Arrondissement

An arrondissement (/əˈrɒndɪsmənt/; French: [aʁɔ̃dismɑ̃]) is any of various administrative divisions of France,[1] Belgium,[2] Haiti,[3] certain other Francophone countries, and the Netherlands.

Europe

France

The 101 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements,[4] which may be roughly translated into English as districts. The capital of an arrondissement is called a subprefecture. When an arrondissement contains the prefecture (capital) of the department, that prefecture is the capital of the arrondissement, acting both as a prefecture and as a subprefecture. Arrondissements are further divided into cantons and communes.

Municipal arrondissement

A municipal arrondissement (French: arrondissement municipal, pronounced [aʁɔ̃dismɑ̃ mynisipal]), is a subdivision of the commune, used in the three largest cities: Paris, Lyon, and Marseille. It functions as an even lower administrative division, with its own mayor. Although usually referred to simply as an "arrondissement," they should not be confused with departmental arrondissements, which are groupings of communes within one département. The official translation into English is "district".

Belgium

Belgium is a federalized country which geographically consists of three regions, of which only Flanders (Flemish Region) and Wallonia (Walloon Region) are subdivided into five provinces each; the Brussels-Capital Region is neither a province nor is it part of one.

In Belgium, there are administrative, judicial and electoral arrondissements. These may or may not relate to identical geographical areas.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands an arrondissement is a judicial jurisdiction, comprising a number of communes.

Switzerland

Subdivisions of the canton of Bern include districts since 2010, which are called arrondissements administratifs in French.

Post-Soviet states

In some post-Soviet states, there are cities that are divided into municipal raioni similarly to how some French cities are divided into municipal arrondissements (see e.g. Raions of cities in Ukraine, Municipal divisions of Russia, Administrative divisions of Minsk).

Francophone Africa

Most nations in Africa who have been colonised by the French have retained the arrondissement administrative structure. These are normally subunits of a Department, and may either contain or be coequal with Communes (towns). In Mali the arrondissement is a subunit of a Cercle, while in some places arrondissements are essentially subdistricts of large cities.

  • Each of Senegal's departments is subdivided into arrondissements. Dakar is further subdivided into arrondissements; see Arrondissements of Senegal.
  • Between 1962 and 2002, each of Niger's departments was subdivided into arrondissements; see Arrondissements of Niger: Since 2002 they have been renamed Departments (with the former Departments renamed Regions).
  • Each of Mali's Cercles is subdivided into arrondissements; see Cercles of Mali for maps of arrondissements by Cercle.
  • Each of Benin's departments is subdivided into communes, which are in turn subdivided into arrondissements: they sit above villages in Benin's structure; see Communes of Benin for maps of communes by Department.
  • Each of Cameroon's departments is subdivided into arrondissements: they sit above subdistricts and communes in Cameroon's structure; see Departments of Cameroon for maps of arrondissements by Department.
  • Since 2002, Chad retains arrondissements only in the city of N'Djamena, which is divided into 10 municipal arrondissements.
  • Djibouti retains arrondissements only in the city of Djibouti City, which is divided into six arrondissements.
  • Morocco's Cercles are subdivided into communes rurales, municipalities, communes urbaines, and arrondissements, depending on the classification of the community.
  • The Republic of the Congo, retains arrondissements only in the city of Brazzaville, which is divided into seven arrondissements. See Administrative divisions of the Republic of the Congo.

North America

Haiti

As of 2015, each of Haiti's ten departments was sub-divided into 42 arrondissements.[3]

Quebec

In the Canadian province of Quebec, eight cities are divided into arrondissements, known as boroughs in English. In Quebec, boroughs are provincially organized and recognized sub-municipal entities that have mayors and councillors.

References

  1. ^ "Arrondissment". Merriam-Webster.
  2. ^ a b "Belgium Arrondissements (as of 2010)". Statoids.
  3. ^ a b "Mars 2015 Population Totale, Population de 18 ans et Plus Menages et Densites Estimes en 2015" (PDF). Institut Haïtien de Statistique et d’Informatique (IHSI). Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Circonscriptions administratives au 1er janvier 2015 : comparaisons régionales" [Administrative constituencies of 1 January 2015: regional comparisons] (in French). INSEE. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2015.

External links

14th arrondissement of Paris

The 14th arrondissement of Paris (XIVe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as quatorzième.

