Arri

The Arri Group is a global supplier of motion picture film equipment. Based in Munich, the company was founded in 1917.[1] It produces professional motion picture cameras, lenses, lighting and postproduction equipment. Hermann Simon mentioned this company in his book Hidden Champions of the 21st Century as an example of a Hidden Champion.[2] The Arri Alexa camera system was used to film Academy Award winners for Best Cinematography including Hugo,[3] Life of Pi,[4] Gravity,[5] Birdman[6] and The Revenant.[7]

Arnold & Richter Cine Technik (A&R)
Private
IndustryMotion picture equipment
Founded1917
FoundersAugust Arnold
Robert Richter
Headquarters,
ProductsMotion picture cameras
Cine lenses
Lighting equipment
Archive technologies
Digital surgical microscope
RevenueIncrease 300 million (2014)
Number of employees
1,200 (2014)
Websitewww.arri.com

History

Early history

Arri was founded in Munich, Germany in 1917 by August Arnold and Robert Richter as Arnold & Richter Cine Technik. The abbreviation Arri was derived from the initial two letters of the founders' surnames, Arnold and Richter.[8][9]

In 1924, Arnold and Richter developed their first film camera, the small and portable Kinarri 35.[10] In 1937, Arri introduced the world's first reflex mirror shutter in the Arriflex 35 camera, an invention of longtime engineer Erich Kästner. This technology employs a rotating mirror that allows a continuous motor to operate the camera while providing parallax-free reflex viewing to the operator,[11] and the ability to focus the image by eye through the viewfinder, much like an SLR camera for still photography. The reflex design was subsequently used in almost every professional motion picture film camera and is still used in the Arri Alexa Studio digital camera. The first Hollywood film to employ an Arriflex was the 1947 Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall film Dark Passage in 1947. Over the years, more than 17,000 Arriflex 35s were built.[12] The design was recognized with two Scientific and Technical Academy Awards in 1966 and 1982.

Ramachandra Babu
Indian cinematographer Ramachandra Babu with Arriflex 535B camera
Attarkarma
Arriflex camera is being used by Abolfazl Attar

1950–1989

ARRIFLEX 35 II from 1946
ARRIFLEX 35 II from 1946
Stafford Air & Space Museum, Weatherford, OK, US (59)
Lens used on Apollo missions

In 1952, Arri introduced the Arriflex 16ST, the first professional 16mm camera with a reflex viewing system.[13][9][14][15] In 1965, a self-blimped 16mm camera was released: the Arriflex 16BL.[16] The Arriflex 35BL followed in 1972 as a lightweight, quiet alternative to the rather heavy and cumbersome blimped cameras of the time.[17] Also in 1972, Arri pioneered the development of daylight luminaires with the Arrisonne 2000 W. The Arriflex 16SR, launched in 1975, featured a redesigned viewfinder with a through-the-lens light meter.[18] The Arriflex 765, a 65mm camera, was released in 1989, partly in response to the growing industry demand for 70mm release prints.[19]

1990–2009

The Arriflex 535 camera was released in 1990, followed by the Arriflex 535B and the Arriflex 16SR 3 in 1992. The Arriflex 435 was released in 1994.[20][21]

Arri partnered with Carl Zeiss AG in order to develop and manufacture advanced lenses for the motion picture industry. In 1998, Arri released the Ultra Prime lenses.[22]

Development of the Arrilaser, a postproduction film recorder, began in 1997 and it was released for beta testing in 1998.[23][24]

In 2000, Arri purchased the company Moviecam and developed Arricam, a 35mm camera platform. In 2003, Arri developed its first digital camera, the Arriflex D-20,[25] which later evolved into the D-21. The camera used a 35mm CMOS sensor (instead of CCD) and allowed cinematographers to utilize standard 35mm lenses. This technology was further developed and improved for the Arri Alexa camera.

