Arnold Henry Guyot

Arnold Henry Guyot (/ˈɡiːoʊ/ GHEE-oh)[1] (September 28, 1807 – February 8, 1884) was a Swiss-American geologist and geographer.

Arnold Henry Guyot
Arnold Henry Guyot
Arnold Henry Guyot
BornSeptember 28, 1807
DiedFebruary 8, 1884 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, United States
NationalitySwiss
CitizenshipAmerican
Scientific career
Fieldsgeology
geography
InfluencesLouis Agassiz
Arnold Guyot03
Australia map compiled by Arnold Henry Guyot and Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard

Early life

Guyot was born on September 28, 1807 at Boudevilliers, near Neuchâtel, Switzerland. He was educated at Chaux-de-Fonds, then at the college of Neuchâtel. In 1825, he went to Germany and resided in Karlsruhe where he met Louis Agassiz, the beginning of a lifelong friendship. From Karlsruhe he moved to Stuttgart, where he studied at the gymnasium. He returned to Neuchâtel in 1827. He determined to enter the ministry and started at the University of Berlin to attend lectures. While pursuing his studies, he also attended lectures on philosophy and natural science. His leisure time was spent in collecting shells and plants, and he received an entrée to the Berlin Botanical Garden from Humboldt. In 1835, he received the degree of PhD from Berlin.

Biography

In 1838, at Agassiz's suggestion, he visited the Swiss glaciers and communicated the results of his six-week investigation to the Geological Society of France. He was the first to point out certain important observations relating to glacial motion and structure. Among other things he noted the more rapid flow of the center than of the sides, and the more rapid flow of the top than of the bottom of glaciers; described the laminated or ribboned structure of the glacial ice; and ascribed the movement of glaciers to a gradual molecular displacement rather than to a sliding of the ice mass as held by de Saussure. He subsequently collected important data concerning erratic boulders.[2]

In 1839, he became the colleague of Agassiz as professor of history and physical geography at the College of Neuchâtel (a.k.a. Neuchâtel Academy). The suspension of that institution in 1848 caused Guyot to emigrate, at Agassiz's instance, to the United States, where he settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[2] He delivered a course of lectures at the Lowell Institute which were afterward published as Earth and Man (Boston 1849). For several years the Massachusetts Board of Education retained his services as a lecturer on geography and methods of instruction to the normal schools and teachers' institutes.

He was occupied with this work until his appointment, in 1854, as professor of physical geography and geology at Princeton University, which office he retained until his death. He was also for several years lecturer on physical geography in the State Normal School in Trenton, New Jersey, and from 1861 to 1866 lecturer in the Princeton Theological Seminary. He also gave courses in the Union Theological Seminary, New York, and at Columbia College. He founded the museum at Princeton, many of the specimens of which are from his own collections.

His scientific work in the United States included the perfection of plans for a national system of meteorological observations. Most of these were conducted under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution. His extensive meteorological observations led to the establishment of the United States Weather Bureau, and his Meteorological and Physical Tables (1852, revised ed. 1884) were long standard.[2]

Bear Seamount guyot
The Bear Seamount, a guyot

A guyot, also known as a tablemount, is an isolated underwater volcanic mountain (seamount), with a flat top over 200 metres (660 feet) below the surface of the sea. The diameters of these flat summits can exceed 10 km (6.2 mi).[3] The term "guyot" was coined by Harry Hammond Hess and named after Arnold Guyot.

Guyot rejected Darwin's theory of human evolution and, at the same time, he accepted Hugh Miller's views on the book of Genesis, thinking that the days described there might have taken a longer period of time.[4] Scientist James Dwight Dana described Guyot as "a fervently religious man, living as if ever in communion with his Heavenly Parent; a Christian, following closely in the footsteps of his Master."[5][6]

Guyot's Creation, or the Biblical Cosmogony in the Light of Modern Science (1884) was critically reviewed in the Science journal.[7]

Writings

His graded series of text books and wall maps were important aids in the extension and popularization of geological study in America. In addition to text books, his principal publications were:[2]

Namesakes

He is the namesake of several geographical features, including Guyot Glacier in Alaska, Mount Guyot on the North Carolina and Tennessee border, and a different Mount Guyot in New Hampshire, as well as Mount Guyot on the Rocky Mountain Continental Divide in Colorado. The building housing the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and the Department of Geosciences at Princeton is named Guyot Hall in his honor.

