Aron Lee Ralston (born October 27, 1975) is an American outdoorsman, mechanical engineer and motivational speaker known for surviving a canyoneering accident by cutting off his own arm. During a solo descent of Bluejohn Canyon in southeastern Utah he dislodged a boulder which pinned his right wrist to the side of the canyon wall. After five days he was able to amputate his forearm with a dull pocketknife, make his way through the rest of the canyon, rappel down a 65-foot (20 m) drop, and hike 7 miles (11 km) to safety.
After the accident he continued mountaineering and became the first person to ascend all of Colorado's fourteeners solo in winter.
Ralston on Capitol Peak in winter 2003
Aron Lee Ralston
October 27, 1975
|Alma mater||Carnegie Mellon University (B.A.)|
|Occupation||Motivational speaker, mountaineer, mechanical engineer|
|Between a Rock and a Hard Place|
|Spouse(s)||Jessica Trusty (2009–2012)|
|Partner(s)||Vita Shannon (2012–2013)|
Aron Ralston was born on October 27, 1975 in Marion, Ohio. He and his family moved to Denver when he was 12, where he attended Cherry Creek High School and learned to ski and backpack. He received his college degree from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, finishing with degrees in mechanical engineering and French, with a minor in piano. At Carnegie Mellon, he served as a resident assistant, studied abroad, and was an active intramural sports participant.:343 He also worked as a rafting guide during the summer.:42
Ralston worked as a mechanical engineer with Intel in Ocotillo, Tacoma and Albuquerque for five years, but found himself burned out by working in a large corporation. During his time as an engineer he had built up skills in mountaineering, and in 2002 he quit in order to climb Denali. He moved to Aspen, Colorado in order to pursue a life of climbing mountains.:72
Ralston began working towards his goal of climbing all of Colorado's "fourteeners" — peaks over 14,000 feet (4,270 m) altitude, of which there are 59 — solo and during winter (a feat that had never been recorded before). In 2003, he was caught in a Grade 5 avalanche on Resolution Peak, Colorado with his skiing partners Mark Beverly and Chadwick Spencer. No one was seriously injured, but his friends did not speak to him in the aftermath, causing him to reevaluate his approach to risk management.:141
On April 26, 2003, Aron Ralston was canyoneering alone through Bluejohn Canyon, in eastern Wayne County, Utah, just south of the Horseshoe Canyon unit of Canyonlands National Park. While he was descending the lower stretches of the slot canyon, a suspended boulder became dislodged while he was climbing down from it. The rock smashed his left hand, and then crushed his right hand against the canyon wall. Ralston had not informed anyone of his hiking plans, nor did he have any way to call for help.
Assuming that he would die without intervention, he spent five days slowly sipping his small amount of remaining water, approximately 350 ml (12 imp fl oz), and slowly eating his small amount of food, two burritos, while repeatedly trying to extricate his arm. His efforts were futile as he was unable to free his arm from the 800 lb (360 kg) chockstone. After three days of trying to lift and break the boulder, the dehydrated and delirious Ralston prepared to amputate his trapped arm at a point on the mid-forearm in order to escape. After having experimented with tourniquets and having made exploratory superficial cuts to his forearm, he realized, on the fourth day, that in order to free his arm he would have to cut through the bones in it, but the tools available were insufficient to do so.
After running out of food and water on the fifth day, Ralston decided to drink his own urine. He carved his name, date of birth and presumed date of death into the sandstone canyon wall, and videotaped his last goodbyes to his family. He did not expect to survive the night, but as he attempted to stay warm he began hallucinating and had a vision of himself playing with a future child while missing part of his right arm. Ralston credited this as giving him the belief that he would live.:248
After waking at dawn the following day he discovered that his arm had begun to decompose due to the lack of circulation, and became desperate to tear it off.:279 Ralston then had an epiphany that he could break his radius and ulna bones using torque against his trapped arm. He did so, then amputated his forearm with his multi-tool, using the dull two-inch knife and pliers for the tougher tendons. The process took an hour, during which time he used tubing from a CamelBak as a tourniquet, taking care to leave major arteries until last. The manufacturer of the multi-tool was never named, but Ralston said "it was not a Leatherman but what you'd get if you bought a $15 flashlight and got a free multi-use tool."
