IssueArsaces
Artavazdes
DynastyArsacid dynasty
FatherVologases V
ReligionZoroastrianism

Civil war and war with the Romans

In 208, Artabanus rebelled against his brother Vologases VI, and soon gained the upper hand, although Vologases VI maintained himself in a part of Babylonia until about 228.

The Roman emperor Caracalla, wishing to make use of this civil war for a conquest of the East in imitation of his hero, Alexander the Great, attacked the Parthians in 216. He crossed the Tigris, destroyed the towns and spoiled the tombs of Arbela, but when Artabanus advanced at the head of an army, he retired to Carrhae. Caracalla was murdered by Martialis on April 8, 217. Caracalla's successor, the Praetorian Prefect of the Guard Macrinus, was defeated at Nisibis and concluded a peace with Artabanus, in which he gave up all the Roman conquests, restored the booty, and paid a heavy contribution to the Parthians.[2] [3]

KhvasakArtaban
Relief of Artabanus V and the satrap Khwasak at Susa

In Susa a stela was found showing the king and the satrap Khwasak. The stela dates to 215 and demonstrated that the city was at that time part of the Parthian empire. There are indications that it was before independent.

Struggle for supremacy in Iran

At about this time, Ardashir had begun his conquests in Persis and Carmania. This expansion came to the attention of the Arsacid Great King, Artabanus V, who ordered his vassal, the ruler of Khuzestan, to confront Ardashir.[4] It was Ardashir, however, who emerged victorious in that battle. In 224, Artabanus himself invaded Fars to confront the rebelling Ardashir. The latter won the first battle, but with heavy losses on both sides. In the second battle, the Parthians suffered a greater loss, and Ardashir was again deemed the victor. Their armies clashed once again in a final battle at Hormozgan, near the modern city of Bandar Abbas. At this encounter, the Parthian army was completely defeated, and Artabanus was killed.[5] This ended the 400-year rule of the Arsacid Dynasty.

References

  1. ^ "Ardavan° | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com.
  2. ^ Michael Axworthy, A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind, (Basic Books, 2008), 43.
  3. ^ "Artabanus V | king of Parthia". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  4. ^ Maria Brosius, The Persians: An Introduction, (Routledge, 2006), 140.
  5. ^ Maria Brosius, 140.

Sources

Artabanus V of Parthia
Preceded by
Vologases VI of Parthia
Great King (Shah) of Parthia
208–224
Succeeded by
Ardashir I
210s

The 210s decade ran from January 1, 210, to December 31, 219.

== Events ==

=== 210 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Having suffered heavy losses since invading Scotland in 208, emperor Septimius Severus sends his son Caracalla to systematically wipe out and torture the Scots into submission.

=== 211 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

February 4 – Emperor Septimius Severus, having fallen ill, dies in Eboracum (modern-day York) while on campaign in Britain after an 18-year reign. He is later deified by the Senate. His sons Caracalla and Geta succeed him as joint Roman Emperors.

December 19 – Geta is lured to come without his bodyguards to meet Caracalla, to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrives the Praetorian Guard murders him and he dies in the arms of his mother Julia Domna.

Eboracum becomes the capital of Britannia Inferior, a northern province of the Roman Empire.

====== Asia ======

January – Cao Cao writes Ràng Xiàn Zì Míng Běn Zhì Lìng (讓縣自明本志令)

March – September: Cao Cao defeats Ma Chao at the Battle of Tong Pass.

Ardashir I becomes king of part of Persia.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

Baths of Caracalla construction begins (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

Mark is succeeded by Philadelphus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 212 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The edict of emperor Caracalla (Constitutio Antoniniana) extends Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Roman Empire with the exception of a limited group that may include Egyptians. The Jewish people are among those who receive citizenship. All free women in the Empire are given the same rights as Roman women.

Roman jurist Aemilius Papinianus, one of the famous jurists who flourished during the reign of the late emperor Septimius Severus, refuses to write a legal defence for the murder of Caracalla's brother, Publius Septimius Geta. He is beheaded in Rome, in Caracalla's presence.

Caracalla quiets the objections of the Roman army to Geta's murder by huge donations.

Construction begins on the Baths of Caracalla in Rome.

Edessa in Mesopotamia becomes a Roman province.

=== 213 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Caracalla) and Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus become Roman Consuls.

Emperor Caracalla leaves Rome and expels some German marauders from Gaul. He defends the northern Rhine frontier against the Alamanni and the Chatti. Caracalla wins a victory over the German tribes on the banks of the River Main, and gives himself the title "Germanicus". It is probably while campaigning in Germania that he takes a liking to the caracalla, a Celtic or German tunic from which he acquires the name by which he is known.

