|Full name||Arrows Grand Prix International|
|Base||Milton Keynes, United Kingdom|
Leafield, United Kingdom
|Noted staff||Tom Walkinshaw|
|Noted drivers|| Riccardo Patrese|
|Formula One World Championship career|
|First entry||1978 Brazilian Grand Prix|
|Races entered||394 entries (382 starts)|
|Race victories||0 (Best finish: five 2nd places, last one at 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix)|
|Final entry||2002 German Grand Prix|
The Arrows Grand Prix International team was founded in Milton Keynes, England in 1977, by Italian businessman Franco Ambrosio, Alan Rees, Jackie Oliver, Dave Wass and Tony Southgate (the team deriving its name from the initials of their surnames A-R-O-W-S) when they left the Shadow team.
Arrows initially ran a copy of the Shadow DN9, with the initials of the team's first sponsor, Franco Ambrosio, used in naming the car, the Arrows FA1. However, Ambrosio left the team in early 1978 when jailed in Italy for financial irregularities and main sponsor became Warsteiner. Shadow sued for copyright infringement, and the London High Courts ruled that the FA1 was a direct copy of the Shadow DN9. Arrows knew that they would lose the case and designed a brand new car, the Arrows A1, in 52 days. It was shown the day after the High Court of Justice in London upheld Shadow's claim and banned the team from racing the FA1.
For the team's first season Gunnar Nilsson and Riccardo Patrese were signed as drivers. Ill health prevented Nilsson from driving for the team and he was replaced by Rolf Stommelen for the team's second race, the South African Grand Prix. Nilsson died of cancer later in 1978.
Patrese scored points in the team's third race, the US West Grand Prix at Long Beach. In September 1978, in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, Patrese was involved in an accident which eventually claimed the life of Ronnie Peterson. Patrese was wrongly accused of causing the accident and then subsequently banned from racing at the following event (the United States Grand Prix) by his fellow drivers.
The 1979 Monaco GP could have been the highlight of Arrows' early years, when Jochen Mass' Arrows A1 moved into third place during the race and looked to be closing in on the leaders. However, brake issues dropped him down to sixth position by the chequered flag.
In 1981, Patrese scored the team's only Formula One pole position in Long Beach, which he led until retiring with mechanical problems on lap 33 of 80. Arrows finished joint eighth in the Constructors' Championship that year.
In 1984 with BMW M12 turbo engines and sponsorship from cigarette brand Barclay things got much better. That year they were ninth in the Constructors' Championship and eighth in 1985. At the 1985 San Marino Grand Prix, Thierry Boutsen finished third behind Alain Prost and Elio de Angelis. However, after the race, Prost was disqualified because his car was 2 kg underweight, giving Boutsen the second place. In 1987, BMW pulled out of Formula One and the engines were badged Megatron through a deal with Arrows major sponsor USF&G, but the British team had their best seasons yet, finishing sixth in 1987 and fifth in 1988 (the final year for turbocharged engines) thanks to frequent points finishes by drivers Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick.
While 1987 and 1988 were Arrows' best years in F1, they were also the cause of frustration for the team and its drivers Warwick and Cheever. At the start of 1987 the sports ruling body (FIA) mandated that all turbo powered cars were to use a pop-off valve in order to restrict turbo boost. This was done not only to slow the cars down for safety reasons, but it was an effort to curb the rapidly rising costs of Formula One. The problem for Arrows was that the valve would regularly cut in lower than the set limit (4.0 bar in 1987, 2.5 bar in 1988). This meant that the Megatron engines were not producing their full power. It took the team's chief mechanic Heini Mader until just before the 1988 Italian Grand Prix at Monza (Round 12) to find the solution, which was simply moving the valve closer to the engine, something Honda and Ferrari engineers had long before discovered. Although Cheever and Warwick finished the race in 3rd and 4th respectively, it was too little too late as the turbo era ended after the 1988 season.