After freeing himself, Ralston climbed out of the slot canyon in which he had been trapped, rappelled down a 65-foot (20 m) sheer wall, then hiked out of the canyon, all one-handed. He was 8 miles (13 km) from his vehicle, and had no phone. However, after 6 miles (9.7 km) of hiking, he encountered a family on vacation from the Netherlands; Eric and Monique Meijer and their son Andy, who gave him food and water and hurried to alert the authorities. Ralston had feared he would bleed to death; he had lost 40 pounds (18 kg), including 25% of his blood volume. Rescuers searching for Ralston, alerted by his family that he was missing, had narrowed the search down to Canyonlands and he was picked up by a helicopter in a wide area of the canyon. He was rescued four hours after amputating his arm.
Ralston later said that if he had amputated his arm earlier, he would have bled to death before being found, while if he had not done it he would have been found dead in the slot canyon days later. He believed he was looking forward to the amputation and the freedom it would give.
His severed hand and forearm were retrieved from under the boulder by park authorities. According to television presenter Tom Brokaw, it took 13 men, a winch and a hydraulic jack to move the boulder so that Ralston's arm could be removed. His arm was then cremated and the ashes given to Ralston. He returned to the accident scene with Tom Brokaw and a camera crew six months later, on his 28th birthday, to film a Dateline NBC special about the accident in which he scattered the ashes of his arm there, where, he said, they belong.
After the accident occurred, Ralston made numerous appearances in the media. On July 21, 2003, Ralston appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman, and his story was featured by GQ's "Men of the Year” and Vanity Fair's "People of 2003".:340
Ralston documented his experience in an autobiographical book titled Between a Rock and a Hard Place, published by Atria Books in September, 2004. It reached #3 on The New York Times Hardcover Non-Fiction list. It hit #1 in New Zealand and Australia, and is the #7 best-selling memoir of all-time in the United Kingdom. Later that month, Ralston's story was featured on a two-hour edition of Dateline NBC called "Desperate Days in Blue John Canyon". Ralston has appeared twice on The Today Show, Good Morning America, and The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. He has also appeared on The Ellen DeGeneres Show, CNN's American Morning with Bill Hemmer, Minute to Win It, Anderson Cooper 360°, CNN Saturday Morning, Enough Rope. and CNBC with Deborah Norville. On September 28, 2004, he appeared on the radio program The Bob Rivers Show and described his ordeal as "six days of terror and horror."
After his recovery he continued to climb mountains, including Aconcagua in 2005, and in 2008, Ojos del Salado in Chile and Monte Pissis in Argentina. In 2005, Ralston became the first person to climb all 59 ranked and/or named Colorado's 'fourteeners' solo in winter, a project he started in 1997 and resumed after the amputation in Bluejohn Canyon.
He later noted that surviving being trapped in the canyon had given him a sense of invincibility, at a time that it should have humbled him. He lost friends to suicide, and became depressed after his girlfriend broke up with him in 2006, and has tried to shift his focus away from adventure seeking for esteem purposes.
In 2008, Ralston signed on to advise polar explorer Eric Larsen on his 2009/2010 "Save the Poles" expedition, of travelling to the north and south poles, and climbing Mount Everest (sometimes referred to as the third pole) within the same year.
In 2011 Ralston was a contestant on the U.S. television show Minute To Win It, where he won $125,000 for Wilderness Workshop, made a cameo on The Simpsons in "Treehouse of Horror XXII"., took part in the reality show Alone in the Wild, where he had to 'survive' in the wild with a video camera and a bag of supplies, and delivered the commencement speech on May 15, 2011, at Carnegie Mellon University for the graduating classes of 2011 and 2013.
In 2013, Ralston and his girlfriend, Vita Shannon, who have a daughter together, were both arrested after an altercation at their home. Charges against Ralston were dropped shortly after, and charges against Shannon were dropped after he did not show up to a court hearing.