====== Asia ======

Cao Cao, the prime minister of the Han dynasty, is titled Wei Gong (Duke of Wei) and given a fief of ten cities under his domain. This later becomes the Kingdom of Wei.

=== 214 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The kingdom of Osroene becomes a province of the Roman Empire.

Caracalla's victories in Germany ensure his popularity within the Roman army.

The defences of Rhaetia are reinforced, in the form of an uninterrupted stone wall.

====== Asia ======

The Korean kingdom of Baekje attacks the Mohe tribes.

Battle of Xiaoyao Ford: Zhang Liao under the command of Cao Cao beats back Sun Quan at Hefei.

Liu Bei takes Yi Province from his clansman Liu Zhang, forming the later basis for Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period.

Pang Tong dies in the hands of the enemy in an ambush at the Valley of the Fallen Phoenix.

=== 215 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Caracalla's troops massacre the population of Alexandria, Egypt, beginning with the leading citizens. The emperor is angry about a satire, produced in Alexandria, mocking his claim that he killed Geta in self-defense.

Caracalla introduces a new coin, the Antoninianus. The weight of this coin is a mere 1/50 of a pound. Copper disappears gradually, and by the middle of the third century, with Rome's economy in crisis, the Antonianus will be the only official currency.

====== Asia ======

Zhang Liao holds off Sun Quan's invasion force at the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford in Hefei, China.

Vachagan I becomes king of Caucasian Albania.

=== 216 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are completed with public baths (Thermae), reading rooms, auditoriums, running tracks, and public gardens that cover 20 acres.

Emperor Caracalla tricks the Parthians by accepting a marriage proposal. He slaughters his bride and the wedding guests after the celebrations.

Caracalla provokes a war with Artabanus V (of Parthia) to imitate his idol Alexander the Great. He crosses the Tigris, destroys towns and spoils the tombs of Arbela. The Roman army annexes Armenia.

The basilica of Leptis Magna, ordered by Septimius Severus, is completed.

====== Asia ======

Chinese warlord Cao Cao is made a vassal king (King of Wei) by Emperor Xian, the last ruler of the Han dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Mithraism, which had begun in Persia, is on course to be adopted by many Roman soldiers serving in Asia.

=== 217 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

April 8 – Caracalla is assassinated by his soldiers near Edessa. Marcus Opellius Macrinus, head of the Praetorian Guard, declares himself Roman emperor.

Summer – Battle of Nisibis: A Roman army, under the command of Macrinus, is defeated in a three days' battle by the Parthians at Nisibis, in the province of Mesopotamia.

King Artabanus V signs a peace treaty with Rome after he received 200 million sesterces, for the rebuilding of towns destroyed during the war in Parthia.

Macrinus, of Mauritania, becomes the first equestrian Roman emperor.

Empress Julia, wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta, commits suicide.

The Colosseum is badly damaged by fire (lightning) which destroys the wooden upper levels of the amphitheater.

====== Asia ======

Battle of Ruxu: Cao Cao once again clashes against Sun Quan in Yang Province.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 20 – The papacy of Zephyrinus ends. Callixtus I is elected as the sixteenth pope, but is opposed by the theologian Hippolytus who accuses him of laxity and of being a Modalist, one who denies any distinction between the three persons of the Trinity.

Hippolytus begins his "pontificate" as antipope and sets up a breakaway church for Christian followers.

Ciriacus succeeds Philadelphus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

====== Sports ======

According to a tradition noted by 19th-century historian Stephen Glover, the earliest recorded game of association football (soccer) took place in Derby, England as a celebration on Shrove Tuesday, the day before commencement of the Lent season on Ash Wednesday, and 47 days before Easter Sunday

=== 218 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

May 16 – Julia Maesa, an aunt of the assassinated Caracalla, is banished to her home in Syria by the self-proclaimed emperor Macrinus and declares her grandson Elagabalus, age 14, emperor of Rome.

June 8 – Battle of Antioch: Elagabalus defeats with support of the Syrian legions the forces of Macrinus. Macrinus flees, but is captured near Chalcedon and later executed in Cappadocia.

Diadumenianus, son of Macrinus, escapes to the Parthian court, but is captured at Zeugma and also put to death.

==== By topic ====

====== Commerce ======

The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 43 percent under emperor Elagabalus, down from 50 percent under Septimius Severus, as he empties the treasury with his excesses while his grandmother, Julia Maesa, rules the Empire

=== 219 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Imperator Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Elagabalus) and Quintus Tineius Sacerdos become Roman Consuls.

