Arnhem (/ˈɑːrnəm/, also US: /ˈɑːrnhɛm/, Dutch: [ˈɑrnɛm] (listen) or [ˈɑrnɦɛm] (listen); German: Arnheim; West Frisian: Arnhim; South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of Gelderland and located on both banks of the rivers Nederrijn and Sint-Jansbeek, which was the source of the city's development. Arnhem had a population of 156,600 in 2017 and is one of the larger cities of the Netherlands. The municipality is part of the Arnhem–Nijmegen metropolitan area which has a combined 736,500 inhabitants.
Arnhem is home to the Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen, ArtEZ Institute of the Arts, Netherlands Open Air Museum, Airborne Museum 'Hartenstein', Royal Burgers' Zoo, NOC*NSF and National Sports Centre Papendal. The north corner of the municipality is part of the Hoge Veluwe National Park. It is approximately 55 square kilometers in area, consisting of heathlands, sand dunes, and woodlands.
Coat of arms
Location in Gelderland
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Mayor||Ahmed Marcouch (PvdA)|
|• Municipality||101.54 km2 (39.20 sq mi)|
|• Land||97.99 km2 (37.83 sq mi)|
|• Water||3.55 km2 (1.37 sq mi)|
|Elevation||13 m (43 ft)|
|• Density||1,598/km2 (4,140/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
The oldest archeological findings of human activity around Arnhem are two firestones of about 70,000 years ago. These come from the stone age, when the Neanderthals lived in this part of Europe. In Schuytgraaf, remnants of a hunters camp from around 5000 BC have been discovered. In Schaarsbergen, twelve grave mounds were found from 2400 BC, which brought the so-called Neolithic Revolution to the area of Arnhem, which meant the rise of the farmers.
The earliest settlement in Arnhem dates from 1500 BC, of which traces have been found on the Hoogkamp, where the Van Goyenstraat is currently located. In the inner city, around the Sint-Jansbeek, traces of settlement have been found from around 700 BC, while the first traces south of the Rhine have been found dating to around 500 BC, in the Schuytgraaf.
Though the early tracks of settlements did show that the early residents of Arnhem descended from the forests on the hills, Arnhem was not built on the banks of the river Rhine, but a little higher along the Sint-Jansbeek. Arnhem arose on the location where the road between Nijmegen and Utrecht and Zutphen split. Seven streams provided the city with water, and only when the flow of the Rhine was changed in 1530, was the city located on the river.
Arnhem was first mentioned as such in 893 as Arneym or Arentheym. In 1233, Count Otto II of Guelders from Zutphen, conferred city rights on the town, which had belonged to the abbey of Prüm, settled in, and fortified it. Arnhem entered the Hanseatic League in 1443. In 1473, it was captured by Charles the Bold of Burgundy.
In 1514, Charles of Egmond, duke of Guelders, took it from the dukes of Burgundy; in 1543, it fell to the emperor Charles V. As capital of the so-called "Kwartier van Veluwe" it joined the Union of Utrecht during the Eighty Years' War in 1579. After its capture from the Spanish forces by Dutch and English troops in 1585 the city became part of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands. The French occupied the town from 1672 to 1674.
From 1795 to 1813, it was reoccupied by the French, by both revolutionary and imperial forces.
In the early 19th century, the former fortifications were almost completely dismantled, to give space for town expansion. The Sabelspoort (Sabresgate) is the only remaining part of the medieval walls.
In the 19th century, Arnhem was a genteel resort town famous for its picturesque beauty. It was known as "het Haagje van het oosten" (The Little Hague of the East), mainly because a number of rich former sugar barons or planters from the Indies settled there, as they did in The Hague. Even now the city is famous for its parks and greenery. The urbanization in the north on hilly terrain is also quite unusual for the Netherlands.
In the Second World War (1939–1945), during Operation Market Garden (September 1944), the British 1st Airborne Division, under the command of Major-General Roy Urquhart, and the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade were given the task of securing the bridge at Arnhem.
Glider infantry and paratrooper units were landed into the area on 17 September and later. The bulk of the force was dropped rather far from the bridge and never met their objective. A small element of the British 1st Airborne, the 2nd Parachute Battalion under Lieutenant Colonel John D. Frost, managed to make its way as far as the bridge but was unable to secure both sides. The British troops encountered stiff resistance from the German 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions, which had been stationed in and around the city.