As a corporate speaker, Ralston receives an honorarium of about $25,000 per domestic speaking appearance, and up to $37,000 for international speeches. On May 4, 2007, Ralston appeared at the Swiss Economic Forum and gave a speech about "how he did not lose his hand, but gained his life back."
British film director Danny Boyle directed the film 127 Hours about Ralston's accident. Filming took place in March and April 2010, with a release in New York City and Los Angeles on November 5, 2010. Fox Searchlight Pictures funded the film. Actor James Franco played the role of Ralston. The movie received standing ovations at both the Telluride Film Festival and the Toronto International Film Festival. Some of the audience members in Toronto fainted during the final amputation scene.
The film received widespread acclaim by critics and review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 93% of 226 professional critics have given the film a positive review, with an average rating of 8.3/10.
At the 83rd Academy Awards in 2011 the film was nominated for six Oscars, including Best Picture (won by The King's Speech) and Best Actor for Franco (won by Colin Firth for his role in The King's Speech). 127 Hours was also nominated in the categories for Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Score, Best Original Song, and Best Editing.
Of the authenticity of 127 Hours, Ralston has said that the film is "so factually accurate it is as close to a documentary as you can get and still be a drama," and he jokingly added that he thought it is "the best film ever made."
127 Hours is a 2010 biographical survival drama film co-written, produced and directed by Danny Boyle and starring James Franco, Kate Mara, and Amber Tamblyn. The film follows canyoneer Aron Ralston, who is trapped by a boulder in an isolated slot canyon southeastern Utah's Blue John Canyon in April 2003, and tries to escape. The film, based on Ralston's memoir Between a Rock and a Hard Place (2004), was written by Boyle and Simon Beaufoy, co-produced by Christian Colson and John Smithson, and scored by A. R. Rahman. Beaufoy, Colson, and Rahman had all previously worked with Boyle on Slumdog Millionaire (2008). The film's title refers to the period of non-stop activity from when Ralston awoke on the day of his accident to when he was put under anesthesia during his rescue.127 Hours was well-received by critics and audiences, and was the runner-up for six Academy Awards, including Best Actor for Franco and Best Picture.127 Hours (soundtrack)
127 Hours: Music from the Motion Picture is the soundtrack to Danny Boyle's 2010 film of the same name. It was composed by Academy Award Winner A. R. Rahman, Boyle's previous collaborator on Slumdog Millionaire. The score, centred on guitar, was recorded mainly in London and was completed in three weeks. The soundtrack was released digitally on 2 November and physically on 22 November, by Interscope Records. The score is briefly orchestral and the song's main theme, "If I Rise" features Rahman playing the Harpejji.The soundtrack album includes original score and the theme song composed by Rahman, the tracks "Never Hear Surf Music Again" by Free Blood, "Lovely Day" by Bill Withers, Frédéric Chopin's Nocturne No.2 in E flat, Op.9 No.2, "Ça plane pour moi" by Plastic Bertrand, "If You Love Me" by Esther Phillips, and "Festival" by Sigur Rós. The original theme song of the film, "If I Rise", is written by A. R. Rahman (music), Dido and Rollo Armstrong (lyrics) and performed by Dido along with Rahman. It was featured in the climax scene of the film.The film's subject Aron Ralston's favourite band, Phish, is mentioned in the film. During production, Boyle asked Ralston how Phish lyrics could be included in the film. Ralston sings lines from the Phish song "Sleeping Monkey" when swimming in one of the early scenes of the movie. But the soundtrack album did not feature this song. Another song "The Funeral" from Band of Horses is not in the soundtrack album, but is used in the end of the trailer.Between a Rock and a Hard Place
Between a Rock and a Hard Place may refer to:
"Between a rock and a hard place", an adage used to refer to a dilemma, a situation offering at least two possibilities, neither of which is acceptable
Between a Rock and a Hard Place (Artifacts album)
Between a Rock and a Hard Place (Australian Crawl album)
Between a Rock and a Hard Place (book), an autobiography by Aron RalstonBetween a Rock and a Hard Place (book)
Between a Rock and a Hard Place is the autobiography of Aron Ralston. Published in 2004, the book predominantly recounts Ralston's experience being trapped in Blue John Canyon in the Utah desert and how he was forced to amputate his own right arm with a dull multi-tool in order to free himself after his arm became trapped by a boulder. Inc. magazine named Ralston's account one of seven "great entrepreneurship books that have nothing to do with business."The book also describes Ralston's childhood, how he took up outdoor activities after moving to Colorado from Indiana, how he came to be an obsessive outdoorsman and how he left his engineering career at Intel in Arizona to take up outdoor activities as much as possible.
