Art & Language

Art & Language is a conceptual artists' collaboration that has undergone many changes since it was created in the late 1960s. The group was founded by artists who shared a common desire to combine intellectual ideas and concerns with the creation of art. The first issue of the group's journal, Art-Language, was published in November 1969 in Chipping Norton in England, and was an important influence on conceptual art in the United States and the United Kingdom.[1]

Scratched photograph of the cover of Art-Language, Vol.3 No.1, 1974.

First years

The Art & Language group was founded around 1967 in the United Kingdom by Terry Atkinson (b. 1939), David Bainbridge (b. 1941), Michael Baldwin (b. 1945) and Harold Hurrell (b. 1940).[2] These four artists began their collaboration around 1966 while they were art teachers in Coventry. The name of the group was derived from their journal, Art-Language The Journal of conceptual art, originally created as a work conversation in 1966. The group was critical of what was considered mainstream modern art practices at the time. In their work conversations, they created conceptual art as part of their discussions.[3]

Between 1968 and 1982, the group grew to nearly fifty people. Among the first to join were critic and art historian, Charles Harrison, and artist Mel Ramsden,.[4] In the early 1970s, individuals including Ian Burn, Michael Corris, Preston Heller, Graham Howard, Joseph Kosuth, Andrew Menard, and Terry Smith joined the group. Two collaborators from Coventry, Philip Pilkington and David Rushton, followed. The relative degree of anonymity held within the group continues to have historical significance in the art community. Due to an uncertainty of the exact member lists, it is hard to know unequivocally not only who all of the contributors were but also what their exact contributions were.

The first issue of Art-Language The Journal of conceptual art[5](Volume 1, Number 1, May 1969) is subtitled The Journal of Conceptual Art. By the second issue (Volume 1, Number 2, February 1970), it became clear that there were conceptual art pieces and conceptual artists for whom and to whom the journal did not speak. In order to better encompass the purpose of the journal, the title was abandoned. Art-Language had, however, brought to light the beginning of a new art movement. It was the first imprint to identify a public entity called Conceptual art. The journal was the first of its kind to serve the theoretical and conversational interests of a community of artists and critics, who were also its producers and users. While that community was far from a unanimous agreement as to how to define the nature of conceptual art, the editors and most of its historic contributors shared similar opinions about other art movements. Conceptual art was critical of modernism for its bureaucracy and its historicism, and of minimalism for its philosophical conservatism. The practice of conceptual art, especially in its early years of origin, was primarily based on theory, and its form, predominately textual.

As the distribution of the journal and the teaching practices of the editors and others contributors expanded, the conversation grew to include more people. In England, by 1971, artists and critics including Charles Harrison, Philip Pilkington, David Rushton, Lynn Lemaster, Sandra Harrison, Graham Howard and Paul Wood had joined. Around the same time in New York, Michael Corris joined, followed by Paula Ramsden, Mayo Thompson, Christine Kozlov, Preston Heller, Andrew Menard and Kathryn Bigelow.

The name Art & Language remained precarious due to the various interpretations of both the many pieces of art and the purpose of the group. Its significance, or instrumentality, varied from person to person, alliance to alliance, discourse to discourse, and from those in New York who produced The Fox (1974–1976), for example, to those engaged in music projects and those who continued the Journal's edition. There was disagreement among members, and by 1976, there was a growing sense of divide that eventually led to competing individualities and varied concerns.

Throughout the 1970s, Art & Language dealt with questions about art production and attempted a shift from conventional "nonlinguistic" forms of art, such as painting and sculpture, to more theoretically text-based works. The group often took argumentative positions against such prevailing views of critics like Clement Greenberg and Michael Fried. The Art & Language group that exhibited in the international Documenta 5 exhibitions of 1972 included Atkinson, Bainbridge, Baldwin, Hurrell, Pilkington, Rushton, and Joseph Kosuth, the American editor of Art-Language. The work consisted of a filing system of material published and circulated by Art & Language members.[6]

New York Art and Language

Burn and Ramsden co-founded The Society for Theoretical Art and Analysis in New York in the late 1960s. They joined Art & Language in 1970–71. New York Art & Language became fragmented after 1975 because of disagreements concerning principles of collaboration.[7] Karl Beveridge and Carol Condé, who had been peripheral members of the group in New York, returned to Canada where they worked with trade unions and community groups. In 1977, Ian Burn returned to Australia and Mel Ramsden to the United Kingdom.

Art & Language, Untitled Painting (1965), Tate Modern, London - 20130627
Art & Language, Untitled Painting 1965. The Tate Modern Collection.

Late 1970s

By the end of the 1970s, the group was essentially reduced to Baldwin, Harrison, and Ramsden with the occasional participation of Mayo Thompson and his group Red Crayola. The political analysis and development within the group resulted in several members leaving the group to work in more activist-oriented political occupations. Ian Burn returned to Australia, joining Ian Milliss, a conceptual artist who had begun work with trade unions in the early 1970s, in becoming active in Union Media Services, a design studio for social and community initiatives and the development of trade unions. Other members from the United Kingdom drifted off into a variety of creative, academic and sometimes "politicized" activities.