The British force at the bridge eventually ran out of ammunition and was captured on 21 September, and a full withdrawal of the remaining forces was made on 26 September. These events were dramatized in the 1977 movie A Bridge Too Far. (The bridge scenes in the movie were shot in Deventer, where a similar bridge over the IJssel was available, as the area around Arnhem bridge had changed too much to represent WWII-era Arnhem). As a tribute, the rebuilt bridge was renamed 'John Frost Bridge' after the commander of the paratroopers. The official commemoration is 17 September.
The current bridge is the third almost-identical bridge built at the same spot. The Dutch Army destroyed the first bridge when the German Army invaded the Netherlands in 1940. The second bridge was destroyed by the United States Army Air Forces shortly after the 1944 battle.
Just outside Arnhem, in the town of Oosterbeek the Commonwealth War Graves Commission built the Arnhem Oosterbeek War Cemetery which contains the graves of most of those killed during the September landings, and many of those killed in later fighting in the area.
The municipality of Arnhem consists of the city of Arnhem and the following surrounding suburbs and former villages:
Arnhem consists of three districts (stadsdelen) and 24 neighbourhoods (wijken). Each neighbourhood has a number which corresponds to its postal code.
The outlying areas of the following villages are bordering the municipality of Arnhem directly, which means among others that in many a case a considerable number of their inhabitants originate from Arnhem.
The city lies a few kilometers from the border with Germany, and to some extent the westernmost villages in the municipality of Elten, Germany, function as dormitories for people who work in the Dutch city of Arnhem in part due to the immigration of Dutch people from the region that were attracted by the lower house pricing just across the border.
Arnhem features the same climate (Cfb, oceanic climate) as all of the Netherlands, however, its location on the foothills of the Veluwe, the largest forest in the Netherlands, contributes to some higher precipitation values.
|Arnhem residents by nationality (1 January 2017)|
The Grote Kerk (St. Eusebius' Church), built 1452–1560, lost most of its tower during World War II, of which a part has been reconstructed to a modern design and opened in 1964. Officially the tower is not part of the church and is owned by the municipality.
The house of Maarten van Rossum, a general serving Duke Charles van Gelre, has been the town hall since 1830: The satyrs in its Renaissance ornamentation earned it the name Duivelshuis (devil's house). The Netherlands Open Air Museum is located outside the city. It includes antique houses, farms, factories, and windmills from different parts of the Netherlands. Two other windmills stand in Arnhem itself, De Hoop and De Kroon.
The Royal Burgers' Zoo in Arnhem is one of the biggest and most-visited zoos in the Netherlands, featuring an underwater walkthrough, desert, mangrove, and rainforest. The GelreDome, the home of Vitesse Arnhem, the city's Eredivisie team in football, is a unique facility that features a retractable roof and a slide-out grass pitch. The concept has been fully duplicated since then by the Veltins-Arena in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, and the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, U.S., and partially by the Sapporo Dome in Japan (which has a sliding pitch but a fixed roof).
The KEMA Toren (formerly known as SEP Control Tower) is the highest structure of the town. It is a 140-m-high TV tower.
The National Sports Centre Papendal is the national sports development centre of the Netherlands, located in Arnhem. The first event held at Papendal was the 1980 Summer Paralympics, from June 21 to July 5. However the site was formally adopted and developed from 1993, after the merger of the Dutch National Olympic Committee (NOC) and the Nederlandse Sport Federatie (NSF).
NOC*NSF have 90 affiliated national sports organizations, representing about 2700 individual sports clubs. Papendal is also the training location of football club Vitesse Arnhem, and the club's youth development system. Supporting facilities include a conference centre and hotel.
In preparation for the 2012 Summer Olympics, in 2011 the facility built a replica of the proposed BMX racing track at the London Velopark venue. The track will host the second event on the 2011 UCI BMX World Championships, on the 27 and 28 May 2011.
Since January 2013 Sports Centre Papendal officially split from NOC * NSF and thus as organization demerges. This split offers Sports Centre Papendal many commercial benefits. There are facilities for various sports, including athletics, cycling and more.
Sport in the city is principally focussed on its association football club Vitesse Arnhem and its stadium the GelreDome built for the UEFA Euro 2000. The club has enjoyed some success in the Eredivisie and has featured in the UEFA Cup competition. Their best result in the Eredivisie was third place in 1997–98. The club won the KNVB Cup in 2016–17.
Introdans is a dance company based in the city of Arnhem. In 2009 the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science designated Introdans part of the basic national infrastructure. In 2016 was the Giro d'Italia in Arnhem.