The book goes back and forth, in alternating chapters, between Ralston's past experiences and his entrapment in the slot canyon, and the efforts of his mother to find him. Included in some editions are pictures of his days in the canyon,
various photos from the past excursions he speaks of in the book, a glossary of mountaineering jargon, and maps of Blue John Canyon and the proximity of the canyon in central-eastern Utah.
The book was adapted into 2010 film 127 Hours, starring James Franco and directed by Danny Boyle. Since the film's release, the autobiography has also been sold with the title 127 Hours: Between a Rock and a Hard Place.
The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor.Blue John
Blue John may refer to:
Blue John, Kentucky, United States
Blue John (mineral), a form of fluorite mined in Derbyshire, England
Blue John Cavern, a cavern in Castleton, Derbyshire where fluorite is mined
Blue John Canyon, a canyon in Utah, United States, site of the Aron Ralston accident
Blue John (album), an album by organist John Patton
Lance-Constable Bluejohn, a character in the Discworld series, a member of Ankh-Morpork City Watch
Blue John Gap, a fictional location in Arthur Conan Doyle's short story The Terror of Blue John GapDallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards 2010
The 16th Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards honoring the best in film for 2010 were announced on December 17, 2010. These awards "recognizing extraordinary accomplishment in film" are presented annually by the Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association (DFWFCA), based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex region of Texas. The organization, founded in 1990, includes 28 film critics for print, radio, television, and internet publications based in north Texas. The Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association began presenting its annual awards list in 1991.The Social Network was the DFWFCA's most awarded film of 2010 taking top honors in the Best Picture, Best Director (David Fincher), and Best Screenplay (Aaron Sorkin) categories. This continued a trend of critics groups across the United States giving their top prizes to the film about the founding of Facebook.Two films each took two top prizes: 127 Hours garnered a Best Actor nod for James Franco as real-life mountain climber Aron Ralston plus Anthony Dod Mantle and Enrique Chediak for Best Cinematography. The Fighter earned Christian Bale the Best Supporting Actor honor for his performance as real-life boxer Dicky Eklund and Melissa Leo the Best Supporting Actress award for her portrayal of Dicky's mother, Alice Eklund.The other acting award went to Natalie Portman as Best Actress for her leading role in Black Swan. The remaining film honors went to Toy Story 3 as Best Animated Film, Waiting for "Superman" as Best Documentary, and Mexico's Biutiful as Best Foreign Language Film.Along with the 11 "best of" category awards, the group also presented the Russell Smith Award to Winter's Bone as the "best low-budget or cutting-edge independent film" of the year. The award is named in honor of late Dallas Morning News film critic Russell Smith.Hanger, Inc.
Hanger, Inc. (NYSE: HNGR) (formerly Hanger Orthopedic Group, Inc.) is a leading national provider of products and services that assist in enhancing or restoring the physical capabilities of patients with disabilities or injuries that is headquartered in Austin, TX (formerly Bethesda, MD). The company provides orthotic and prosthetic (“O&P”) services, distributes O&P devices and components, manages O&P networks, and provides therapeutic solutions to patients and businesses in acute, post-acute, and clinic settings. Hanger, Inc. operates through two segments: Patient Care and Products & Services.