At the beginning of the 1970s, there were about thirty members. The Art & Language group emphasized the use of language on the theory that language is the basis from which ideas and concepts are built. Their philosophy was that language permits index words which appear, disappear, and for some even persist, thus allowing viewers and artists alike to analyze the evolution of a word through the proposal of different definitions.

Selected works

Year Title
  • Mirror Piece
  • Time Drawings
  • Three Suprematist Squares
  • Crane Notes
  • Text as Performance
  • Fragments and Elements
  • Acid Boxes
  • Air Show
  • Frameworks
  • Frameworks Exhibit I
  • Art Out of Sound
  • Crane
  • An Argument from Illusion
  • Aim at Boredom, Kasimir?
  • Loop
  • The Air-Conditioning Show
  • Note Topography for Text Book or Encyclopedia from 1965 to 1966
  • Notes on Malevich
  • Paintings Nr. 1
  • Oxfordshire Show
  • Performance as Text. Appendix. Note 6
  • Robotic Sculpture
  • The Temperature Show
  • Two Black Squares
  • Two Black Rectangles
  • 22 Sentences: The French Army
  • A Note on the Notion of a 368 Years Old Spectator
  • Abstract Art Paintings
  • Acrostic Paintings
  • Bibliography Installation
  • 11 Studies for a Secret Painting
  • 4 Studies for a Secret Painting
  • Frameworks Exhibit II
  • Hot-Cold
  • Identificatory Fragment
  • Map of Itself
  • Map to not Indicate...
  • Map of a Thirty-Six Square Miles Surface Area of the Pacific Ocean West of Oahu
  • Mirror Piece
  • On the Concept of a Non Exhibition
  • Ontology
  • Undeclared Glasses
  • Potato Print Model I & II
  • Readings of Readings of the Tractatus
  • Some Notes about Art and Time
  • 23 Title Equals Text Paintings
  • Temperature Prints
  • Time and News
  • Time Show Fragment
  • Two Black Squares (The Paradoxes of the Absolute Zero)
  • Study for a Secret Painting
  • Notes: Harold Hurrell
  • 100% Abstract
  • Geology
  • Notes on Entropy
  • The Identity Bracelet
  • 22 Sentences the French Army
  • 100% Abstract
  • Abstract of Perception I & II
  • Abstract Relations
  • Analogy Model 1-8
  • Art as Theory
  • Art Objects and Real Things
  • Conceptual Art and Inten(s)ion
  • M1
  • Fluidic Device
  • Elements of an Incomplete Map
  • Intensionality, Quantification. Fragment
  • Laocoon is a Name
  • Models + Dictionaries
  • Notes on Substance Concepts (Art Object)
  • Notes Toward the Art of Terry Atkinson
  • Objects-Ontology
  • On "Conceptual Art" Criticism
  • Six Negatives Categories
  • Systematically Altered Photographs
  • The Object-Language. The Art-Language. The Ascribing of Responsibility
  • Thirty-Nine Negatives Categories
  • Notes Towards "From an Art-Language Point of View"
  • Six Negatives
  • The Art of David Bainbridge
  • The Art of Terry Atkinson
  • A Point of Reference is a Product of Discourse
  • Concerning Interpretation of Bainbridge/Hurrell Models
  • Concerning the Form of Some of the Works and Some of the Form of Some Other Works
  • Frameworks Appendix
  • Information Position 001
  • Ingot
  • Intensionality and Ascription of Responsibility
  • Introduction to Discourse
  • Is Art What Art Says?
  • Lecher System
  • Ontological Fragments
  • Paradigms. Draft 2
  • Textbook – Project Semantics
  • The Art of David Bainbridge: Introduction to Discourse
  • The Literate and the Non-Literate
  • Anthropology
  • Describing Things
  • Notes-Reference to Machine Itself
  • The Theory of Art
  • Fragments of Some notes Towards a Correct Textbook
  • Art and Antinomicness
  • "Art" and Language
  • Existential References. Art Object
  • Fondations of Arithmetic-Frege
  • Handbook on Models. The Relativity of Emotion
  • Handbook to "Ingot"
  • Identity
  • Intension II:: Draft for a Book Section
  • Lecher System
  • "Moral Law" Propadeutic 1.00
  • Noisy Channel: A
  • Notes on Analyses
  • Numbers
  • Ontological Fragment
  • The Grammarian
  • This is Semantics
  • Notes on M1
  • Theories of Ethics
  • Artforum Annotations (Comparative Models)
  • Authorship
  • Comparative Models
  • Exhibition of lectures
  • Latin Index
  • Notes on 'De Legibus Naturae
  • Notes on "Pragmatics I"
  • Olivet Discourse
  • Suggestion for a Map
  • Village Explanation: On Norbert Weiner on the Role of the Intellectual and the Scientist
  • Frameworks Retrospect
  • Notes on Mapping and Indexing
  • The Moral Law
  • Theories of Ethics and Meaninglessness
  • Topological Notebook
  • Transformational Matrices
  • A Dithering Device
  • Art as an Activity which the Artist Enjoys
  • Comparative Models
  • Documenta Memorandum (Indexing)
  • Index 01
  • Index 02
  • Index of a Discussion
  • Index or What?
  • Information and Markov Chains
  • Mapping and Filling
  • Materialism – from "The Fourth International"
  • Schema for Art Models
  • Translation Piece I-V
  • Village Explanation, no.2-no.5
  • The Turin Index
  • Notes for a Lecture
  • A Fragment of a Model for Rigour: "Ontology"
  • All Friends Together