Warwick and Cheever stayed with the team for 1989 and drove the Ross Brawn designed Arrows A11, which was powered by the Ford DFR V8 engine. The team's best finish came at the United States Grand Prix in Cheever's home town of Phoenix. There, the American scored his final podium finish by finishing third. Ultimately, however, Cheever struggled in the A11 (which had to be specially modified early in the season so the tall American could fit in the car) and he actually failed to qualify at the British and Italian Grands Prix. Warwick's perennial bad luck also continued: a long pit stop during the opening race in Brazil cost him what many believed would have been his first win, while at Round 6 in the wet Canadian Grand Prix, Warwick briefly led, and was in second place when his Ford V8 blew. He had been regularly faster than those behind him (including eventual winner Thierry Boutsen, who drove a Williams-Renault), and could have won when race leader Ayrton Senna blew the Honda engine in his McLaren with only two laps remaining. After finishing fifth in 1988, Arrows dropped to seventh in 1989.
Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi invested in Arrows in 1990 and the cars started displaying the Footwork logo prominently. The team was officially renamed Footwork in 1991, and secured a deal to race with Porsche engines, but the car was woefully noncompetitive and in 1992 they switched to a Ford V8, and then to Mugen engines. Arrows retained the Footwork name until Ito pulled out before the 1996 season, whereupon the name of the team was changed back to Arrows. Jackie Oliver had retained control throughout the entire period.
In March 1996, Tom Walkinshaw bought the team, and in September Walkinshaw signed up World Champion Damon Hill and hired wealthy Brazilian Pedro Diniz to help pay for Hill's salary. The team nearly secured a maiden victory at the 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix, where Hill started in third position and passed Michael Schumacher to take first place. A component failure in the final laps of the race saw him finish second. In the following years Walkinshaw bought the rest of Oliver's shares.
As Hill left Arrows after 1997 season to race for Jordan, the team contracted Finnish driver Mika Salo to partner Diniz for the 1998 F1 season. The 1998 season marked a new era for Arrows, as the team decided to make its own engines and a V10 Arrows T2-F1 was made to power the cars for the team. It proved to be a difficult season, although both cars finished a respectable fourth and sixth at the eventful 1998 Monaco GP, and Diniz went on to score a single fifth place finish at the wet Belgian race. Arrows ended up finishing seventh in the Constructors' Championship, with a total of six points.
At the start of the 1999 Formula One season Malik Ado Ibrahim bought a 25% shareholding in the team, and his T-Minus brand appeared on the cars for most of the year. However, he too could not provide sufficient funding. The idea behind the T-Minus brand was that companies and corporations would purchase the rights to use the name and they would be permitted to use the brand to promote their products. Malik stated that he had intentions to use the brand in conjunction with Lamborghini but a deal never pulled through. An Arrows employee at the time stated 'The T-Minus brand has brought in absolutely no money over the year' and that 'It was simply a dream in the Prince's head and nothing materialised.' The driver lineup also changed when the team brought in rookie Pedro de la Rosa and 1998 Tyrrell driver Toranosuke Takagi.
In the 2000 season, Jos Verstappen returned to Arrows, where he had driven in 1996 alongside teammate Pedro de la Rosa. The chassis was an Arrows A21 with a Supertec (rebadged Renault) engine. The Supertec engine was not the most powerful, but was still very good, and had been developed further for the season. Allied to an excellent aerodynamic package and good rear end stability, it allowed the Arrows A21 to set the best straight line speeds consistently around the circuits. Generally, both Verstappen and de la Rosa were competitive within a close midfield. During the 2000 season, the Arrows team took part in a thirteen-part TV series named 'Racing Arrows', which followed the team and drivers throughout the year. It was shown on British TV channel ITV in 2001 during late-night slots.
A switch to Asiatech (rebadged Peugeot) V10s in 2001 and the loss of a lot of staff left the team significantly weaker in 2001 when Tom Walkinshaw decided to replace de la Rosa with F1 debutant Enrique Bernoldi. The team struggled through the season and Verstappen scored the team's only point in Austria.