The primary division of Hanger, Inc.'s Patient Care segment is Hanger Clinic (formerly Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics), which specializes in the design, fabrication, and delivery of custom O&P devices through 677 patient care clinics and 109 satellite locations in 44 states and the District of Columbia as of September 30, 2018. According to the company's 2017 annual report, the patient care market for prosthetic and orthotic services in the United States is estimated at $4 billion annually. Hanger Clinic represents about 20 percent of this market. They employ about 4,600 people, including about 1,500 prosthetic and orthotic practitioners. Notable Hanger patients include:
Jeremy Campbell, winner of two gold medals in the 2008 Paralympic Games, and world-record holder for the Pentathlon P44;
Aron Ralston a mountain climber who became famous in May 2003 when he amputated his lower right arm with a dull knife in order to free himself from a fallen boulder
A notable non-human Hanger patient is Winter, a bottlenose dolphin (the main attraction at Clearwater Marine Aquarium) notable for her prosthetic tail (designed and manufactured by Hanger)James Franco filmography
James Franco is an American actor who began acting on television, guest-starring in Pacific Blue (1997). He landed his breakthrough role in the comedy-drama television series Freaks and Geeks (1999–2000). After his film debut in Never Been Kissed (1999), Franco won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Film for playing the eponymous actor in the 2001 television biopic James Dean. He went on to play Harry Osborn in the superhero film Spider-Man (2002), and reprised the role in its sequels Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007). For the last of the three, he garnered a nomination for the Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor. His only screen appearance of 2003 was in the ballet film The Company. Franco directed and starred in the comedy The Ape (2005).
After playing one of the titular roles in the romantic drama Tristan & Isolde (2006), Franco starred in the Tony Bill-directed war drama Flyboys (2006). Two years later, he played against type in the action-comedy film Pineapple Express, and earned critical acclaim for portraying Scott Smith in the biographical film Milk alongside Sean Penn. For the former, he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Comedy. Franco portrayed the trapped canyoneer Aron Ralston in 127 Hours (2010), a survival drama, which earned him an Academy Award for Best Actor nomination. Franco appeared in four films in 2011, including the poorly-received fantasy film Your Highness, and the science fiction film Rise of the Planet of the Apes (2011), a critical and commercial success.Franco had six roles in 2012 none of which had much success except the crime-comedy film Spring Breakers, in which he played a gangster to highly positive reviews. The following year, Franco played the titular role in the fantasy film Oz the Great and Powerful, and the disaster film This Is the End saw him play a fictional version of himself. For the first one, he was nominated for the Teen Choice Award for Choice Movie Actor - Fantasy. Also in 2013, he directed and starred in the drama As I Lay Dying. He starred in the action thriller Good People (2014), an adaptation of Marcus Sakey's 2008 novel of the same name. In the 2014 controversial satirical comedy The Interview, he was seen as a journalist instructed to assassinate a North Korean leader. He had nine film releases in 2015, most of which failed financially except the animated film The Little Prince, a modest commercial success. In 2017, Franco directed and starred in The Disaster Artist as Tommy Wiseau, for which he won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.Man Laws
Man Laws (Men of the Square Table) are a series of beer commercials for Miller Lite, inspired by the supposed unwritten codes by which men live. The "Men of the Square Table" are a parody of King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. The "Square Table" they congregate around is located in what appears to be a secret, Dr. Strangelove-esque room with glass (probably soundproof) walls. The advertising campaign was a response to negative feedback about prior sexist advertising. The campaign also included a website as well as print advertising.The ads featured the "Men of the Square Table", which consisted of men of great significance in different fields, such as football star Jerome Bettis, pro wrestler Triple H, actor/comedian Eddie Griffin, adventurer Aron Ralston, professional bull-rider Ty Murray, and actor Burt Reynolds, who acts as the Square Table's de facto leader. The ads would consist of the men bringing up a certain topic or situation, from simple beer-related topics, such as whether anything other than beer be stored in the garage fridge, or if one can take leftover beers that he brought to a party back home. Other topics would be slightly more serious, such as how long one can wait before asking out his best friend's ex-girlfriend, or if it's time to retire the "high-five" celebration. After a short discussion on the topic, the men will come to a consensus on a new Man Law, at which point the men raise their beer bottles (or sometimes cans) and proclaim, "Man Law!", at which point the Square Table's elderly scribe would write the new Man Law down.Mortar Board