  • Art and Its Cultural Context
  • Art Theory and Scientific Theory
  • Blurting in Art & Language
  • Hybridity Resonance
  • Index 02 (Bxal) Indexical Fragments
  • K Index
  • Li Proceedings Index
  • Logical Construction
  • Notes on 77 Sentences
  • Notes on Hand Book Project
  • Studies for an Art & Language Index
  • Transcription
  • Village Explanation, no.5-no.8
  • 77 Sentences
  • Index Printout
  • Charles Harrison Talking to Michael Baldwin. An Incomplete Index
  • 77 Sentences
  • A Point of Reference is a Product of Discourse (Surf)
  • Ask Yourself Which is the Index
  • Corrected Slogans Music-Language
  • Map of War/Blurt A & L
  • Dialectical Materialism
  • Emma
  • Exemplary Guide to the Aviation Industry 001.1
  • Fine Art Has No History
  • Going-on Douglas Haig
  • Going-on, Going-on
  • Heuristic Sketches for Hell vs Bedlam
  • Historically Proper Names
  • I can't Think: Fear, Death, etc.
  • Index Printout
  • Index 02 (Bxal): Indexical Fragments
  • Internal Description as External Description
  • K Formulae
  • P of H S
  • Printing or Writing
  • Projekt 74 Index
  • Reference Points
  • Remember the Somme – Douglas Haig
  • Self-Superseding Strategy... Or the Given Political Moment
  • Surf as a Function
  • The Machine Appropriated
  • The Masses are the Decisive Force in All Social Change
  • The Paradox of Drawing as an Ideological Resource 1 & 2
  • The Phenomenology of Asking a Question About a Given Item
  • The "Red Lattice" Problems
  • Threshold Agreement
  • Transformational Matrix
  • Transmitted Recipe Knowledge
  • Blindness
  • Dialectic and Unsightly Drinking: Art Galleries and the Putative Sites of Non-Trivial Conflict
  • Indexing Project
  • Internal Evidence Suggests a Kempis / Lowenheim-Skolem Paradox Alone
  • Art & Language Attacks on Socialist Artists
  • Corrected Slogans: Paper Music
  • Good Evening... It is Modern amusements-Time Again
  • Posters for The Fox
  • Print (Section A, Questionnaire)
  • Shouting Men
  • Singing Men
  • The Notion of Conditioning Persuasion and the Notion of Consciousness
  • Village Explanation no.9-no.10
  • Above Us The Waves (A Fascist Index)
  • Illustrations for Art-Language Vol.3 Nr.4
  • Corrected Slogans
  • Dialectical Materialism
  • Notes
  • Posters for the Fox
  • School Poster
  • Ten Postcards
  • Ten Posters: Illustrations for Art-Language
  • Our Progress Lies in Hard Work
  • Born in Flames
  • Born in Flames
  • Flags for Organisations
  • Ils donnent leur sang, donnez votre travail
  • Le Monde bestorne
  • Art & Language in Disguise
  • Etudes pour "Portraits of V.I. Lenin in the Style of Jackson Pollock"
  • Portraits of V.I. Lenin in the Style of Jackson Pollock
  • Born in Flames
  • Portraits of V.I. Leni in the Style of Jackson Pollock
  • Etudes pour "Picasso's Guernica in the Style of Jackson Pollock"
  • Picasso's Guernica in the Style of Jackson Pollock
  • Etudes pour "Gustave Courbet's "Burial at Ornans" Expressing..."
  • Gustave Courbet's "Burial at Ornans" Expressing...
  • Victorine
  • Raped and Strangled by the Man who forced her into Prostitution: A Dead Woman Drawn and Painted by Mouth
  • Attacked by an Unknown Man in a City Park: A Dying Woman; Drawn and Painted by Mouth
  • A Man Battering his Daughter to Death as she Sleeps: Drawn and Painted by Mouth
  • Etude pour "Index: The Studio at 3 Wesley Place Painted by Mouth
  • Kangaroo?
  • Etudes exécutées à la bouche pour "Index: The Studio at 3 Wesley Place Painted by Mouth"
  • Etude pour "Index: The Studio at 3 Wesley place illuminated by an Explosion Nearby
  • Etude pour "Index: The Studio at 3 Wesley Place Showing the Position of Embarrassements
  • Index:_The Studio at 3 Wesley Place Painted by Mouth version I et II
  • Index:_The Studio at 3 Wesley Place in the Dark
  • Art & Language Paints a Picture
  • Index: The Studio at 3 Wesley Place Illuminated by an Explosion Nearby I-VII
  • Impressionism Returning Sometime in the Future
  • Impressionism Returning Sometime in the Future
  • Index: Incident in a Museum I à V
  • Index: Incident in a Museum VI à XVI
  • Index: Incident in a Museum XVII à XXV
  • An Incident in a Museum: Study for Hostage
  • Unit Cure Unit Ground I à X
  • Hostage I à IX
  • Hostage: An Incident and a People Flag I à VII
  • Hostage XIX à XXIX
  • Hostage α, β, γ, δ
  • Hostage XXX à LXXX
  • Hostage LXXXI à LXXXIV
  • Exit: Now They Are
  • Index V à XX (Now They Are)
  • Incident, Now They Are, Look Out
  • Incident, Now They Are, Elegant
  • Incident, Now They Are, Next
  • Incident, Foreground I
  • Index 11: Background, Incident, Foreground no.I à XXXVIII
  • Sighs Trapped by Liars
  • Sighs Trapped by Liars
  • Sighs Trapped by Liars
  • A Model for Lucy Grays (Study for Barcelona Wall)
  • A Picture Painted by Actors
  • Wrongs Healed in Official Hope
  • Material Slang
  • About Reading and Looking
  • Study for Mother, Father, Monday: Map of the World
  • Mother, Father, Monday: Map of the World