Arri revealed its Arriscan prototype during IBC 2003. The 16mm/35mm film scanner worked alongside the Arrilaser to support the increasingly popular digital intermediate route through postproduction.[26] Later, the Arriscan became a widely used tool for film restoration work and was recognized with a Scientific and Engineering Academy Award in 2009.[27]

Arri released the Master Prime lenses in 2005, designed for a super-fast aperture of T1.3 without breathing and distortion.[28][29] In 2007, the Master Prime 14mm and 150mm lenses were released.[30]

The Arrilaser 2 was released in 2009, with new client-server architecture and speeds twice as fast as the original model.[31] In 2011, the Arrilaser was recognized with an Academy Award of Merit.[23]

2010–present

In 2010, the Arri Alexa camera was released. The camera had the ability to compress 1080p footage to ProRes QuickTime formats and allowed direct-to-edit workflows.[32] Later, models were added to the range including the Alexa Plus, Alexa Studio and Alexa M, which was designed to get the camera closer to the action,[33] The Alexa Plus 4:3, like the Alexa Studio, allowed the full area of the sensor to be used with anamorphic lenses.[34]

ARRI ALEXA SXT Plus
ARRI ALEXA SXT Plus

The 16mm Arriflex 416 camera and Ultra Prime 16 lenses were used in the filming of the 2010 film, Black Swan.[35]

Arri announced a strategic partnership with Zeiss and Fujinon in 2010 to create new lenses that incorporated enhanced electronic lens data transfer in order to simplify visual effects workflows in postproduction.[36][37] The Arri/Fujinon Alura Zooms were released that same year, while the Arri/Zeiss Master Anamorphic lens series was released in 2012.[38][39]

In 2013, Arri created Arri Medical, a business unit that utilizes its camera technology for medical purposes.[40] Apart from a medical imaging documentation service,[41] it has developed a fully digital 3D surgical microscope called the Arriscope.[41]

ARRI SkyPanel
ARRI SkyPanel

The Arri Alexa 65, released in 2014, was used in the filming of The Revenant as well as Mission Impossible: Rogue Nation and Star Wars: Rogue One.[42] The Arri Amira camera was also released in 2014.[20] In 2015, four of the five nominees for the cinematography category of the Academy Awards were filmed using the Arri Alexa.[43]

Arri's subsidiary postproduction and creative services company, Arri Film & TV, was renamed Arri Media in 2015 as part of a company restructuring.[44] At NAB 2015, the SkyPanel LED fixtures were introduced by Arri. The SC60 and the SC30 have a full color tunable LED option.[45]

In April 2016, Arri acquired the Artemis camera stabilizer systems developed by Curt O. Schaller from Sachtler / Vitec Videocom.[46][47] As a result, Arri became the exclusive seller of Artemis Trinity stabilizers.[48] At NAB 2016, Arri unveiled its version of the Trinity system.[49]