The Mortar Board is an American national honor society for college seniors. Mortar Board has 231 chartered collegiate chapters nationwide and 15 alumni chapters.Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor
The Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor is an annual film award given by the Online Film Critics Society to honor the best lead actor of the year.Phishheads
Phishheads is the name for fans of the psychedelic rock jam band Phish, similar to the Deadheads that followed the Grateful Dead.Ralston (surname)
Ralston is a surname of Scottish origin. Notable people with the surname include:
Alexander Ralston, American architect
Anthony Ralston, Scottish professional footballer
Aron Ralston, American mountain climber
Bill Ralston, New Zealand journalist
Bob Ralston, American pianist and organist
Brian Ralston, American composer
Bruce Ralston, Canadian politician
Chris Ralston, English rugby union player
Dennis Ralston, American tennis player
Esther Ralston, American silent film actress
Gilbert Ralston, Irish-American writer
Gulliver Ralston, British musician
Harry Ralston, American screenwriter and director
James Ralston, Canadian lawyer, soldier, and politician
Jobyna Ralston, American silent film actress
John Ralston (disambiguation), several people
Joseph Ralston, American former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Ken Ralston, American visual effects artist
Les Ralston, American boxer
Norman Ralston, American pilot
Robert Ralston, American merchant and philanthropist
Rudy Ralston, Czech-American film producer
Samuel M. Ralston, governor of U.S. state of Indiana
Steve Ralston, American soccer player
Susan Ralston, American businesswoman
Vera Ralston, Czech-American actress
William Chapman Ralston, American businessman and financier
William Shedden Ralston, British scholar of RussianRock Bottom Remainders
The Rock Bottom Remainders are an American rock charity supergroup, consisting of published writers, most of them both amateur musicians and popular English-language book, magazine, and newspaper authors. The band took its self-mocking name from the publishing term "remaindered book", a work of which the unsold remainder of the publisher's stock of copies is sold at a reduced price. Their performances collectively raised $2 million for charity from their concerts.
The band's members have included Dave Barry, Stephen King, Amy Tan, Cynthia Heimel, Sam Barry, Ridley Pearson, Scott Turow, Joel Selvin, James McBride, Mitch Albom, Roy Blount Jr., Barbara Kingsolver, Robert Fulghum, Matt Groening, Tad Bartimus, Greg Iles, Aron Ralston and honorary member Maya Angelou among others, as well as professional musicians such as multi-instrumentalist (and author) Al Kooper, drummer Josh Kelly, guitarist Roger McGuinn and saxophonist Erasmo Paulo. Founder Kathi Kamen Goldmark died on May 24, 2012.Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
The Toronto Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor is one of the annual awards given by the Toronto Film Critics Association.Treehouse of Horror XXII
"Treehouse of Horror XXII" is the third episode of the twenty-third season and the twenty-second Halloween episode of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on October 30, 2011. The episode is part of the Treehouse of Horror series, which is an episode divided into three separate stories and an opening that is a parody of scary or Halloween themed stories. This episode's stories were primarily spoofs of the French film The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, the television series Dexter, and the American film Avatar. The opening was a parody of the autobiographical film 127 Hours, in which the subject Aron Ralston loses an arm.
The episode was written by Carolyn Omine, directed by Matthew Faughnan, and featured guest voices from Aron Ralston and Jackie Mason. In its original American broadcast, it was viewed by approximately 8.1 million people. The critical reception was very diverse, ranging from a plea to end the show to a statement that the show is on top of its game and should not be cancelled. The episode featured a reference to the Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. After watching the show, the producers of the musical released a press statement in which they told how flattered they were when their show was mentioned on The Simpsons.Urophagia
Urophagia is the consumption of urine. Urine was used in several ancient cultures for various health, healing, and cosmetic purposes; urine drinking is still practiced today, though there is no proven health benefit to it. In extreme cases, people drink urine if no other potable fluid is available, although numerous credible sources (including the US Army Field Manual) advise against it. Urine is also consumed as a sexual activity.Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
The Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor is an annual award given by the Vancouver Film Critics Circle.Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
The Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor is one of the annual awards given by the Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association.