Exhibitions and awards

Awards and critics

In 1986, Art & Language was nominated for the Turner Prize. In 1999, Art & Language exhibited at PS1 MoMA in New York, with a major installation entitled The Artist Out of Work. This was a recollection of Art & Language's dialogical and other practices, curated by Michael Corris and Neil Powell. This exhibition closely followed the revisionist exhibition of Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin at the Queens Museum of Art, also in New York. The Art & Language show at PS1 offered an alternative account of the antecedents and legacy of '"classic" conceptual art and reinforced a transatlantic rather than nationalistic version of events from 1968 to 1972. In a negative appraisal of the exhibition, art critic Jerry Saltz wrote, "A quarter century ago, 'Art & Language' forged an important link in the genealogy of conceptual art, but next efforts have been so self-sufficient and obscure that their work is now virtually irrelevant."[8]

Permanent collections

Other exhibits around the world include the works of Atkinson and Baldwin (working as Art & Language) held in the collection of the Tate in the United Kingdom.[9] Papers and works relating to New York Art & Language are held at the Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles.

In March 2011, Philippe Méaille loaned 800 artworks of the Art & Language collective to the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, also known as MACBA.[10] In June 2015, the Conseil départemental de Maine-et-Loire and Philippe Méaille signed a long term lease agreement for the Château de Montsoreau to promote contemporary art in the Loire Valley.