For 2002, Walkinshaw made a deal to use Cosworth V10 engines and retained Bernoldi (with support from Red Bull) but dropped Verstappen in favour of Heinz-Harald Frentzen, who became available when Prost Grand Prix closed down. This caused Verstappen successfully to sue for breach of contract. That year also saw a costly payout to Pedro Diniz after unsuccessfully suing the Brazilian, who had taken his funding to Sauber for 1999. The team faced a third litigation from Frentzen, who was contracted on a race-by-race basis and who had not yet been paid. Arrows ran out of money in the mid-season and did not appear at all the races at the end of the year, their drivers deliberately failing to qualify for the French Grand Prix.
Negotiations were undertaken throughout the season with potential investors to buy into the team or buy it outright, such as Craig Pollock (who twice made an offer for the team) and Dietrich Mateschitz.
A consortium fronted by Phoenix Finance – run by Charles Nickerson, a friend of Walkinshaw – purchased part of the team's assets, specifically the engines, believing that together with their purchase of old Prost Grand Prix assets, it would gain them entrance for the 2003 season. However, their application was rejected by the FIA.
In their chequered history, Arrows set the unenviable record of 382 races without a win, although they collected nine podium finishes, including five second places.
All the Arrows A23 chassis and the full Arrows Grand Prix International intellectual property rights were bought by the Minardi team, including the initial concept and drawings of the Arrows A24. The Arrows A23 was renamed the Minardi PS04 and in back-to-back tests it was found superior to the Minardi's PS03. Minardi however decided that they could not run a "pure-Arrows" and hence use the Arrows intellectual property to take the best from the PS03, PS04 / Arrows A23 and Arrows A24 design concepts to develop the Minardi PS04B for the 2004 season. For following season the PS04B is developed into the PS05.
In 2005 the Arrows Grand Prix International bloodline continued through into Toro Rosso when Minardi sold the combined Minardi and Arrows Grand Prix International intellectual property rights, as well as the Minardi PS05 cars to Red Bull.
Also in 2005, the newly formed Super Aguri F1 team took over the ex-Arrows Grand Prix International based at Leafield in Oxfordshire and bought three unmodified Arrows A23's from Minardi, as well as some of the Arrows Grand Prix International intellectual property rights. The 2002 Arrows A23's were run (with minor modifications) as the Super Aguri SA05 during the first races of the 2006 season. An update of the 2002 Arrows chassis was designated the SA06 and made its debut at the 2006 German Grand Prix.
In late 2008 when Super Aguri folded, Formtech Composites purchased the intellectual property rights held by Super Aguri and took over the ex-Arrows Grand Prix International based at Leafield. Today Formtech Composites engineer composite components for the automotive, motorsport, military and aerospace industries.
|1978||Warsteiner Arrows Racing Team||FA1
|Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8||G|| Riccardo Patrese
|1979||Warsteiner Arrows Racing Team||A1
|Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8||G|| Riccardo Patrese
|1980||Warsteiner Arrows Racing Team||A3||Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8||G|| Riccardo Patrese
|1981||Ragno Arrows Beta Racing Team||A3||Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8||M
| Riccardo Patrese
Jacques Villeneuve Sr.