Awards

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Arnold & Richter KG ARRIFLEX 35mm 1966
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Joachim Gerb and Erich Kästner of the Arnold & Richter Company ARRIFLEX 35BL 1973
Academy Award of Merit August Arnold and Erich Kästner of Arnold & Richter, GmbH The concept and engineering of the first operational 35mm handheld, spinning-mirror reflex motion picture camera 1982
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Carl Zeiss Company and Arnold & Richter Zeiss high-speed 35mm motion picture camera lenses 1987
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Arnold & Richter engineer Otto Blaschek and Arriflex Corporation ARRIFLEX 35 III 1988
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Engineering Department of Arnold & Richter ARRIFLEX 35BL 4S 1990
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Arnold & Richter, Otto Blaschek and the Engineering Department of ARRI Austria ARRIFLEX 765 1992
Gordon E. Sawyer Academy Award Erich Kästner, Chief Design Engineer at Arnold & Richter from 1932 to 1982 Technical contributions to the industry 1992
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Arnold & Richter Cine Technik The development of the ARRIFLEX 535 series of cameras 1995
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Arnold & Richter Cine Technik and ARRI USA, Inc. ARRIFLEX 435 1998
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Arnold & Richter Cine Technik and Carl Zeiss Company ARRI/ZEISS Variable Prime lenses 1998
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Franz Kraus, Johannes Steurer and Wolfgang Riedel ARRILASER film recorder 2001
Television Academy of Arts and Sciences Emmy Award Arri Over 50 years of outstanding achievement in engineering development 2002
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences) Academy Award of Merit Arnold & Richter Cine Technik and Panavision Continuing development and innovation in the design and manufacturing of advanced camera systems 2002
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Technical Award Klemens Kehrer, Josef Handler, Thomas Smidek and Marc Shipman-Mueller ARRIFLEX 235 2006
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Technical Award Walter Trauninger and Ernest Tschida ARRI WRC wireless remote lens control system 2006
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Erwin Melzner, Volker Schumacher and Timo Mueller ARRIMAX 18/12 lighting fixture 2008
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Engineering Award Michael Cieslinski, Dr. Reimar Lenz and Bernd Brauner ARRISCAN film scanner 2009
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Technical Award Juergen Noffke and Uwe Weber ARRI/ZEISS Master Prime lenses 2011
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Technical Award Franz Kraus, Johannes Steurer, Wolfgang Riedel ARRILASER film recorder 2011
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Scientific and Technical Award Arri ALEXA camera system[50] 2017
Deutscher Filmpreis (Lola) Arri Special honor for extraordinary technical achievement[51] 2017
Television Academy of Arts and Sciences Emmy Award Arri ALEXA camera system[52] 2017

Products

Camera lines
Lighting
  • Arri Fresnel (1937)
  • Arri Gigant (1952)
  • Arrisonne 2000 (1972)
  • Arri Apollo (1979)
  • Arri Studio (1988)
  • Arri Compact Daylight (1991)
  • Arrisun 40/25 (1992)
  • Arrilux Pocket PAR (1996)
  • ARRIMAX 18/12 (2005)
  • Arri M40 (2011)
  • Arri L7 LED Fresnel (2011)
  • Arri SkyPanel (2015)
Camera stabilizers
Film recorder

Arrilaser film recorder is used for film-out.