Selected exhibitions

Year Exhibition
  • Hardware Show – Architectural Association, London.
  • Dematerialisation Show – Ikon Gallery, London.
  • VAT 68 – The Herbert Art Gallery, Coventry.
  • Art & Language – Pinacotheca Gallery, Melbourne.
  • The Air-Conditioning Show – Visual Arts Gallery, New York.
  • Art & Language – Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris.
  • Art & Language – Galleria Sperone, Torino.
  • Tape Show: Exhibition of Lectures – Dain Gallery, New York.
  • Questionnaire – Galleria Daniel Templon, Milano.
  • The Art & Language Institute – Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris.
  • Documenta Memorandum – Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne.
  • Analytical ArtGalerie Daniel Templon, Paris
  • Index 002 Bxal – John Weber Gallery, New York.
  • Art & Language – Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne.
  • Art & Language – Lisson Gallery, London.
  • Annotations – Galerie Daniel Templon, Paris.
  • Art & Language – Galleria Sperone, TurinGalerie Paul Maenz, Cologne.
  • Art & Language – Bischofberger Gallery, Zürich.
  • Art & Language – Galleria Schema, Florence.
  • Art & Language – Lisson Gallery, London.
  • Art & Language – Galerie MTL, Brussels.
  • Art & Language – Studentski Kulturni Centar, Belgrade.
  • Art & Language New York <—> Australia – Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, and the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.
  • Art & Language – Foksal Gallery, Warsaw.
  • Dialectical Materialism – Galleria Schema, Florence.
  • Art & Language – Galerie Ghislain Mollet-Viéville, Paris.
  • Art & Language – Galerie MTL, Brussels.
  • ‘Piggy-Cur-Perfect’ – Auckland City Art Gallery, Auckland.
  • Music-Language – John Weber Gallery, New York.
  • Music-Language – Galerie Eric Fabre, Paris.
  • Art & Language – Museum of Modern Art, Oxford.
  • 10 Posters: Illustrations for Art-Language – Robert Self Gallery, London.
  • Music-Language – Galleria Lia Rumma, Rome et Naples.
  • Flags for Organisations – Cultureel Informatief Centrum, Ghent.
  • Flags for Organisations – Lisson Gallery, London.
  • Ils donnent leur sang ; donnez votre travail – Galerie Eric Fabre, Paris.
  • Portraits of V.I. Lenin in the Style of Jackson Pollock, University Gallery, Leeds.
  • Portraits of V.I. Lenin in the Style of Jackson Pollock, Lisson Gallery, London.
  • Portraits of V.I. Lenin in the Style of Jackson Pollock, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven.
  • Portraits of V.I. Lenin in the Style of Jackson Pollock – Centre d'art contemporain, Genève.
  • Gustave Courbet "Burial at Ornans" Expressing – Galerie Eric Fabre, Paris.
  • Index : Studio at 3 Wesley Place Painted by Mouth – De Veeshal, Middelburg.
  • Art & Language retrospective – Musée d'Art Moderne, Toulon.
  • Index : Studio at 3 Wesley Place I, II, III, IV – Gewald, Ghent.
  • Confessions : Incidents in a Museum – Lisson Gallery, London.
  • Art & Language : The Paintings – Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels.
  • Hostages XXIV-XXXV – Marian Goodman Gallery, New York.
  • Art & Language – Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris.
  • Art & Language and Luhmann – Kunstraum, Vienna.
  • Sighs Trapped by Liars – Galerie de Paris, Paris.
  • Art & Language in Practice – Fundacio Antoni Tàpies, Barcelona.
  • Cinco ensayos – Galerià Juana de Aizpuru, Madrid.
  • The Artist out of Work : Art & Language 1972–1981 – P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, New York.
  • Art & Language & Luhmann No.2 – ZKM, Karlsruhe.
  • Too Dark to Read : Motifs Rétrospectifs – Musée d'art moderne de Lille Métropole, Villeneuve d'Ascq.
  • Art & Language – Migros Museum für Gegenwartskunst, Zurich.
  • Art & Language – CAC Màlaga, Màlaga.
  • Hard to Say When – Lisson Gallery, London.
  • Il ne reste qu'à chanter – Galerie de l'Erban, Nantes (Miroirs, 1965, Karaoke, 1975–2005) et
  • Il ne reste qu'à chanter – Château de la Bainerie (travaux 1965–2005), Tiercé.
  • Brouillages/Blurrings – Galerie Taddeus Ropac, Paris.
  • Art & Language – Espoo Museum of Modern Art, Helsinki.
  • Portraits and a Dream – Lisson Gallery, London.
  • Art & Language – Rhona Hoffman Gallery, Chicago.
  • Badges – Mulier Mulier Gallery, Knokke.
  • Letters to the Red Krayola – Kadel Wilborn Gallery, Düsseldorf.
  • Art & Language – Museum Dhont-Dhaenens, Deurle.
  • Art & Language – Garage Cosmos, Brussels.
  • Art & Language Uncompleted : The Philippe Méaille Collection – MACBA, Barcelona.
  • Nobody Spoke – Lisson Gallery, London.