Julia Maesa arranges for her grandson Elagabalus a marriage with Julia Paula. The wedding is a lavish ceremony and Paula is given the honorific title of Augusta.

Legions III Gallica and IV Scythica are disbanded by Elagabalus after their leaders, Verus and Gellius Maximus, rebel.

Emperor Elagabalus, age 15, is initiated into the worship of the Phrygian gods Cybele and Attis.

====== Asia ======

The reign of Pulona, Satavahana king of Andhra, begins in India.

The Battle of Mount Dingjun ends with Liu Bei emerging victorious. He declares himself king of Hanzhong afterwards.

Guan Yu floods the fortress at Fan (present-day Fancheng District, Xiangyang, Hubei) in the Battle of Fancheng, while Lü Meng captures his base in Jing Province. Guan Yu retreats to Maicheng, falls into an ambush, and gets captured by Sun Quan's forces.

Cao Cao controls the Yellow River basin and northern China. Sun Quan rules southern China. Liu Bei controls Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing).

Tuoba Liwei becomes the first chieftain of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people.

216

Year 216 (CCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Sabinus and Anullinus (or, less frequently, year 969 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 216 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

224

Year 224 (CCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Iulianus and Crispinus (or, less frequently, year 977 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 224 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

April 28

April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 247 days remaining until the end of the year.

Artabanus

Artabanus (Ancient Greek: Ἁρτάβανος Artabanos; Middle Persian: ʾltwʾn‎ Ardawān) may refer to various rulers/monarchs of ancient Persia & Parthia:

Artabanus (son of Hystaspes), son of Hystaspes, brother of Darius I and uncle of Xerxes I

Artabanus of Persia, Hyrcanian by birth, commander of Xerxes's guard, and Xerxes's assassin (465 BC)

Artapanus (general), general under Xerxes I (486–465 BC)

King Arsaces II of Parthia c. 211–191 BC, called Artabanus by some early scholars

Artabanus II (of Parthia), c. 127–124 BC

Artabanus III (of Parthia), c. AD 10–38

Artabanus IV (of Parthia), c. 80–81

Artabanus V (of Parthia), c. 216–224

Battle of Antioch (218)

The Battle of Antioch (8 June 218) was fought between the Roman armies of the Emperor Macrinus and his rival Elagabalus, whose troops were commanded by General Gannys, probably a short distance from Antioch. Gannys' victory over Macrinus led to the downfall of the emperor and his replacement by Elagabalus.

Macrinus' predecessor, Caracalla, was murdered by a disaffected soldier during a campaign against Parthia on 8 April 217. Macrinus himself may have had a hand in the murder of Caracalla. Within days of Caracalla's death, Macrinus was proclaimed emperor with the support of the army. At the time of his accession he inherited all of the problems that Caracalla had left for Rome—war against Parthia, threats from Armenia and Dacia, and extensive fiscal expenditures. Macrinus successfully concluded a peace with Parthia, but it came at considerable cost to Rome. Finally, his policies to reduce monetary expenditures only stoked discontent within the military.

Caracalla's mother's sister, Julia Maesa, took advantage of the discontent of the soldiers and spent from her wealth to champion her grandson Elagabalus as the rightful heir to the empire. Elagabalus, chief priest of the god Elagabal, was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers of Legio III Gallica (Gallic Third Legion) at their camp in Raphanea on 16 May 218. In response, Macrinus sent one of his generals, Ulpius Julianus, with a small cavalry force to quell the rebellious soldiers. The cavalry defected and killed Ulpius Julianus, sending his head back to Macrinus in Antioch. The decisive battle took place less than a month later.

While Gannys had the numerical advantage, in the opening stages of the battle Macrinus' Praetorian Guards broke through Gannys' lines, and the latter's troops began to flee. In response, Elagabalus' mother and grandmother joined the battle and rallied the troops while Gannys led his own charge. Gannys' troops turned and renewed the assault, causing Macrinus to flee the battle in fear and return to Antioch. He sent his son and co-emperor, Diadumenian, to Parthia and tried to return to Rome. Both he and his son were caught en-route and executed. Elagabalus entered Antioch as the new emperor of Rome, and with Macrinus dead, the Senate had no choice but to acknowledge the ascension of Elagabalus. By March 222 A.D., Elagabalus was himself killed by the disgruntled Praetorian Guard, declared an enemy of Rome and subjected to a damnatio memoriae.

Battle of Hormozdgan

The Battle of Hormozdgan was the climactic battle between the Parthian and the Sasanian Empires that took place on April 28, 224. The Sasanian victory broke the power of the Arsacid dynasty, effectively ending almost five centuries of Parthian rule in Iran, the rest of the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Central Asia.