Film scanner

Arriscan

Controversy

In 2011, it was alleged that Michael Bravin, an executive of the US-based subsidiary Arri Inc., had unlawfully accessed a rival company email account. A suit was brought before a US court and in September 2011, Bravin entered a guilty plea.[53][54] Arri Inc. denied knowledge or gains from Bravin's actions,[55] and a separate lawsuit against the company was dropped as a result of an out-of-court settlement.[56]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Arri's Second Century". ASC Mag. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  2. ^ Simon, Hermann. Hidden Champions of the 21st Century: Success Strategies of Unknown World Market Leaders. London: Springer, 2009. ISBN 978-0-387-98147-5
  3. ^ Evan Luzi (July 2, 2010). "Arri Alexa Pace 3D System Steadicam Rig For Hugo and Transformers 3". The Black and Blue. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  4. ^ Jack Picone (November 26, 2014). "Best Cinematography: Looking At Life of Pi". New York Film Academy. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  5. ^ "Which Cameras Were Used on the Oscar-Nominated films of 2014? Hint: It's a Small List". No Film School. January 20, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  6. ^ "Which Cameras Were Used on the Oscar-Nominated Films of 2015?". No Film School. February 17, 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  7. ^ Karen Idelson (February 18, 2016). "Arri Alexa 65: From Landscapes to Rom-Coms, the Camera That's Won Over Lensers". Variety. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  8. ^ "ARRI Group". CNBC. November 3, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  9. ^ a b "About Arriflex". Calkovsky Cinema Worldwide.
  10. ^ Leitner, David (1 October 2010). "Bridging past and present". Filmmaker. Retrieved 5 May 2013 – via Questia Online Library.
  11. ^ Birchard, Robert (1 June 2008). "90 years of precision". American Cinematographer. Retrieved 5 May 2013 – via Questia Online Library.
  12. ^ Norris Pope (February 15, 2013). Chronicle of a Camera: The Arriflex 35 in North America, 1945-1972. University Press of Mississippi.
  13. ^ John, Ellis,; Nick, Hall, (2018-04-11). "ADAPT". figshare. doi:10.17637/rh.c.3925603.v2.
  14. ^ "Camera Profile - ARRIFLEX 16S Series". Cinema Technic. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  15. ^ "The History of 16 MM Film and the Arriflex 16 S Camera". New York Film Academy. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  16. ^ "Camera Profiles - Arriflex 16BL". CinemaTechnic. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  17. ^ "Camera Profiles - ARRI ARRIFLEX 35BL Series". Cinema Technic. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  18. ^ "Camera Profiles - Arri 16SR series". Cinema Technic. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  19. ^ Alexander Felsenberg (1989). "Interview With Otto Blaschek". In 70mm. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  20. ^ a b "Modern Motion Picture Cameras". IEC. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  21. ^ "Instruction Manual" (PDF). CBADOC. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  22. ^ "Lens Profiles - Arri Zeiss Ultra Prime Lenses". Cinema Technic. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  23. ^ a b Debra Kaufman. "The Academy Award of Merit goes to... the ARRILASER Film Recorder". Creative Cow. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  24. ^ Eric J. Olson (December 22, 1998). "Digital Domain tests new laser recorder". Variety. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  25. ^ "ARRI D-20". Broadcast Store. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  26. ^ "Arriscan To Arrive Summer 2004". Creative Planet. February 14, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  27. ^ "2009 (82nd)". Oscars Awards Database. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  28. ^ "The SciTech Award Goes to... ARRI/Zeiss Maser Prime Lenses for Motion Picture Photography". Creative Cow. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  29. ^ Jon Fauer (December 5, 2010). "Zeiss Book". Film And Digital Times. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  30. ^ "Master Prime Family Grows Wider and Longer". To 411 Daily. August 30, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  31. ^ "Arri delivers Arrilaser 2 film recorder". Post Magazine. July 1, 2009. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  32. ^ Chad Mumm (April 7, 2010). "ARRI's ALEXA busts out native ProRes recording, plans for RED smiting". Engadget. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  33. ^ Michael Murie (May 16, 2012). "Unusual Camera Moves With the Alexa M". Film Maker Magazine. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  34. ^ Bryant Frazer (April 26, 2012). "ARRI Announces ALEXA Plus 4:3". Studio Daily. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  35. ^ Stephen Pizzello. "Danse Macabre". The American Society of Cinematographers. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  36. ^ "ARRI, Zeiss and Fujinon Announce Partnership". PLSN. April 14, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  37. ^ "Three Major Lens Manufacturers Announce Partnership". Definition Magazine. April 19, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  38. ^ "Arri/Fujinon Alura: The Net Generation of Zooms". Studio Daily. April 12, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  39. ^ "CinemaTechnic Lens Profiles - ARRI Zeiss Master Anamorphic Lenses". Cinema Technic. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  40. ^ "Official website of Arri Medical". 10 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  41. ^ a b "Arri Medical Service". 10 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  42. ^ Karen Idelson (February 18, 2016). "Arri Alexa 65: From Landscapes to Rom-Coms, the Camera That's Won Over Lensers". Variety. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  43. ^ Carolyn Giardina (February 18, 2015). "Oscars: ARRI Alexa Camera of Choice for Nominees; Kodak Holds Its Own". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  44. ^ "ARRI Film & TV Becomes ARRI Media". Sound & Picture. May 26, 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  45. ^ Matthew Allard (May 18, 2016). "Hands on with the Arri SkyPanels - a single operator's perspective". News Shooter. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  46. ^ a b c "Curt O. Schaller, artemis developer". schaller-media.de. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  47. ^ a b c "ARRI Debuts Final Version of Trinity Stabilizer and Maxima Gimbal". Studio Daily. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  48. ^ Michael Maher (April 20, 2016). "NAB 2016: ARRI Purchases the Artemis Trinity, Announces New Lenses, and More". The Beat. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  49. ^ "ARRI Get Into The Camera Stabilisation Business". Definition Magazine. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  50. ^ "Innovation Celebrated at the Academy's 2017 Sci-Tech Awards".
  51. ^ "Lolas: 'Toni Erdmann' Dominates German Film Awards".
  52. ^ "ARRI, Canon Among Engineering Emmy Recipients".
  53. ^ "'Former ARRI exec pleads guilty to hacking into rival CEO's e-mail account, faces jail time'". Engadget. September 23, 2011.
  54. ^ "'Guilty Plea Rocks Hollywood Camera Biz'". Deadlinen. September 2011.
  55. ^ "Camera maker Arri denies rival's espionage claims". Variety. February 14, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
  56. ^ "RED vs ARRI Lawsuit Settled". SCRI International. Retrieved September 19, 2016.