Selected group exhibitions

Year Exhibition
  • Language II – Dwan Gallery, London.
  • March – catalogue-exposition, Seth Siegelaub, New York.
  • Conceptual Art And Conceptual Aspects – New York Cultural Center, New York.
  • Information – Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  • Idea Structures – Camden Art Centre, London.
  • The British Avant-Garde – New York Cultural Center, New York.
  • Documenta 5 – Museum Friedericianum, Kassel.
  • The New Art – Hayward Gallery, London.
  • Einige Frühe Beispiele Konzeptuelle Kunst Analytischen Charakters – Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne.
  • Contemporanea – Rome.
  • Projekt'74 – Cologne.
  • Kunst über Kunst – Kölnischer Kunstverein, Cologne.
  • Un Certain Art Anglais – Musée d'art moderne de la ville de Paris, Paris.
  • Kunst in Europa na 68 – Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst, Ghent.
  • British Art of the Twentieth Century: The Modern Movement – Royal Academy, London.
  • The Situationists International, 1957–1972 – Musée National d'art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris.
  • L'art conceptuel, une perspective – Musée d'art moderne de la ville de Paris; Fundación Caja de Prensiones, Madrid; Deichtorhallen, Hamburg.
  • Repetición/Transformación – Museo Nacional de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid.
  • Toponimías (8) : ocho ideas del espacio – Fundación La Caixa, Madrid.
  • Reconsidering the Object of Art, 1965–1975 – Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.
  • Global Conceptualism: Points of Origin 1950s–1980s – Queens Museum of Art, New York.
  • Iconoclash – Center for Art and Media (ZKM), Karlsruhe.
  • Before the End (The Last Painting Show) – Swiss Institute, New York.
  • Collective Creativity – Kunsthalle Fridericianum, Kassel.
  • Le Printemps de Septembre à Toulouse – Broken Lines – Toulouse.
  • Magritte and Contemporary Art: The Treachery of Images – Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles.
  • Sympathy for the Devil: Art and Rock'n Roll since 1967 – Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago.
  • Vides. Une rétrospective – Musée National d'art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris.
  • Rock-Paper-Scissors, Pop Music as Subject of Visual Art – Kunsthaus, Graz.
  • Algunas Obras A Ler – Collection Eric Fabre – Berardo Museum, Lisbon.
  • Seconde main, Musée d'art moderne de la ville de Paris/ARC, Paris.
  • Erre, Variations Labyrinthiques – Musée National d'art moderne, Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz.
  • Materialising 'Six Years': Lucy Lippard and the Emergence of Conceptual Art – Brooklyn museum, New York.
  • As if it could . Works and Documents from the Herbert Foundation – Herbert Foundation, Ghent.
  • Propanganda für die Wirklichkeit – Museum Morsbroich, Leverkusen.
  • Critical Machines, American University, Beyrouth.
  • Art & Language, [2]

Theoretical installations

Art & Language and the Jackson Pollock Bar collaborated for the first time in January 1995, during the Art & Language & Luhmann symposium, organized by the Contemporary Social Considerations Institute (Institut für Sozial Gegenwartsfragen) of Freiburg. The 3-day symposium saw the intervention of speakers including Catherine David, who prepared the Documenta X, and Peter Weibl, artist and curator. There was also a theoretical installation of a Art & Language text produced in playback by the Jackson Pollock Bar. The installation was interpreted by five German actors playing the roles of Jack Tworkow, Philip Guston, Harold Rosenberg, Robert Motherwell and Ad Reinhardt. Using lip sync, the actors used pre-recorded text for a "New Conceptual" conversation. Ever since this collaboration, each new Art & Language exhibition has been joined by a Jackson Pollock Bar theoretical installation.

Past members and associates


  1. ^ "Art & Language | Artists | Lisson Gallery". Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  2. ^ Neil Mulholland, The Cultural Devolution: art in Britain in the late twentieth century, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003, p165. ISBN 0-7546-0392-X
  3. ^ "Art & Language | Tate". Tate Etc. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  4. ^ Charles Green, The Third Hand: Collaboration in Art from Conceptualism to Postmodernism, UNSW Press, 2001, p47. ISBN 0-86840-588-4
  5. ^ "Art & Language".
  6. ^ Anna Bentkowska-Kafel, Trish Cashen, Hazel Gardiner, Digital Visual Culture: Theory and Practice, Intellect Books, 2009, p104. ISBN 1-84150-248-0
  7. ^ Charles Green, The Third Hand: Collaboration in Art from Conceptualism to Postmodernism, UNSW Press, 2001, p48. ISBN 0-86840-588-4
  8. ^ Jerry Saltz, Seeing out loud: the Voice art columns, fall 1998-winter 2003, Geoffrey Young, 2003, p293. ISBN 1-930589-17-4
  9. ^
  10. ^ Un tresor al Macba
  11. ^ Nicolas Rapold, "Interview: Kathryn Bigelow Goes Where the Action Is," The Village Voice, 23 June 2009. [1] Access date: 27 June 2009.

External links


Aesthetics () is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty and taste and with the creation or appreciation of beauty.In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, or sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics studies how artists imagine, create and perform works of art; how people use, enjoy, and criticize art; and what happens in their minds when they look at paintings, listen to music, or read poetry, and understand what they see and hear. It also studies how they feel about art—why they like some works and not others, and how art can affect their moods, beliefs, and attitude toward life. The phrase was coined in English in the 18th century.

More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature". In modern English, the term aesthetic can also refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory: one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic.

Andy Warhol

Andy Warhol (; born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, advertising, and celebrity culture that flourished by the 1960s, and span a variety of media, including painting, silkscreening, photography, film, and sculpture. Some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans (1962) and Marilyn Diptych (1962), the experimental film Chelsea Girls (1966), and the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1966–67).

Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol initially pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist. His New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, playwrights, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, and wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, and is credited with coining the widely used expression "15 minutes of fame." In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism: The Warhol Sixties. He lived openly as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58.

Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. The Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable. The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster); his works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market".


Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.

The three classical branches of art are painting, sculpture and architecture. Music, theatre, film, dance, and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts. Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts.

Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation. The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.

Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological progress.

Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism; the bright colors of Fauvism and of the Ballets Russes; the updated craftsmanship of the furniture of the eras of Louis Philippe I and Louis XVI; and the exotic styles of China and Japan, India, Persia, ancient Egypt and Maya art. It featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, and exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style.

In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, and plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s; it featured curving forms and smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco is one of the first truly international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the strictly functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed.

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau (; French: [aʁ nuvo]) is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts. It was most popular between 1890 and 1910. A reaction to the academic art of the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, particularly the curved lines of plants and flowers.

English uses the French name Art Nouveau (new art). The style is related to, but not identical with, styles that emerged in many countries in Europe at about the same time: in Austria it is known as Secessionsstil after Wiener Secession; in Spanish Modernismo; in Catalan Modernisme; in Czech Secese; in Danish Skønvirke or Jugendstil; in German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau or Reformstil; in Hungarian Szecesszió; in Italian Art Nouveau, Stile Liberty or Stile floreale; in Latvian Jūgendstils; in Lithuanian Modernas; in Norwegian Jugendstil; in Polish Secesja; in Slovak Secesia; in Ukrainian and Russian Модерн (Modern); in Swedish and Finnish Jugend.

Art Nouveau is a total art style: It embraces a wide range of fine and decorative arts, including architecture, painting, graphic art, interior design, jewelry, furniture, textiles, ceramics, glass art, and metal work.

By 1910, Art Nouveau's influence had faded. It was replaced as the dominant European architectural and decorative style first by Art Deco and then by Modernism.


The avant-garde (; French: [avɑ̃ɡaʁd]; from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society. It may be characterized by nontraditional, aesthetic innovation and initial unacceptability, and it may offer a critique of the relationship between producer and consumer.The avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm or the status quo, primarily in the cultural realm. The avant-garde is considered by some to be a hallmark of modernism, as distinct from postmodernism. Many artists have aligned themselves with the avant-garde movement and still continue to do so, tracing a history from Dada through the Situationists to postmodern artists such as the Language poets around 1981.The avant-garde also promotes radical social reforms. It was this meaning that was evoked by the Saint Simonian Olinde Rodrigues in his essay "L'artiste, le savant et l'industriel" ("The artist, the scientist and the industrialist", 1825), which contains the first recorded use of "avant-garde" in its now customary sense: there, Rodrigues calls on artists to "serve as [the people's] avant-garde", insisting that "the power of the arts is indeed the most immediate and fastest way" to social, political and economic reform.


The Baroque (UK: , US: ) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Rococo (in the past often referred to as "late Baroque") and Neoclassical styles. It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, deep colour, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century.

Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo de Rivera (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈfɾiða ˈkalo]; born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón; 6 July 1907 – 13 July 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico. Inspired by the country's popular culture, she employed a naïve folk art style to explore questions of identity, postcolonialism, gender, class and race in Mexican society. Her paintings often had strong autobiographical elements and mixed realism with fantasy. In addition to belonging to the post-revolutionary Mexicayotl movement, which sought to define a Mexican identity, Kahlo has been described as a surrealist or magical realist.Born to a German father and a mestiza mother, Kahlo spent most of her childhood and adult life at her family home in Coyoacán, La Casa Azul, now known and publicly accessible as the Frida Kahlo Museum. She was disabled by polio as a child. Until a traffic accident at age eighteen caused lifelong pain and medical problems, she had been a promising student headed for medical school. During her recovery, she returned to her childhood hobby of art with the idea of becoming an artist.

Kahlo's interests in politics and art led to the next stage of her life. In 1927, she joined the Mexican Communist Party, through which she met fellow Mexican artist Diego Rivera, whom she married in 1928. Kahlo spent the late 1920s and early 1930s travelling in Mexico and the United States with Rivera. During this time, she developed her artistic style, drew her main inspiration from Mexican folk culture, and painted mostly small self-portraits which mixed elements from pre-Columbian and Catholic mythology. Her paintings raised the interest of Surrealist artist André Breton, who arranged for Kahlo's first solo exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York in 1938. The exhibition was a success and was followed by another in Paris in 1939. While the French exhibition was less successful, the Louvre purchased a painting from Kahlo, The Frame, making her the first Mexican artist to be featured in their collection. Throughout the 1940s, Kahlo participated in exhibitions in Mexico and the United States. She taught at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado "La Esmeralda" and became a founding member of the Seminario de Cultura Mexicana. Kahlo's always fragile health began to decline in the same decade. She had her first solo exhibition in Mexico in 1953, shortly before her death in 1954 at the age of 47.

Kahlo's work as an artist remained relatively unknown until the late 1970's, when her work was rediscovered by art historians and political activists. By the early 1990s, she had become not only a recognized figure in art history, but also regarded as an icon for Chicanos, the feminism movement and the LGBTQ movement. Kahlo's work has been celebrated internationally as emblematic of Mexican national and indigenous traditions and by feminists for what is seen as its uncompromising depiction of the female experience and form.


Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music and impressionist literature.

Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,953,927 visitors to its three locations in 2018, it was the third most visited art museum in the world. Its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Museum Mile in Manhattan's Upper East Side is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art, architecture, and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; it extends the museum's modern and contemporary art program.

The permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt, paintings, and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, and an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes, and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue.


Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy, social organization, activities of daily life, and sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic, social, and political environment of an emerging fully industrialized world. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel, atonal (or pantonal) and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.

A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which often led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, poem, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody.Some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common, especially in the West, are those who see it as a socially progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress, and replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end. Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, and anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) to Samuel Beckett (1906–1989).While some scholars see modernism continuing into the twenty first century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Postmodernism is a departure from modernism and refutes its basic assumptions.

National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was privately established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress. Andrew W. Mellon donated a substantial art collection and funds for construction. The core collection includes major works of art donated by Paul Mellon, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Samuel Henry Kress, Rush Harrison Kress, Peter Arrell Browne Widener, Joseph E. Widener, and Chester Dale. The Gallery's collection of paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculpture, medals, and decorative arts traces the development of Western Art from the Middle Ages to the present, including the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas and the largest mobile created by Alexander Calder.

The Gallery's campus includes the original neoclassical West Building designed by John Russell Pope, which is linked underground to the modern East Building, designed by I. M. Pei, and the 6.1-acre (25,000 m2) Sculpture Garden. The Gallery often presents temporary special exhibitions spanning the world and the history of art. It is one of the largest museums in North America.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (; Spanish: [ˈpaβlo piˈkaso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles.

Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.


Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. The final work is also called a painting.

Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, gesture (as in gestural painting), composition, narration (as in narrative art), or abstraction (as in abstract art). Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic (as in Symbolist art), emotive (as in Expressionism), or political in nature (as in Artivism).

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin.

In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. The support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, pottery, leaf, copper and concrete, and the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, plaster, gold leaf, as well as objects.

Pop art

Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s. The movement presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular and mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. One of its aims is to use images of popular (as opposed to elitist) culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most often through the use of irony. It is also associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, or combined with unrelated material.Among the early artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, and Larry Rivers, Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns among others in the United States. Pop art is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion of those ideas. Due to its utilization of found objects and images, it is similar to Dada. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves.Pop art often takes imagery that is currently in use in advertising. Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell's Soup Cans, by Andy Warhol. Even the labeling on the outside of a shipping box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art, as demonstrated by Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, 1964 (pictured).


Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu). In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.

Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism. The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.


A song is a musical composition intended to be sung by the human voice. This is often done at distinct and fixed pitches using patterns of sound and silence. Songs contain various forms, such as those including the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals.Written words created specifically for music or for which music is specifically created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are often referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs. These songs, which have broad appeal, are often composed by professional songwriters, composers and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for concert or recital performances. Songs are performed live and recorded on audio or video (or, in some cases, a song may be performed live and simultaneously recorded). Songs may also appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, and within operas.

A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is generally not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided into many different forms, depending on the criteria used.


Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself. Its aim was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality".Works of surrealism feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement.

Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.

Sword Art Online

Sword Art Online (Japanese: ソードアート・オンライン, Hepburn: Sōdo Āto Onrain) is a Japanese light novel series written by Reki Kawahara and illustrated by abec. The series takes place in the near future and focuses on protagonist Kazuto "Kirito" Kirigaya and Asuna Yuuki as they play through various virtual reality MMORPG worlds. Kawahara originally wrote the series as a web novel on his website from 2002 to 2008. The light novels began publication on ASCII Media Works' Dengeki Bunko imprint from April 10, 2009, with a spin-off series launching in October 2012. The series has spawned eight manga adaptations published by ASCII Media Works and Kadokawa. The novels and four of the manga adaptations have been licensed for release in North America by Yen Press.

An anime television series produced by A-1 Pictures, known simply as Sword Art Online, aired in Japan between July and December 2012, with a television film Sword Art Online: Extra Edition airing on December 31, 2013, and a second season, titled Sword Art Online II, airing between July and December 2014. An animated film titled Sword Art Online The Movie: Ordinal Scale featuring an original story by Kawahara premiered in Japan and Southeast Asia on February 18, 2017, and was released in the United States on March 9, 2017. A spin-off anime series titled Sword Art Online Alternative Gun Gale Online premiered in April 2018, while a third season titled Sword Art Online: Alicization premiered in October 2018. A live-action series will be produced by Netflix. Six video games based on the series have been released for multiple consoles.

Sword Art Online has received widespread commercial success, with the light novels having over 20 million copies sold worldwide. The anime series has received mixed to positive reviews, with praise for its animation, musical score and exploration of the psychological aspects of virtual reality, but criticisms for its pacing and writing.

Visual arts

The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts, and architecture. Many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied or decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' had for some centuries often been restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the decorative arts, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts.

The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes.

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