Death

Guyot died on February 8, 1884 at Princeton, New Jersey.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Webster's New Biographical Dictionary (Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1988; ISBN 9780877795438), p. 433.
  2. ^ a b c d Chisholm 1911.
  3. ^ Guyot Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  4. ^ Stanley A. Rice (2009). Encyclopedia of Evolution, Infobase Publishing. p.99
  5. ^ Dana, James Dwight (1886). Biographical memoir of Arnold Guyot. National Academy. p.344
  6. ^ Frederick De Land Leete (1928). Christianity in Science. Abingdon Press, p. 251.
  7. ^ Anonymous. (1884). Review: Guyot's View of Creation. Reviewed Work: Creation; Or the Biblical Cosmogony in the Light of Modern Science by Arnold Guyot. Science 3 (67): 599-601.

References

External links

Allegheny Mountains

The Allegheny Mountain Range , informally the Alleghenies and also spelled Alleghany and Allegany, is part of the vast Appalachian Mountain Range of the Eastern United States and Canada and posed a significant barrier to land travel in less technologically advanced eras. The barrier range has a northeast–southwest orientation and runs for about 400 miles (640 km) from north-central Pennsylvania, through western Maryland and eastern West Virginia, to southwestern Virginia.

The Alleghenies comprise the rugged western-central portion of the Appalachians. They rise to approximately 4,862 feet (1,483 m) in northeastern West Virginia. In the east, they are dominated by a high, steep escarpment known as the Allegheny Front. In the west, they slope down into the closely associated Allegheny Plateau, which extends into Ohio and Kentucky. The principal settlements of the Alleghenies are Altoona, State College, and Johnstown, Pennsylvania; and Cumberland, Maryland.

Catskill Mountain House

The Catskill Mountain House, which opened in 1824, was a famous hotel near Palenville, New York, and in the Catskill Mountains overlooking the Hudson River Valley. In its prime, from the 1850s to the turn of the century, it was visited by three U.S. presidents (U.S. Grant, Chester A. Arthur, and Theodore Roosevelt) and the power elite of the day.

Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard

Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard (May 5, 1809 – April 27, 1889) was a deaf American scientist and educator.

Geography

Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".

George Peter Alexander Healy

George Peter Alexander Healy (July 15, 1813 – June 24, 1894) was an American portrait painter. He was one of the most prolific and popular painters of his day, and his sitters included many of the eminent personages of his time.

Guiot

Guiot or Guyot is an Old French name, an augmentative of Guy. It may also be related to the root guille, meaning deception or silliness.

Guyot

In marine geology, a guyot (pronounced ), also known as a tablemount, is an isolated underwater volcanic mountain (seamount) with a flat top more than 200 m (660 ft) below the surface of the sea. The diameters of these flat summits can exceed 10 km (6.2 mi). Guyots are most commonly found in the Pacific Ocean, but they have been identified in all the oceans except the Arctic Ocean.

Guyot (crater)

Guyot is a lunar impact crater on the Moon's far side. It is separated from the crater Kostinskiy to the northeast by only a few kilometers of rough terrain. To the west-southwest lies the crater Lobachevskiy and to the east-southeast is Ostwald.

This is a worn and eroded crater with an outer rim that has been somewhat distorted in shape due to nearby impacts. Several small craterlets lie along the rim and the sides. The interior floor has also been marked by impacts, including an eroded formation occupying the northwestern portion.

The crater is named after the Swiss-born American geographer and geologist Arnold Henry Guyot. Prior to naming in 1970 by the IAU, this crater was known as Crater 208.

Guyot Glacier

Guyot Glacier is a 34-mile (55 km) long and 8-mile (13 km) wide glacier located in the east end of the Robinson Mountains in the U.S. state of Alaska. It begins 5.6 mi (9.0 km) north of Yaga Peak and heads east-southeast to Icy Bay, south of the Guyot Hills and 73 miles (117 km) northwest of Yakutat. It borders Yahtse Glacier on the northeast. The glacier was named by the New York Times expedition of 1886 for Arnold Henry Guyot.