External links

Al-Maʿarri

Abu al-ʿAlaʾ al-Maʿarri (Arabic أبو العلاء المعري‎ Abū al-ʿAlāʾ al-Maʿarrī, full name أبو العلاء أحمد بن عبد الله بن سليمان التنوخي المعري‎ Abū al-ʿAlāʾ Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sulaimān al-Tanūẖī al-Maʿarrī; December 973 – May 1057) was a blind Arab philosopher, poet, and writer. Al-Maʿarri held and expressed an irreligious worldview which was met with controversy, but in spite of it, he is regarded as one of the greatest classical Arabic poets.

Born in the city of Maʿarra during the Abbasid era, he studied in nearby Aleppo, then in Tripoli and Antioch. Producing popular poems in Baghdad, he nevertheless refused to sell his texts. In 1010, he returned to Syria after his mother began declining in health, and continued writing which gained him local respect.

Described as a "pessimistic freethinker", Al-Maʿarri was a controversial rationalist of his time, citing reason as the chief source of truth and divine revelation. He was pessimistic about life, describing himself as "a double prisoner" of blindness and isolation. He attacked religious dogmas and practices, was equally critical and sarcastic about Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Zoroastrianism, and became a Deist.He advocated social justice and lived a secluded, ascetic lifestyle. He became a vegan, entreating: "do not desire as food the flesh of slaughtered animals / Or the white milk of mothers who intended its pure draught /

for their young". Al-Maʿarri held an antinatalist thought, in line with his general pessimism, suggesting that children should not be born to spare them of the pains and suffering of life.Al-Maʿarri wrote three main works that were popular in his time. Among his works are The Tinder Spark, Unnecessary Necessity, and The Epistle of Forgiveness (Resalat Al-Ghufran) which may be considered a precursor to Dante's Divine Comedy. Al-Maʿarri never married and died at the age of 83 in the city where he was born, Maarrat al-Nuʿman. In 2013, a statue of al-Maʿarri located in his Syrian home town was beheaded by jihadists from the al-Nusra Front.

Arri Alexa

The Arri Alexa (stylised as ΛLEXΛ) is a digital motion picture camera system made by Arri first introduced in April 2010. The camera was Arri's first major transition into digital cinematography after smaller previous efforts such as the Arriflex D-20 and D-21.

Alexa cameras are designed for use in high budget feature films, television shows, and commercials, and compete with Red Digital Cinema's line of high end cameras such as the Epic Dragon and Weapon Dragon. Alexa uses the ALEV series of image sensors manufactured by ON Semiconductor.

Arri PL

Arri PL is a lens mount developed by Arri for use with both 16 mm and 35 mm movie cameras. The PL stands for "positive lock". It is the successor mount to the Arri bayonet; however, unlike the bayonet mount, it is incompatible with older Arri-mount lenses, due to the larger diameter. (This can be rectified with an adapter relatively easily, as the flange focal distance is identical.)