The arrondissement, called Observatoire, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It contains most of the Montparnasse district. It is today best known for its skyscraper, the Tour Montparnasse, and its major railway terminus, the Gare Montparnasse, both located in the neighboring 15th arrondissement. The district has traditionally been home to many artists as well as a Breton community, arrived at the beginning of the 20th century upon the creation of the Montparnasse railway terminus.

Universities located in the 14th arrondissement also include the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris, which is located near the Parc Montsouris, the Stade Charléty and the catacombs; and the Paris School of Economics.

15th arrondissement of Paris

The 15th arrondissement of Paris (XVe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as quinzième.

The arrondissement, called Vaugirard, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. Sharing the Montparnasse district with the 6th and 14th arrondissements, it is the city's most populous arrondissement. The Tour Montparnasse – the tallest skyscraper in Paris – and the neighbouring Gare Montparnasse are both located in the 15th arrondissement, at its border with the 14th. It is also home to the convention center Paris expo Porte de Versailles and the high-rise district of the Front de Seine (or Beaugrenelle). In 2020, the 180 meters high Tour Triangle will house a 120-room hotel and 70,000 square metres of office space.

16th arrondissement of Paris

The 16th arrondissement of Paris (XVIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as seizième.

The arrondissement includes part of the Arc de Triomphe, and a concentration of museums between the Place du Trocadéro and the Place d'Iéna, complemented in 2014 by the Fondation Louis Vuitton.With its ornate 19th-century buildings, large avenues, prestigious schools, museums, and various parks, the arrondissement has long been known as one of French high society's favourite places of residence (comparable to London's Kensington and Chelsea or Berlin's Charlottenburg) to such an extent that the phrase le 16e (French pronunciation: ​[lə sɛzjɛm]) has been associated with great wealth in French popular culture. Indeed, the 16th arrondissement of Paris is France's third richest district for average household income, following the 7th, and Neuilly-sur-Seine, both adjacent.The 16th arrondissement hosts several large sporting venues, including: the Parc des Princes, which is the stadium where Paris Saint-Germain football club plays its home matches; Roland Garros Stadium, where the French Open tennis championships are held; and Stade Jean-Bouin, home to the Stade Français rugby union club. The Bois de Boulogne, the second-largest public park in Paris (behind only the Bois de Vincennes), is also located in this arrondissement.

17th arrondissement of Paris

The 17th arrondissement of Paris (XVIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dix-septième.

The arrondissement, known as Batignolles-Monceau, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine.

18th arrondissement of Paris

The 18th arrondissement of Paris (XVIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dix-huitième.

The arrondissement, known as Butte-Montmartre, is located on the right bank of the River Seine. It is mostly known for hosting the district of Montmartre which contains a hill known for its artistic history, the Bateau-Lavoir where Pablo Picasso, George Braque, and Amedeo Modigliani lived and worked in early 20th century, the house of music diva Dalida, the Moulin Rouge cabaret, other historic features, and the prominent Sacré Cœur basilica which sits atop the hill.

The 18th arrondissement also contains the North African and African district of Goutte d'Or which is famous for its market, the marché Barbès, where one can find various products from the African continent.

4th arrondissement of Paris

The 4th arrondissement of Paris (IVe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as quatrième.

The arrondissement, also known as Hôtel-de-Ville, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine.

The 4th arrondissement contains the Renaissance-era Paris City Hall, rebuilt between 1874 and 1882. It also contains the Renaissance square of Place des Vosges, the overtly modern Pompidou Centre, and the lively southern part of the medieval district of Le Marais, which today is known for being the gay district of Paris. (The more quiet northern part of Le Marais is within the 3rd arrondissement). The eastern parts of the Île de la Cité (including Notre-Dame de Paris) as well as the Île Saint-Louis are also included within the 4th arrondissement.

The 4th arrondissement is known for its little streets, cafés, and shops but is often regarded by Parisians as expensive and congested. It is desirable for those wanting old buildings and a mix of many cultures.

5th arrondissement of Paris

The 5th arrondissement of Paris (Ve arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as cinquième.

The arrondissement, also known as Panthéon, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It is one of the central arrondissements of the capital. The arrondissement is notable for being the location of the Quartier Latin, a district dominated by universities, colleges, and prestigious high schools since the 12th century when the Sorbonne University was created.The 5th arrondissement is also one of the oldest districts of the city, dating back to ancient times. Traces of the area's past survive in such sites as the Arènes de Lutèce, a Roman amphitheatre, and the Thermes de Cluny, a Roman thermae.

