Aron Yakovlevich Gurevich (also spelled Aaron Gurevich Russian: Аро́н Я́ковлевич Гуре́вич; May 12, 1924, Moscow – August 5, 2006, Moscow) was a Russian medievalist historian, working on the European culture of the Middle Ages.
Gurevich's work was informed by Jacques Le Goff and Georges Duby, and he considered himself a member of their Annales School. He was also influenced by ideas of Mikhail Bakhtin, challenging some of them at the same time. Gurevich's work was considered anti-Marxist and met with hostility in the Soviet Union, but enjoyed support abroad among the Annales School, although he was not allowed to travel abroad before Perestroika.
Aron Gurevich was born in Moscow on May 12, 1924 to a secular Jewish family. In 1946 he graduated from the Moscow State University. He initially specialized in Scandinavian languages. In 1950 after defending his dissertation Peasantry of South-Eastern England during the pre-Norman period he became a Candidate of Sciences and a lecturer of Kalinin State Pedagogical Institute (now Tver State University), a provincial posting he was relegated to, and which he held from 1950 until 1964. In 1962 Gurevich received a Doktor nauk degree at Leningrad University. His doctoral thesis was Overview of Norway's social history in IX–XII centuries. It was the first doctoral thesis in Soviet Union completely dedicated to Viking history. His career would suffer notably from the fact that he was Jewish, something that spelled considerable difficulties for scholars within the Soviet Union at that time.
Aron Gurevich returned to Kalinin and became a professor in 1963.
In 1966 Gurevich joined Moscow Institute of Philosophy, but he was fired after publishing Problems in the Origins of Feudalism in Western Europe (Problemy genezisa feodalizma v zapadnoi Evrope(1970)), where he contested the theory on origins of feudalism adopted in Marxist historiography, and was denounced for his employment of structuralist methods. Thereafter on he was barred from academic teaching. He was employed in the Information Department of the Institute for World History in Moscow until 1992.
In 1989 during Perestroika Gurevich was allowed to exit the country for the first time, and he lectured abroad in 1989–1991.
In 1993 he became a head of the Institute of the World History at the Moscow State University.
Alexander Dobrokhotov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Льво́вич Доброхо́тов; born 8 September 1950) is a Russian philosopher, historian of philosophy, historian of culture, and university professor. He specialises in the history of Russian culture, history of philosophy, metaphysics, Russian philosophy, ancient and medieval philosophy, Kant and German Idealism, and philosophy of culture. Alexander Dobrokhotov is a leading Russian philosopher of culture and one of the founders of the Russian discipline within the humanities called ‘culturology’ (kulturologia).Champagne fairs
The Champagne fairs were an annual cycle of trading fairs held in towns in the Champagne and Brie regions of France in the Middle Ages. From their origins in local agricultural and stock fairs, the Champagne fairs became an important engine in the reviving economic history of medieval Europe, "veritable nerve centers" serving as a premier market for textiles, leather, fur, and spices. At their height, in the late 12th and the 13th century, the fairs linked the cloth-producing cities of the Low Countries with the Italian dyeing and exporting centers, with Genoa in the lead. The fairs, which were already well-organized at the start of the 12th century, were one of the earliest manifestations of a linked European economy, a characteristic of the High Middle Ages. From the later 12th century, the fairs, conveniently sited on ancient land routes and largely self-regulated through the development of the Lex mercatoria, the "merchant law", dominated the commercial and banking relations operating at the frontier region between the north and the Mediterranean.Deaths in August 2006
The following is a list of notable deaths in August 2006.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.Materia medica
Materia medica (English: medical material/substance) is a Latin term from the history of pharmacy for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing (i.e., medicines). The term derives from the title of a work by the Ancient Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century AD, De materia medica, 'On medical material' (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, Peri hylēs iatrikēs, in Greek). The term materia medica was used from the period of the Roman Empire until the 20th century, but has now been generally replaced in medical education contexts by the term pharmacology. The term survives in the title of the British Medical Journal's "Materia Non Medica" column.Mikhail Gasparov
Mikhail Leonovich Gasparov (Russian: Михаи́л Лео́нович Гаспа́ров, April 13, 1935 in Moscow – November 7, 2005 in Moscow) was a Russian philologist and translator, renowned for his studies in classical philology and the history of versification, and a member of the informal Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1957 and worked at the Gorky Institute of World Literature, the Russian State University for the Humanities, and the Russian Language Institute in Moscow. In 1992 Gasparov was elected a full member of the Russian Academy of Science.In 1995 Mikhail Gasparov was awarded the State Prize of the Russian Federation.
In 1997 he shared the Little Booker Prize with Aleksandr Goldstein for their publications analysing Russian literature from a historical-philosophical point of view.In 1999 Gasparov was awarded the Andrei Bely Prize for his essay collection Notes and excerpts (Russian: Записи и выписки).
Gasparov was also a poet. He published translations of classical and modern European poetry, yet only one of his own poems was published during his lifetime.Gasparov was a member of the editorial board of Literary Monuments (Russian: Литературные памятники) book series, journals Journal of Ancient History (Russian: Вестник древней истории), Literary Research (Russian: Литературоведение), Elementa (United States), and Rossica Romana (Italy).Mikhail Gasparov published about 300 articles, translations and other works, including the monographs Fable in Antiquity (Russian: Античная литературная басня, 1971), Modern Russian Versification (Russian: Современный русский стих. Метрика и ритмика, 1974), Overview of the History of Russian Versification (Russian: Очерк истории русского стиха: Метрика, ритмика, рифма, строфика, 1984), Overview of the History of European Versification (Russian: Очерк истории европейского стиха, 1989).During his last years Gasparov was actively engaged in publishing the collected works of the Russian poet Osip Mandelstam.Commemorating Mikhail Gasparov, the Russian State University for the Humanities organises annual conferences dedicated to the main fields of Gasparov's academic research -- classical philology and Russian literature of the 19th and early 20th centuries.Nonino
Nonino is a small Italian company that is a producer of grappa. Nonino is also the name of the family that owns and runs the brand Nonino Grappa. The first Nonino distillery was founded by Orazio Nonino in Ronchi di Percoto, in the Friuli region in northeastern Italy.
The company is led by Gianola Nonino, who led the company to achievements and made its Nonino Grappa famous among the celebrities of Italy. Nonino has won several prizes and innovated in the field of grappa production. In 1973, Nonino became the first company to produce a commercial grappa from a single grape variety by creating a liquor using only the Picolit grape. In 1984, the company produced the first whole-grape distillate, which they marketed as Ue.Vyacheslav Ivanov (philologist)
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov (Russian: Вячесла́в Все́володович Ива́нов, 21 August 1929 – 7 October 2017) was a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist, semiotician and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Armenian Highlands and Lake Urmia.