Arri bayonet

Arri bayonet is a lens mount developed by Arri for use with both 16 mm and 35 mm movie camera lenses. Lenses of this type are distinguished by "outer wings" which both control aperture and bayonet alignment, and are placed in the mount while two pressure tabs are simultaneously depressed at the side of the lens mount on the camera. These tabs provide a relatively strong locking mechanism which allows for higher quality lens seating than offered by the Arri standard mount. Debuting in 1965 with the 16BL, the Arri bayonet mount superseded the Arri standard mount, but cameras with the bayonet mount were also able to accommodate Arri standard lenses due to both mounts having the same flange focal distance and diameter. However, cameras with Arri standard mounts were unable to fit lenses with Arri bayonet mounts, due to the locking mechanism. The bayonet mount began to be superseded around 1980 by the Arri PL mount, which has since become an overwhelmingly predominant mount for most modern cameras, along with Panavision and their PV mount.

Arri standard

Arri standard is a lens mount developed by Arri for use with both 16 mm and 35 mm movie cameras. Lenses are distinguished by a tab inside an outer ring. Because of the weak seating strength and ability of the aluminum mount to gradually become poorly seated, the stainless steel Arri bayonet mount superseded the Arri standard mount in 1965, debuting on the 16BL. However, cameras with the bayonet mount are also able to accommodate Arri standard lenses due to both mounts having the same flange focal distance and diameter. Unfortunately, cameras with Arri standard mounts are unable to fit lenses with Arri bayonet mounts, due to the bayonet mount's locking mechanism.

Arriflex 16SR

The Arriflex 16SR is a motion picture camera product line created by Arri, introduced in 1975. This 16SR camera series is designed for 16 mm filmmaking in Standard 16 format. 'SR' Stands for Silent Reflex.

In 1982, Arri released the 16SR2, for improved function over the previous version, e.g. lower operational noise level.

In 1992, Arri released the 16SR3, the latest and the only series that can support the Super 16 format in the 16SR series without modification to the Super 16 format. It appeared in two versions: "Advanced" & "HS" (High Speed), for high speed filming.

The 16 SR series of cameras are distinguished by their small portable profile, their multidirectional viewfinder having a correctly upright picture in all positions, to the right and to the left of the camera, a crystal controlled motor and a quick-change 400 ft coaxial magazine. A 200 ft coaxial magazine was originally featured in the photo of the 16 SR in an Arri collective brochure in 1975, but this was only a prototype and was never marketed. The small 180 degree single-blade "half moon" mirror shutter always stops in the closed position (other Arri 16mm cameras, the 16 BL, 16M and 16 ST have twin-blade mirror shutters which stop randomly and have to be inched). Early 16 SR cameras were not exceptionally quiet, about 30 dB(A) one meter from the lens, but improvements rendered later cameras very quiet. The Arri 16 SR line was superseded by the Arriflex 416 line in 2006.

Introduced in 1975.

Arri bayonet lens mount.

Arriflex 35

The Arriflex 35 (1937) was the first reflex 35mm production motion picture camera. It was built around the spinning reflex twin-bladed "butterfly" mirror shutter designed by Erich Kästner, chief engineer at Arnold & Richter Cine Technik (ARRI), Arri Group, set at 45 degrees horizontally to the lens axis. Modern standard models have a maximum shutter exposure opening of 165 degrees, (not 180 degrees as claimed in Arri manuals), the 35 IIC-BV model having a variable shutter. The mirror shutter allows the camera operator to see a viewfinder image equal to the recorded picture, without parallax, although there is noticeable image flicker in the viewfinder when the camera is running, caused by the two open exposure segments of the mirror shutter. It is still used extensively in motion pictures for sequences without synchronous sound - "motor only sync" - and unique camera movement, e.g. on Steadicam. It was widely used with 200 ft loads (the smaller 200 ft magazine was in production at that time) as a 'battlefield camera' for the German Wehrmacht during World War II for collecting battlefront intelligence, (e.g. for analyzing weapons effectiveness), for training films and for use in propaganda cinema films.