Caracalla

Caracalla (; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD. He was a member of the Severan Dynasty, the elder son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Co-ruler with his father from 198, he continued to rule with his brother Geta, emperor from 209, after their father's death in 211. He had his brother killed later that year, and reigned afterwards as sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people.

Caracalla's reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution (Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome; for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus, a sort of double denarius; and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus after three days.

Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla's apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors.

Daylamites

The Daylamites or Dailamites (Middle Persian: Daylamīgān; Persian: دیلمیان‎ Deylamiyān) were an Iranian people inhabiting the Daylam—the mountainous regions of northern Iran on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. They were employed as soldiers from the time of the Sasanian Empire, and long resisted the Muslim conquest of Persia and subsequent Islamization. In the 930s, the Daylamite Buyid dynasty emerged and managed to gain control over much of modern-day Iran, which it held until the coming of the Seljuq Turks in the mid-11th century.

Khwasak

Khwasak was at the beginning of the 3rd century AD, the Satrap of Susa under the Parthian king Artabanus IV.

Khwasak is known from a stela found at Susa. The function of the stela is unknown but it might have been a tomb stone. The stela shows Khwasak and the king, who is handing over the ring of power to Khwasak. The Parthian text informs us that the stela was set up in the year AD 215. Susa was most likely in the 2nd century more or less an independent state. The inscription on the stela demonstrates that the city became at the beginning of the 3rd century again part of the Parthian empire with Khwasak as governor under king Artabanus IV.

Macrinus

Macrinus (; Latin: Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; c. 165 – June 218) was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218. He reigned jointly with his young son Diadumenianus. Macrinus was by origin a Berber from Mauretania Caesariensis. A member of the equestrian class, he became the first emperor who did not hail from the senatorial class and was the first emperor from Mauretania. Before becoming emperor, Macrinus served under Emperor Caracalla as a praetorian prefect and dealt with Rome's civil affairs. He later conspired against Caracalla and had him murdered in a bid to protect his own life, succeeding him as emperor.

Macrinus was proclaimed emperor of Rome by 11 April 217 while in the eastern provinces of the empire and was subsequently confirmed as such by the Senate; however, for the duration of his reign, he never had the opportunity to return to Rome. His predecessor's policies had left Rome's coffers empty and the empire at war with several kingdoms, including Parthia, Armenia and Dacia. As emperor, Macrinus first attempted to enact reform to bring economic and diplomatic stability to Rome. While Macrinus' diplomatic actions brought about peace with each of the individual kingdoms, the additional monetary costs and subsequent fiscal reforms generated unrest in the Roman military.

Caracalla's aunt Julia Maesa took advantage of the unrest and instigated a rebellion to have her fourteen-year-old grandson, Elagabalus, recognized as emperor. Macrinus was overthrown at the Battle of Antioch on 8 June 218 and Elagabalus proclaimed himself emperor with support from the rebelling Roman legions. Macrinus fled the battlefield and tried to reach Rome but was captured in Chalcedon and later executed in Cappadocia. He sent his son to the care of Artabanus V of Parthia, but Diadumenianus was also captured before he could reach his destination and executed. After Macrinus' death, the Senate declared him and his son enemies of Rome and had their names struck from the records and their images destroyed.

Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (; 247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran. Its latter name comes from Arsaces I of Parthia who, as leader of the Parni tribe, founded it in the mid-3rd century BC when he conquered the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. Mithridates I of Parthia (r. c. 171–138 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now central-eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce.

The Parthians largely adopted the art, architecture, religious beliefs, and royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Persian, Hellenistic, and regional cultures. For about the first half of its existence, the Arsacid court adopted elements of Greek culture, though it eventually saw a gradual revival of Iranian traditions. The Arsacid rulers were titled the "King of Kings", as a claim to be the heirs to the Achaemenid Empire; indeed, they accepted many local kings as vassals where the Achaemenids would have had centrally appointed, albeit largely autonomous, satraps. The court did appoint a small number of satraps, largely outside Iran, but these satrapies were smaller and less powerful than the Achaemenid potentates. With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of central government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris (south of modern Baghdad, Iraq), although several other sites also served as capitals.