6th arrondissement of Paris

The 6th arrondissement of Paris (VIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as sixième.

The arrondissement, called Luxembourg, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It includes world-famous educational institutions such as the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris's most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts, and the Jardin du Luxembourg.

This central arrondissement, which includes the historic districts of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (surrounding the Abbey founded in the 6th century) and Luxembourg (surrounding the Palace and its Gardens), has played a major role throughout Paris history and is well known for its café culture and the revolutionary intellectualism (see: existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir) and literature (see: Paul Éluard, Boris Vian, Albert Camus, Françoise Sagan) it has hosted.

With its world-famous cityscape, deeply rooted intellectual tradition, prestigious history, beautiful architecture, and central location, the arrondissement has long been home to French intelligentsia. It is a major locale for art galleries, fashion stores and one of the most fashionable districts of Paris as well as Paris' most expensive area. The arrondissement is one of France's richest district in terms of average income, it is part of Paris Ouest alongside the 7th, 8th, 16th arrondissements, and Neuilly, but has a much more bohemian and intellectual reputation than the others.

7th arrondissement of Paris

The 7th arrondissement of Paris (VIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as septième.

The arrondissement, called Palais-Bourbon, includes some of the major and well-known tourist attractions of Paris, such as the Eiffel Tower, the Hôtel des Invalides (Napoleon's resting place), the Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal, and a concentration of such world-famous museums as the Musée d'Orsay, Musée Rodin, and the Musée du quai Branly.

Situated on the Rive Gauche—the "Left" bank of the River Seine—this central arrondissement, which includes the historical aristocratic neighbourhood of Faubourg Saint-Germain, contains a number of French national institutions, among them the French National Assembly and numerous government ministries. It is also home to many foreign diplomatic embassies, some of them occupying outstanding Hôtels particuliers.

The arrondissement has been home to the French upper class since the 17th century, when it became the new residence of French highest nobility. The district has been so fashionable within the French aristocracy that the phrase le Faubourg—referring to the ancient name of the current 7th arrondissement—has been used to describe French nobility ever since. The 7th arrondissement of Paris and Neuilly-sur-Seine form the most affluent and prestigious residential area in France.

8th arrondissement of Paris

The 8th arrondissement of Paris (VIIIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is colloquially referred to as huitième (eighth/the eighth).

The arrondissement, called Élysée, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine and centred on the Champs-Élysées. The 8th is, together with the 1st, 9th, 16th, and 17th arrondissements, one of Paris's main business districts. According to the 1999 census, it was the place of employment of more people than any other single arrondissement of the capital. It is also the location of many places of interest, among them the Champs-Élysées, the Arc de Triomphe (partial), and the Place de la Concorde, as well as the Élysée Palace, the official residence of the President of France. Most French fashion luxury brands have their main store in 8th arrondissement, Avenue Montaigne or Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, both in the Champs-Elysees Avenue shopping district.

9th arrondissement of Paris

The 9th arrondissement of Paris (IXe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.

The arrondissement, called Opéra, is located on the right bank of the River Seine. It contains many places of cultural, historical, and architectural interest, including the Palais Garnier, home to the Paris Opera, Boulevard Haussmann, and its large department stores Galeries Lafayette and Printemps. The arrondissement has many theaters including Folies Bergères, Théatre Mogador and Théatre de Paris. Along with the 2nd and 8th arrondissements, it hosts one of the business centers of Paris, located around the Opéra.

Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (French pronunciation: [aʁk də tʁijɔ̃f də letwal] (listen); literal translation: "Triumphal Arch of the Star") is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, France, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the centre of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between three arrondissements, 16th (south and west), 17th (north) and 8th (east). The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I.

As the central cohesive element of the Axe historique (historic axis, a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route running from the courtyard of the Louvre to the Grande Arche de la Défense), the Arc de Triomphe was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, and its iconographic program pits heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail. It set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome, Italy, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of 50 metres (164 ft), width of 45 m (148 ft) and depth of 22 m (72 ft), while its large vault is 29.19 m (95.8 ft) high and 14.62 m (48.0 ft) wide. The smaller transverse vaults are 18.68 m (61.3 ft) high and 8.44 m (27.7 ft) wide. Three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919 (marking the end of hostilities in World War I), Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel.Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, which is 67 metres (220 ft) high. The Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is slightly taller at 60 m (197 ft). La Grande Arche in La Defense near Paris is 110 metres high. Although it is not named an Arc de Triomphe, it has been designed on the same model and in the perspective of the Arc de Triomphe. It qualifies as the world's tallest arch.