|1982||Arrows Racing Team||A4
|Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8||P|| Brian Henton
|1983||Arrows Racing Team||A6||Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8||G|| Marc Surer
|1984||Barclay Nordica Arrows||A6
|Ford-Cosworth DFV 3.0 V8
BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t
|G|| Thierry Boutsen
|1985||Barclay Arrows BMW||A8||BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t||G|| Gerhard Berger
|1986||Barclay Arrows BMW||A8
|BMW M12/13 1.5 L4t||G|| Marc Surer
|1987||USF&G Arrows Megatron||A10||Megatron M12/13 1.5 L4t||G|| Derek Warwick
|1988||USF&G Arrows Megatron||A10B||Megatron M12/13 1.5 L4t||G|| Derek Warwick
|1989||Arrows Grand Prix International||A11||Ford-Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8||G|| Derek Warwick
|1990||Footwork Arrows Racing||A11
|Ford-Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8||G|| Michele Alboreto
|1991||Footwork Grand Prix International||A11C
|Porsche 3512 3.5 V12
Ford-Cosworth DFR 3.5 V8
|G|| Alex Caffi
|1992||Footwork Mugen Honda||FA13||Mugen-Honda MF-351H 3.5 V10||G|| Michele Alboreto
|1993||Footwork Mugen Honda||FA13B
|Mugen-Honda MF-351HB 3.5 V10||G|| Derek Warwick
|1994||Footwork Ford||FA15||Ford HBE7/8 3.5 V8||G|| Christian Fittipaldi
|1995||Footwork Hart||FA16||Hart 830 3.0 V8||G|| Gianni Morbidelli
|1996||Footwork Hart||FA17||Hart 830 3.0 V8||G|| Ricardo Rosset
|1997||Danka Arrows Yamaha||A18||Yamaha OX11A 3.0 V10||B|| Damon Hill
|1998||Danka Zepter Arrows||A19||Arrows T2-F1 3.0 V10||B|| Pedro Diniz
|1999||Repsol Arrows||A20||Arrows T2-F1 3.0 V10||B|| Pedro de la Rosa
|2000||Arrows F1 Team||A21||Supertec FB02 3.0 V10||B|| Pedro de la Rosa
|2001||Orange Arrows Asiatech||A22||Asiatech 001 3.0 V10||B|| Jos Verstappen
|2002||Orange Arrows||A23||Cosworth CR-3 3.0 V10||B|| Heinz-Harald Frentzen
The Arrows A1 was the car with which Arrows Grand Prix International competed in the 1978 and 1979 Formula One seasons. It replaced the Arrows FA1, which was banned by the London High Court on 31 July 1978 after a legal protest from the Shadow team on the grounds that it was a carbon-copy of the Shadow DN9. Arrows anticipated that they would lose against Shadow and designed and built the A1 in under 60 days whilst the court case was being heard. Hence Arrows were able to present the Arrows A1 to the press just three days after the court case ended and did not miss any races.Given that the FA1 was a carbon-copy of the Shadows DN9, the Arrows A1 is the essentially first true F1 car designed and built by Arrows Grand Prix International.
The Arrows A1 was one of the very first "ground effects" Formula 1 cars and despite being rushing into service without any testing or development after the FA1 was banned, the Arrows A1 proved competitive. Ricardo Patrese finished 4th in the 1978 Canadian GP. A number of further 4th and 5th places followed in 1979 and that year's Monaco GP could have been the Arrows A1 crowning-glory, with Jochen Mass running as high as third in the race (after qualifying eighth) before brake issues dropped him down to sixth at the chequered flag.
In total six Arrows A1 were built, chassis numbers A1-01 to A1-06.
The first three cars (chassis A1-01, A1-02 and A1-03) were used in 1978 and were all built to the same "initial" 1978 specification. For the first race of 1979 (the Argentine GP) three cars (in effect two race-ready cars and a spare monocoque) had been prepared to an updated specification, known as A1-B specification. The two race cars were chassis A1-03 (which had been updated) and the new chassis A1-05, whilst the spare monocoque was new chassis A1-04. During the Argentine GP warm-up A1-05 was crashed and this chassis was subsequently rebuilt to a further improved A1-C specification alongside the final Arrows A1 chassis built, A1-06. Both A1-05 and A1-06 debuted at the 1979 South African GP and were used by Ricardo Patrese (A1-06) and Jochen Mass (A1-05) till the radical, but unsuccessful, Arrows A2 was introduced. In fact, even after the Arrows A2 had been introduced, Ricardo Patrese chose at times to practice in and race the older Arrows A1 believing it to be a superior car, with more predictable handling.
The A1-B update included stiffening the monocoque and revising the "ground-effects" side-pods. The A1-C update included a new rear wing with a single central support, improved rear-suspension geometry and totally re-designed "ground-effects" side-pods which were more swept-up towards the rear tyre.
As the updated A1-C specification cars (A1-05 and A1-06) were introduced, three older specification Arrows A1's (A1-02, A1-03 and A1-04) were sold to Charles Clowes Racing and A1-01 was put on display in a museum. Charles Clowes Racing competed in the 1979 and 1980 Aurora AFX British Formula One Championships with his three A1's. Rupert Keegan won the championship in 1979 in a Clowes-run Arrows A1 and Guy Edwards finished a very close 3rd in the 1980 season in one of Clowes' Arrows A1 behind two Williams FW07's.Arrows A11
The Arrows A11 was a Formula One car with which the Arrows team competed in the 1989 and 1990 Formula One seasons, and at the start of the 1991 season (badged as a Footwork).