The earliest enemies of the Parthians were the Seleucids in the west and the Scythians in the east. However, as Parthia expanded westward, they came into conflict with the Kingdom of Armenia, and eventually the late Roman Republic. Rome and Parthia competed with each other to establish the kings of Armenia as their subordinate clients. The Parthians soundly defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, and in 40–39 BC, Parthian forces captured the whole of the Levant except Tyre from the Romans. However, Mark Antony led a counterattack against Parthia, although his successes were generally achieved in his absence, under the leadership of his lieutenant Ventidius. Various Roman emperors or their appointed generals invaded Mesopotamia in the course of the ensuing Roman-Parthian Wars of the next few centuries. The Romans captured the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon on multiple occasions during these conflicts, but were never able to hold on to them. Frequent civil wars between Parthian contenders to the throne proved more dangerous to the Empire's stability than foreign invasion, and Parthian power evaporated when Ardashir I, ruler of Istakhr in Persis, revolted against the Arsacids and killed their last ruler, Artabanus V, in 224 AD. Ardashir established the Sassanid Empire, which ruled Iran and much of the Near East until the Muslim conquests of the 7th century AD, although the Arsacid dynasty lived on through the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia, the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, and the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania; all eponymous branches of the Parthian Arsacids.

Native Parthian sources, written in Parthian, Greek and other languages, are scarce when compared to Sassanid and even earlier Achaemenid sources. Aside from scattered cuneiform tablets, fragmentary ostraca, rock inscriptions, drachma coins, and the chance survival of some parchment documents, much of Parthian history is only known through external sources. These include mainly Greek and Roman histories, but also Chinese histories, prompted by the Han Chinese desire to form alliances against the Xiongnu. Parthian artwork is viewed by historians as a valid source for understanding aspects of society and culture that are otherwise absent in textual sources.

Religion in Iraq

Islam is the official state religion in the Republic of Iraq, but the constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Iraq is a multi ethnic and multi religious country with Islam, Christianity, Yazdanism, Zoroastrianism, Shabakism, Judaism, Mandaeism, Bahā'i, Ahl-e Haqq-Yarsanis, Ishikism and numerous other religions all having a presence in the country. Shia Islam is the main religion in Iraq followed by 59% of the population, while Sunni Islam is followed by 32–37% of the people. Many cities throughout Iraq have been areas of historical prominence for both Shia and Sunni Muslims, including Najaf, Karbala, Baghdad and Samarra.

Tiridates II of Armenia

Tiridates II (Armenian: Տրդատ Բ, flourished second half of the 2nd century and first half of the 3rd century, died 252) was an Armenian Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.

Tiridates II was the son and heir of the Armenian King Khosrov I, by an unnamed mother. Tiridates II was the namesake of his ancestor, Tiridates I of Armenia and of his Parthian ancestors who ruled with this name as King. As a part of the Armenian Arsacid period, he was also known as Khosrov.During the last years of his father's reign in 214-216, Tiridates II with his family where under Roman detention for unknown reasons which provoked a major uprising in Armenia against Rome. In 215, the Roman emperor Caracalla with the Roman army had invaded Armenia to end the uprising.

In 217 Khosrov I had died and Tiridates II succeeded his father as King of Armenia. Tiridates II was granted the Armenian Crown by Caracalla. He was declared King of Armenia upon Caracalla's assassination which was on April 8, 217.

Tiridates II ruled as King of Armenia from 217 until his death in 252. After the death of Caracalla, Macrinus became the new Roman emperor and not so long after Tiridates II received his Armenian Kingship, Macrinus agreed to release Tiridates II's mother from Roman captivity. After the Battle of Nisibis in 217 and the treaty that occurred after between Rome and Parthia, Tiridates II was officially restored to his Armenian throne and his rule over Armenia was officially recognised.

At an unknown date during his reign, there's the possibility that the Mamikonian family immigrated from Bactria to Armenia. Tiridates II was first the King in Armenia to persecute Christians in the country which continued with his predecessors.Partly due to his long reign, Tiridates II became one of the most powerful and most influential monarchs from the Arsacid dynasty. In 224, the Parthian Empire was destroyed; the last King who was Tiridates II's paternal uncle, Artabanus V of Parthia was killed by Ardashir I, the first king of the Sassanid Empire.In 226-228, Ardashir I after annexing Parthia wanted to expand his Empire which including conquering Armenia. Into two years of the conflict, the armies of the Romans, Scythians and the Kushans withdrew. Tiridates II with his army was left in the end alone to continue fighting against Ardashir I.Tiridates II put up a stubborn resistance against Ardashir I and wasn't defeated after no less than ten years of fighting. After twelve years of fighting with Tiridates II, Ardashir I withdrew his army and left Armenia. Tiridates II's military conflict with Ardashir I highlights the strength of Armenia in the time of Tiridates II. Tiridates II died in 252 and was succeeded by his son, Khosrov II of Armenia.

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