Arrondissements of France

An arrondissement (French pronunciation: ​[aʁɔ̃dismɑ̃]) is a level of administrative division in France generally corresponding to the territory overseen by a subprefect. As of 2018, the 101 French departments were divided into 332 arrondissements (including 12 overseas).The capital of an arrondissement is called a subprefecture. When an arrondissement contains the prefecture (capital) of the department, that prefecture is the capital of the arrondissement, acting both as a prefecture and as a subprefecture. Arrondissements are further divided into cantons and communes.

The term arrondissement can be roughly translated into English as district.

Departments of Haiti

In the administrative divisions of Haiti, the department (French: département, pronounced [depaʁt(ə)mɑ̃]) is the first of four levels of government. Haiti is divided administratively into ten departments, which are further subdivided into 42 arrondissements, 145 communes, and 571 communal sections.In 2014, there was a proposal by the Chamber of Deputies to increase the number of departments from 10 to 14 —perhaps as high as 16.

Haiti

Haiti ( (listen); French: Haïti [a.iti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti [ajiti]), officially the Republic of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Repiblik Ayiti) and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

The region was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain landed on the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic. When Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or China. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus's flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade. As a consequence, Columbus ordered his men to salvage what they could from the ship, and he created the first European settlement in the Americas, naming it La Navidad after the day the ship was destroyed.

The island was named La Española and claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the western portion of the island being ceded to France, which named it Saint-Domingue. Sugarcane plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa, were established by colonists.

In the midst of the French Revolution (1789–99), slaves and free people of color revolted in the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), culminating in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte's army at the Battle of Vertières. Afterward the sovereign state of Haiti was established on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, and the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt. The rebellion that began in 1791 was led by a former slave and the first black general of the French Army, Toussaint Louverture, whose military genius and political acumen transformed an entire society of slaves into an independent country. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared Haiti's sovereignty and later became the first Emperor of Haiti, Jacques I. The Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years; and apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all the first leaders of government were former slaves. The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas. Henri Christophe—former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I—built it to withstand a possible foreign attack.It is a founding member of the United Nations, Organization of American States (OAS), Association of Caribbean States, and the International Francophonie Organisation. In addition to CARICOM, it is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. It has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas. Most recently, in February 2004, a coup d'état originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).

List of communes of Haiti

The commune (French pronunciation: ​[kɔmyn]) is the third-level divisions of Haiti. The 10 departments have 42 arrondissements, which are divided into 145 communes and then into 571 communal sections.

Communes are roughly equivalent to civil townships and incorporated municipalities.

Port-au-Prince

Port-au-Prince (; French pronunciation: ​[pɔʁopʁɛ̃s]; Haitian Creole: Pòtoprens; Haitian Creole pronunciation: [pɔtopɣɛ̃s]) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti. The city's population was estimated at 987,310 in 2015 with the metropolitan area estimated at a population of 2,618,894. The metropolitan area is defined by the IHSI as including the communes of Port-au-Prince, Delmas, Cite Soleil, Tabarre, Carrefour, and Pétion-Ville.

The city of Port-au-Prince is on the Gulf of Gonâve: the bay on which the city lies, which acts as a natural harbor, has sustained economic activity since the civilizations of the Arawaks. It was first incorporated under French colonial rule in 1749. The city's layout is similar to that of an amphitheatre; commercial districts are near the water, while residential neighborhoods are located on the hills above. Its population is difficult to ascertain due to the rapid growth of slums in the hillsides above the city; however, recent estimates place the metropolitan area's population at around 3.7 million, nearly half of the country's national population. The city was catastrophically affected by a devastating earthquake in 2010, with large numbers of structures damaged or destroyed. Haiti's government estimated the death toll to be 230,000.

Tortuga (Haiti)

Tortuga Island (French: Île de la Tortue, IPA: [il də la tɔʁty]; Haitian Creole: Latòti; Spanish: Isla Tortuga, IPA: [ˈisla toɾˈtuɣa], Turtle Island) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. It constitutes the commune of Île de la Tortue in the Port-de-Paix arrondissement of the Nord-Ouest department of Haiti.

Tortuga is 180 square kilometres (69 square miles) in size and had a population of 25,936 at the 2003 Census. In the 17th century, Tortuga was a major center and haven of Caribbean piracy. Its tourist industry and reference in many works has made it one of the most recognized regions of Haiti.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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