Designed by Ross Brawn, the A11 was the first Arrows car following the ban on turbocharged engines at the end of 1988, being fitted with a normally-aspirated 3.5-litre Ford Cosworth DFR V8 engine. It was raced to reasonably good effect by Derek Warwick and Eddie Cheever in 1989, Warwick finishing in the top six on five occasions and briefly challenging for victory in the Canadian Grand Prix, and Cheever finishing third in the United States Grand Prix, held in his home town of Phoenix, Arizona. With 13 points, Arrows placed seventh in the Constructors' Championship.
For 1990, the car received minor suspension upgrades and became the A11B, while Italian drivers Michele Alboreto and Alex Caffi replaced Warwick and Cheever. 1990 turned out to be far less successful than 1989, however, as the car failed to qualify seven times, and finished in the top six only once, when Caffi took fifth at an attritional race in Monaco. Caffi was also forced to sit out the United States and Spanish races through injury, Germany's Bernd Schneider deputising on both occasions. The two points from Monaco gave Arrows ninth in the Constructors' Championship.
By the start of 1991, the team had been taken over by the Japanese Footwork concern and renamed accordingly, and had also secured a deal to run Porsche V12 engines, replacing the Fords. However, the team's car for that season, the FA12, had to be redesigned when it was discovered that the large Porsche engine, the 3512, could not fit into it. The team therefore modified the A11B into the A11C to accommodate this engine, and used it in the first two races, as well as at San Marino after Alboreto destroyed his redesigned FA12 during practice. From these five attempts, the ageing car qualified only once (Alboreto in the United States), before being finally retired.Arrows FA1
The Arrows FA1 was a Formula One car used by the Arrows Grand Prix International team during the first half of the 1978 Formula One season.
The FA1 was in reality a Shadow DN9, which Tony Southgate had designed for Shadow whilst working as a consultant for them. Southgate mistakenly believed that because he had designed the Shadow DN9 whilst working as a consultant (and not a Shadow employee) that he owned the intellectual rights to the Shadow DN9 design. Based on this misconception Arrows went ahead and built the FA1, which was essentially a carbon copy of the DN9.
The FA1 was banned by the London High Courts partway through the 1978 season after a legal protest from the Shadow team, on the grounds was a blatant copy of the DN9. The judgement handed down ruled that over 70% of the FA1 was identical to the DN9 and that all four Arrows FA1's should be broken up by Arrows and their parts handed over to the Shadow team.
Knowing it would lose the case, Arrows hurriedly designed and built a new car, the A1, whilst the court case was being heard and did not miss a race.
Given that the FA1 is essentially a Shadow DN9 it cannot really be seen as the first Arrows F1 car. Instead its successor, the Arrows A1, which was the first car designed in-house by Arrows is the start of the Arrows F1 bloodline.Arrows Grand Prix results
These are the complete Grand Prix racing results for Arrows Grand Prix International, also including Footwork Arrows.Harry Nuttall (racing driver)
Sir Harry Nuttall, Bt (born 2 January 1963) is a Sports marketing entrepreneur providing commercial consultancy advising agencies, brands and rights holders. 25 years’ experience in the motorsport space, from grass roots to Formula One. Currently senior advisor to Mercedes AMG Petronas Formula One Team.Martin Donnelly (racing driver)
Hugh Peter Martin Donnelly (born 26 March 1964) is a motor racing driver from Belfast, Northern Ireland. He competed in Formula Three and Formula 3000 where he won 3 races. In the 1988 International Formula 3000 season he placed third despite only competing in the final five rounds of the championship. He raced in Formula One in 1989 and 1990, until a serious crash during qualifying at the Jerez circuit ended his Formula One career.Minardi PS04B
The Minardi PS04B was a Formula One race car used by Minardi Cosworth in the 2004 Formula One season.