Arnhem has had a main central railway station since 1845 – Arnhem Centraal railway station, which is serviced by several intercity lines and the Intercity-Express to Düsseldorf and further on to Frankfurt.
The intercity lines provide direct connections to Utrecht, Nijmegen and Zutphen. It is also the terminus for several local railway services. Arnhem has three other stations, namely Arnhem Velperpoort (since 1953), Arnhem Presikhaaf (since 1969) and Arnhem Zuid (since 2005).
Notable people born in Arnhem include:
Arnhem is twinned with:
The 1980 Summer Paralympics (Dutch: Paralympische Zomerspelen 1980), branded as the Olympics for the Disabled, were the sixth Summer Paralympic Games. They were held in Arnhem, Netherlands, from June 21 to 30, 1980.2009–10 Eredivisie
The Eredivisie 2009–10 was the 54th season of Eredivisie since its establishment in 1955. AZ were the reigning champions. A total of 18 teams is taking part in the league, consisting of 16 who competed in the previous season and two promoted from the Eerste Divisie. The teams promoted from the Eerste Divisie at the end of the previous season were champions VVV Venlo, and promotion/relegation play-off winners RKC Waalwijk.
The season started on 31 July 2009 and ended on 2 May 2010. FC Twente won their first ever Eredivisie title.
During the halfway break PSV Eindhoven had been evenly matched with Twente, however towards the end AFC Ajax had climbed up the table with remarkable wins and many goals scored, taken second from PSV Eindhoven, and PSV's falter landed them in third.Arnhem Centraal railway station
Arnhem Centraal is the largest railway station in the city of Arnhem, Netherlands. It was opened on 14 May 1845 and is located on the Amsterdam–Arnhem railway, the Arnhem–Leeuwarden railway and the Arnhem–Nijmegen railway. The station opened at the same time as the Amsterdam–Arnhem railway, that continues into Germany via the Oberhausen–Arnhem railway.
The station is the main station of Arnhem, and at present, has around 40,000 passengers that use the station per day, this makes it the 9th busiest station in the Netherlands. The main building has a surface of 18,000 m2 and a volume of 76,000 m3, the building has a capacity of 110.000 transfers per day.Arnhem Land
Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia. It is located in the north-eastern corner of the territory and is around 500 km (310 mi) from the territory capital Darwin. The region has an area of 97,000 km2 (37,000 sq mi), which also covers the area of Kakadu National Park, and a population of 16,230. In 1623, Dutch East India Company captain William van Colster sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape Arnhem is named after his ship, the Arnhem, which itself was named after the city of Arnhem in the Netherlands.
The area covers about 97,000 km2 and has an estimated population of 16,000, of whom 12,000 are Yolngu, the traditional owners. The region's service hub is Nhulunbuy, 600 km east of Darwin, set up in the early 1970s as a mining town (bauxite). Other major population centres are Yirrkala (just outside Nhulunbuy), Gunbalanya (formerly Oenpelli), Ramingining, and Maningrida.
A substantial proportion of the population, which is mostly Aboriginal, lives on small outstations. This outstation movement started in the early 1980s. Many Aboriginal groups moved to usually very small settlements on their traditional lands, often to escape the problems (alcohol, petrol-sniffing, idleness) on the larger townships.
These population groups have very little Western influence culturally speaking, and Arnhem Land is arguably one of the last areas in Australia that could be seen as a completely separate country. Many of the region's leaders have called and continue to call for a treaty that would allow the Yolngu to operate under their own traditional laws.
In 2013–14, the entire region contributed around $1.3 billion or 7% to the Northern Territory's gross state product, mainly through bauxite mining.Arnhem post mill (1946)
A hollow post mill at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands was originally built at Gouda, South Holland, Netherlands. It was dismantled in 1946 and re-erected at the museum. The mill has been restored to working order.Battle of Arnhem
The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War at the vanguard of the Allied Operation Market Garden. It was fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel, and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.
The Allies were poised to enter the Netherlands after sweeping through France and Belgium in the summer of 1944, after the Battle of Normandy. Market Garden was proposed by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery, who favoured a single thrust north over the branches of the Lower Rhine River, allowing the British Second Army to bypass the Siegfried Line and attack the Ruhr. Allied Airborne troops were dropped in the Netherlands to secure key bridges and towns along the Allied axis of advance. Farthest north, the British 1st Airborne Division landed at Arnhem to secure bridges across the Nederrijn, supported by men of the Glider Pilot Regiment and the 1st Polish Parachute Brigade. British XXX Corps were expected to reach the British airborne forces in two to three days.