The camera utilizes a three lens turret with three aluminum Arri lens mounts (later 35 IIC/B with one stainless steel bayonet mount and two aluminum Arri mounts), and is capable of frame rates up to 80 frames per second with an accessory speed unit. Film magazines are for 200 ft or 400 ft loads. The DC motor is mounted downwards as a handgrip. Later flat base DC motor mount units were developed e.g. by the Cine 60 company, allowing the camera to have a lower profile, where the motor is mounted on the side of the camera body vertically upwards, allowing the camera to be mounted on standard tripod heads without a special head accommodating the handgrip motor, and providing a more compact profile for 'blimping'.

New models appeared over the years: the 35 II in 1946, the IIA in 1953, the IIB in 1960 and finally, the IIC in 1964. In 1982, the II-series was superseded by the Arriflex 35-3C model, having a IIC film transport movement, a swiveling viewfinder, a quartz-driven handgrip motor, a then-new Arri PL (positive locking) lens mount and a variable shutter. The 35-3C model was put into production to use up 150 sets of 35 IIC camera movement units still inventoried at the factory.

Arriflex 435

The Arriflex 435 is a movie camera product line created by Arri in 1995 to replace the Arriflex 35III line. The number reflects its position as a successor camera to the Arri III and the fact that it is designed for 35 mm film. The 435 cameras are specifically designed as MOS cameras, which means that they are conventionally considered to be too loud to record usable location sound. However, this also frees the camera up to be optimized for non-sync sound uses, particularly any filming which either doesn't require sound or shooting at non-sync speed, shooting in reverse, or ramping between different speeds. As such, its potential applications are widespread, and thus it is regularly used on music videos, commercials, second unit work on features, special effects work, and motion control, among other usage. It is currently considered to be the most popular 35 mm movie camera in usage, due to its wide range of production adoption, intuitive design, high reliability, and retail availability. Rival Panavision even owns more 435s for rental than Arri's own hire houses; Panavisions, however, can be converted to Pan-Arri 435s where they are modified to accept Panavision lenses and accessories. In recognition of the achievements of the 435 system, AMPAS awarded Arri a Scientific and Engineering Academy Award in 1999.

Arriflex D-20

The Arriflex D-20 is a film-style digital motion picture camera made by Arri first introduced in November 2005. The camera's attributes are its optical viewfinder, modularity, and 35mm-width CMOS sensor. The camera was discontinued in 2008 and the Arriflex D-21 was introduced.

Arriflex D-21

The Arriflex D-21 is a film-style digital motion picture camera introduced by Arri in 2008 to replace their earlier generation Arriflex D-20.

Filmfest München

Munich International Film festival (German: Filmfest München) is the largest summer film festival in Germany and second only in size and importance to the Berlinale. It has been held annually since 1983 and takes place in late June. It presents feature films and feature-length documentaries. The festival is also proud of the role it plays in discovering talented and innovative young filmmakers. With the exception of retrospectives, tributes and homages, all of the films screened are German premieres and many are European and world premieres.

There are a dozen competitions with prizes worth over €150,000 which are donated by the festival’s major sponsors and partners.

With over 200 feature films and feature-length documentaries on more than 18 screens, Filmfest München attracts approximately 80 000 movie lovers each year. It accredits more than 600 members of the international press and media as well as over 2500 film industry professionals. It has always been a popular meeting place for industry insiders throughout Germany and Europe.

The festival center is located at Munich’s cultural center Gasteig, where screenings, panels, ceremonies and discussions take place and the festival offices are located. There are several participating movie theaters in the downtown area.

The director of Filmfest München is Diana Iljine, who took over in August 2011. Former directors are Andreas Ströhl (2004-2011) and Eberhard Hauff, who ran the festival from its outset.