Harry Hammond Hess

Harry Hammond Hess (May 24, 1906 – August 25, 1969) was a geologist and a United States Navy officer in World War II.

Considered one of the "founding fathers" of the unifying theory of plate tectonics, Rear Admiral Harry Hammond Hess was born on May 24, 1906, in New York City. He is best known for his theories on sea floor spreading, specifically work on relationships between island arcs, seafloor gravity anomalies, and serpentinized peridotite, suggesting that the convection of the Earth's mantle was the driving force behind this process. This work provided a conceptual base for the development of the theory of plate tectonics.

Hunter Mountain (New York)

Hunter Mountain is in the towns of Hunter and Lexington, just south of the village of Hunter, in Greene County, New York, United States. At approximately 4,040 feet (1,231 m) in elevation, it is the highest peak in the county and the second-highest peak in the Catskill Mountains.

While the mountain is closely associated with the eponymous ski area built around the Colonel's Chair ridge at the mountain's northwest corner, that takes up only a small portion of the mountain. The actual summit, some distance from the ski area, is graced with a fire lookout tower, the highest in the state and second-highest in the Northeast. The former road to it is open to hikers, horses (and possibly mountain bikers in the future). It is the most popular route to the mountain's summit.

John Insley Blair

John Insley Blair (August 22, 1802 – December 2, 1899) was an American entrepreneur, railroad magnate, philanthropist and one of the 19th century's wealthiest men.

John Maclean Jr.

John Maclean Jr., D.D. (March 3, 1800 – August 10, 1886) was an American Presbyterian clergyman and educator who served as the tenth President of Princeton University, then known as the College of New Jersey. Maclean, the son of the first professor of chemistry at the College of New Jersey, grew up in Princeton, New Jersey. He attended the College and later Princeton Theological Seminary. At age 23, he became full professor of mathematics at the university. Six years later, he became university vice president. He was responsible for bringing a number of renown scholars and academics to the college. During this time, he also left mathematics and became professor of ancient languages. Maclean was one of the chief architects of the state's public education system. His plan for a state normal school, local boards of education and nonsectarian public schools was adopted by the state legislature. He became president of the College of New Jersey in 1854. He led the university through the 1855 burning of Nassau Hall and the American Civil War. After retiring from his post after 14 years in office, he wrote a two-volume history of the university. He served as the honorary president of the university's Alumni Association until his death.

List of geographers

This list of geographers is presented in English alphabetical transliteration order (by surnames).

List of people with craters of the Moon named after them

The following is a list of people whose names were given to craters of the Moon. The list of approved names in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature maintained by the International Astronomical Union includes the person the crater is named for.

Mount Guyot (Colorado)

Mount Guyot is a high mountain summit in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,376-foot (4,077 m) thirteener is located 6.3 miles (10.2 km) east-southeast (bearing 117°) of the Town of Breckenridge, Colorado, United States, on the Continental Divide separating Pike National Forest and Park County from Arapaho National Forest and Summit County. The mountain was named in honor of Arnold Henry Guyot, a Swiss-American geologist.

North–South Lake

North–South Lake is an 1,100-acre (4.4 km²) state campground in the Catskill Forest Preserve near Palenville, New York operated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation near the site of the historic Catskill Mountain House overlooking the Hudson River. The escarpment on which the lakes are located is at 2,250 feet (685.8 m), 1,700 feet (518 m) above the valley floor, providing a view of five states in clear weather.

The area is rich in history. It was a favorite subject of painters in the Hudson River school, particularly Thomas Cole. For a long time, the prestigious resort hotels in the area made it synonymous with the Catskills.

Today, the area provides hiking, swimming, boating (no motors), and fishing.

Physical geography

Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major fields of geography. Physical geography is the branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

Universal Cyclopaedia

The 12-volume Universal Cyclopaedia was edited by Charles Kendall Adams, and was published by D. Appleton & Company in 1900. The name was changed to Universal Cyclopaedia and Atlas in 1902, with editor .

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