The British airborne forces landed some distance from their objectives and were hampered by unexpected resistance, especially from elements of the 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions. Only a small force was able to reach the Arnhem road bridge while the main body of the division was halted on the outskirts of the town. Meanwhile, XXX Corps was unable to advance north as quickly as anticipated and they failed to relieve the airborne troops according to schedule. After four days, the small British force at the bridge was overwhelmed and the rest of the division became trapped in a small pocket north of the river, where they could not be sufficiently reinforced by the Poles or XXX Corps when they arrived on the southern bank, nor by the RAF's resupply flights. After nine days of fighting, the shattered remains of the division were withdrawn in Operation Berlin. The Allies were unable to advance farther with no secure bridges over the Nederrijn, and the front line stabilised south of Arnhem. The British 1st Airborne Division lost nearly ¾ of its strength and did not see combat again.Bininj Kunwok language
Kunwinjku (Gunwinggu or Gunwinjgu), also known by the cover term Bininj Gunwok or Mayali, is an Australian Aboriginal language in northern Australia. The Bininj Gun-Wok peoples live primarily in western Arnhem Land. There are perhaps two thousand fluent speakers in an area roughly bounded by Kakadu National Park to the west, the Arafura Sea to the north, the Blyth River to the east, and the Katherine region to the south.De Hoop, Arnhem
De Hoop (English: The Hope) is a tower mill in Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands which was built in 1846 and is in working order. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument.De Kroon, Arnhem
De Kroon (English: The Crown) or the Klarendalse Molen is a tower mill in Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands which was built in 1870 and is in working order. The mill is listed as a Rijksmonument.Duke of Lancaster's Regiment
The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment (King's, Lancashire and Border) (LANCS) is an infantry regiment of the line within the British Army, part of the King's Division. Headquartered in Preston, it recruits throughout the North West of England.Gelderland
Gelderland (, also US: , Dutch: [ˈɣɛldərlɑnt] (listen)), also known as Guelders () in English, is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. With a land area of nearly 5,000 km2, it is the largest province of the Netherlands and shares borders with six other provinces (Flevoland, Limburg, North Brabant, Overijssel, South Holland and Utrecht) and Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia).
The capital is Arnhem (pop. 156,000); however, Nijmegen (pop. 175,000) and Apeldoorn (pop. nearly 161,000) are both larger municipalities (2017 figures). Other major regional centres in Gelderland are Ede, Doetinchem, Zutphen, Harderwijk, Tiel, Wageningen, Zevenaar, and Winterswijk. Gelderland had a population of just over two million in 2018.GelreDome
The GelreDome (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣɛlrədoːm]) is a football stadium in the city of Arnhem, Netherlands. It is one of the largest and modern stadium in the country, built from 1996 to 1998 at a cost equivalent to €75 million, that opened on 25 March 1998. The stadium is the home of the association football club Vitesse Arnhem since 1998. It was one of the stadiums used during Euro 2000 tournament held in the Netherlands and Belgium.
Both international and Dutch artists have given concerts in the stadium, including Tina Turner, Celine Dion, Madonna, Prince, Justin Bieber, Paul McCartney, Shakira, AC/DC, André Rieu, The Rolling Stones, Justin Timberlake and Rihanna.
The stadium has a retractable roof, as well as a convertible pitch, that can be retracted, when unused during concerts or other events held at the stadium, and a climate control system. It has a capacity of 34,000 people for sports events, or 41,000 during concerts. The GelreDome pitch is surrounded on each side by four covered all-seater stands, officially known as the Edward Sturing Stand (North), Charly Bosveld Stand (East), Theo Bos Stand (South) and Just Göbel Stand (West).
The GelreDome currently holds a four-star rating by UEFA.Huizermolen, Arnhem
Huizermolen is a post mill in the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands which was built in 1919 and is in working order.Macro-Gunwinyguan languages
The Macro-Gunwinyguan languages, also called Arnhem or Gunwinyguan, are a family of Australian Aboriginal languages spoken across eastern Arnhem Land in northern Australia. Their relationship has been demonstrated through shared morphology in their verbal inflections.