In 2003 all of the Arrows A23 chassis and the full Arrows Grand Prix International intellectual property rights were bought by Minardi. The Arrows A23 was renamed the Minardi PS04 and in back-to-back tests it was found superior to the Minardi's PS03. Minardi however decide that they could not run a "pure-Arrows" and hence used the Arrows intellectual property, which included the new designs for the Arrows A24 and the best elements from the PS03 and PS04 / Arrows A23 to develop the Minardi PS04B for the 2004 season.Period reports even hinted that the PS04B was possibly based more closely on the Arrows A24 than Minardi might have been prepared to publicly admit.For following season the PS04B was developed into the PS05.
The PS04B was driven by rookie Gianmaria Bruni, and Zsolt Baumgartner who had moved from Jordan. The team managed to earn their first point in two years, after Baumgartner finished 8th (albeit last) at the United States Grand Prix.
In 2005, Minardi used a PS04B chassis for the first three races of the season before they made a new PS05 chassis due to assembly problems.Pedro de la Rosa
Pedro Martínez de la Rosa (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ðe la ˈrosa]; born 24 February 1971) is a Spanish former Formula One driver who has participated in 107 Grands Prix for the Arrows, Jaguar, McLaren, Sauber and HRT F1 teams, debuting on 7 March 1999, becoming one of very few drivers to score a point at his first race. He has scored a total of 35 championship points, which includes a podium finish at the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix.
On 21 November 2011, De la Rosa signed a two-year contract to drive for the HRT F1 team, but he only remained with the team for one season, after HRT withdrew from the 2013 team list, leaving him without a drive for the 2013 season. On 16 January 2013, De la Rosa was announced as the Ferrari development driver for the 2013 Formula One season. De la Rosa, along with Michael Schumacher was the last F1 driver that had raced in the sport in the 1990s.Tom Walkinshaw
Tom Walkinshaw (14 August 1946 – 12 December 2010) was a British racing car driver and the founder of the racing team Tom Walkinshaw Racing (TWR). He was also involved in professional rugby union, as owner of Gloucester Rugby, and chairman of the team owners organisation for the Aviva Premiership.Tom Walkinshaw Racing
Tom Walkinshaw Racing (TWR) was a motor racing team and engineering firm founded in 1976, in Kidlington, near Oxford, England by touring car racer Tom Walkinshaw.
The company initially handled privateer work before entering works touring car racers for manufacturers such as Mazda and Rover. However, TWR became most closely associated with Jaguar, a relationship which started in 1982 with the successful entry of the Jaguar XJS into the European Touring Car Championship, chalking up a number of wins that year. The relationship continued and by 1988, TWR-Jaguar had taken its first Le Mans victory in a V12-powered XJR-9. Further success followed with a Le Mans win in 1990.
TWR and Jaguar formed JaguarSport initially to build tuned versions of Jaguar road-cars, culminating in the production of the XJ220 and XJR-15 supercars at a new facility at Bloxham. With Jaguar falling under Ford's control in 1989, the TWR relationship declined and by 1994, JaguarSport had been liquidated, with the Bloxham factory being turned over to production of Aston Martins (also under Ford control).
TWR nonetheless continued to achieve racing success with other manufacturers, notably winning Le Mans again in 1996 and 1997 in a Porsche-powered WSC-95. However, it was the costs resulting from the purchase of the Formula 1 team Arrows in 1996 that led to the demise of TWR in 2002.
The UK assets and facility were bought by Menard Competition Technologies. The facilities were used as Arrows Grand Prix International, Super Aguri and Caterham F1 teams headquarters. The Australian part of the business was sold to Holden.USF
USF may refer to:
UniversitiesUniversity of San Francisco, California
University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
University of St. Francis, Joliet, Illinois
University of Sioux Falls, South DakotaLocationsUniversal Studios Florida, a theme park in Orlando, FloridaFile formatsUniversal Subtitle Format
Nintendo Ultra 64 Sound FormatOther usesUniversal Service Fund, a United States government program
Upstream stimulatory factor, DNA-binding proteins regulating gene expression, see USF1 and USF2
|Arrows Grand Prix International|
Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.
Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in the Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.