The festival is hosted by Internationale Münchner Filmwochen GmbH, whose shareholders are the City of Munich, the Free State of Bavaria (represented by State Minister of Finance Markus Söder), the Bayerischer Rundfunk (Bavarian Broadcasting, represented by director Ulrich Wilhelm) and the SPIO (the German film industry association represented by Thomas Negele. The IMF also hosts the annual International Festival of Film Schools (German: Internationales Festival der Filmhochschulen München)/Filmschoolfest in November.

Giimbiyu language

Giimbiyu is an extinct Aboriginal Australian language isolate once spoken by the Giimbiyu people of northern Australia.

The name Giimbiyu is a Gaagudju word for 'of the stoney country'. It was introduced in Harvey (1992) as a cover term for the named dialects,

Mangerr (Mengerrdji)

Urningangga (Wuningak) and Erri (Arri)In 1997 Nicholas Evans proposed an Arnhem Land family that includes the Giimbiyu languages. However, they are not included in Bowern (2011).

IMAX

IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors. Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, and William C. Shaw developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada. Unlike conventional projectors, the film runs horizontally (see diagram sprocket holes) so that the image width is greater than the width of the film. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres, and some have also been (partially) shot in IMAX. IMAX is the most widely used system for special-venue film presentations. By late 2017, 1,302 IMAX theatre systems were installed in 1,203 commercial multiplexes, 13 commercial destinations, and 86 institutional settings in 75 countries.

List of IMAX films

This is a list of films shot partially or in full with IMAX cameras, either on 15/70 film or with the IMAX/Phantom 3D or the IMAX/Arri digital cameras. Films that may have been projected onto IMAX screens using a standard 35mm print, such as Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, are not listed. The US premiere dates are displayed where available. Due of the ease of downconverting, most IMAX 3D films have also been remastered and exhibited in 2D, with an appropriate name change (for example Space Station 3D becomes Space Station).

List of films shot on digital video prior to 2015

In the last decade a large number of movies have been shot digitally. Some of them are independent, low-budget productions, while others are major studio productions. The movies on the following list are shot mainly digitally.

List of large sensor interchangeable-lens video cameras

List of digital video cameras with an image sensor larger than 2/3 inch and producing video in a horizontal resolution equal or higher than 1920 pixels.

Moviecam

Moviecam is a motion picture equipment company specializing in movie camera systems for 35 mm film. Originally started in Vienna as an in-house project of Fritz Gabriel Bauer and Walter Kindler's Moviegroup film production company in the late 1960s, the amount of research and development needed to create a new and modern motion picture camera system from scratch led to the formal creation of Moviecam as an independent corporate entity in 1976. Although only three camera models (SuperAmerica, Compact, and SL) were produced in significant quantities for international usage, the high quality camera design, simplicity of usage compared to the contemporary models of Arri and Panavision, and integration of modern and pioneering camera features led to widespread usage in the film industry. Arri subsequently bought the company in the 1990s. At Arri, Bauer developed, together with Walter Trauninger and their camera development team, the Arricam System, which combined the basic movement and design of the Moviecam systems with the precision electronic parts and complement of camera accessories already designed by Arri. The Arricam cameras were released in 2000 and remain the flagship camera line of Arri's 35 mm products. Despite the fact that Moviecam cameras have not been manufactured for almost ten years, their quality and features have kept them in service to meet their consistent high demand by feature film shoots.In 2010, Moviecam released a camera focusing tool called Moviecam EasyFocus, a high precision measuring system with safe laser, for crane shot usage, etc.

Prime lens

In film and photography, a prime lens is a fixed focal length photographic lens (as opposed to a zoom lens), typically with a maximum aperture from f2.8 to f1.2. The term can also mean the primary lens in a combination lens system.

Confusion between these two meanings can occur if context doesn't make the interpretation clear. People sometimes use alternate terms—primary focal length, fixed focal length, or FFL to avoid ambiguity.

Valerio Arri

Valeriano Pompeo Maurizio "Valerio" Arri (22 June 1892 – 2 July 1970) was an Italian marathon runner. He won a bronze medal at the 1920 Olympics in his all-time personal best time of 2:36:33.

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