Many of the languages have a fortis–lenis contrast in plosive consonants. Lenis/short plosives have weak contact and intermittent voicing, while fortis/long plosives have full closure, a more powerful release burst, and no voicing.Monnikenhuize
Monnikenhuize was a multi-use stadium in Arnhem, Netherlands. It was used mostly for football matches and hosted the home matches of SBV Vitesse. The stadium was able to hold 7,500 people. The stadium was opened in 1915. It was closed in 1950 when Nieuw Monnikenhuize opened.
For the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, it hosted the consolation first round match between Chile and Mexico on 5 June 1928.Operation Market Garden
Operation Market Garden was a failed World War II military operation fought in the Netherlands from 17 to 25 September 1944, planned primarily by Generals Brereton and Williams of the USAAF. The airborne part of the operation was undertaken by the First Allied Airborne Army with the land operation by XXX Corps of the British Second Army. The objective was to create a 64 mi (103 km) salient into German territory with a foothold over the River Rhine, creating an Allied invasion route into northern Germany. This would be achieved by seizing a series of nine bridges by Airborne forces with land forces swiftly following moving over the bridges. The operation succeeded in liberating the Dutch cities of Eindhoven and Nijmegen along with many towns, creating a 60 mi (97 km) salient into German territory eliminating V-2 rocket launching sites. It failed, however, to secure a foothold over the Rhine, halting at the river.
Market Garden consisted of two sub operations:
Market - an airborne assault to seize key bridges; laying a carpet of airborne troops.
Garden - a ground attack moving over the seized bridges creating the salient.The attack was the largest airborne operation up to that point in World War II.Supreme Commander General Eisenhower's strategic goal was to encircle the heart of German industry, the Ruhr Area, in a pincer movement. The northern end of the pincer would circumvent the northern end of the Siegfried Line, giving easier access into Germany across the north German plains enabling mobile warfare. The prime aim of Operation Market Garden was to establish the northern end of a pincer ready to project deeper into Germany. Allied forces would project north from Belgium, 60 miles (97 km) through the Netherlands, across the Rhine and consolidate north of Arnhem on the Dutch/German border, ready to close the pincer.The operation made massive use of airborne forces, whose tactical objectives were to secure the bridges and to allow a rapid advance by armored ground units to consolidate north of Arnhem. The operation required the seizure of the bridges by airborne troops across the Meuse River, two arms of the Rhine (the Waal River and the Lower Rhine), together with crossings over several smaller canals and tributaries. However, this large airborne force contrasted with the ground forces being light with only one corps moving north of Eindhoven, XXX Corps. XXX Corps took along 5,000 vehicles full of bridging equipment and 9,000 Sappers.The Allies captured several bridges between Eindhoven and Nijmegen at the beginning of the operation. Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks' XXX Corps ground force advance was delayed by the initial failure of the airborne units to secure bridges at Son en Breugel and Nijmegen. German forces demolished the bridge over the Wilhelmina Canal at Son before being secured by the US 101st Airborne Division, however a Bailey bridge was constructed over the canal by British Sappers. This delayed XXX Corps' advance by 12 hours, however they made up the time reaching Nijmegen on schedule. The US 82nd Airborne Division's failure to capture the main highway bridge over the Waal River at Nijmegen before 20 September delayed the advance a total of 36 hours. XXX Corps had to seize the bridge themselves instead of speeding over a captured bridge onwards to Arnhem, where the British paratroopers were still holding the north end of the bridge.At the furthest northern point of the airborne operation the British 1st Airborne Division encountered initial strong resistance. The delays in capturing the bridge at Nijmegen and constructing a Bailey bridge at Son, gave time for German forces to organise - including the 9th SS panzer infantry and 10th SS panzer infantry Divisions, which were in the Arnhem area at the start of the jump — to counterattack. Only a small British force managed to capture the north end of the Arnhem road bridge, however denying use of the intact bridge to German forces. After the ground forces failed to relieve the paratroopers on time, they were overrun on 21 September. At the same time that XXX Corps' tanks moved over the Nijmegen bridge, 36 hours late, after seizing it from the Germans, the British paratroopers at the Arnhem bridge were capitulating unable to hold on any longer. The remainder of the British 1st Airborne Division was trapped in a small pocket west of the Arnhem bridge, having to be evacuated on the 25th of September, after sustaining heavy casualties.
The Allies had failed to cross the Rhine. The river remained a barrier to their advance into Germany until offensives at Remagen, Oppenheim, Rees and Wesel in March 1945. The failure of Operation Market Garden to form a foothold over the Rhine ended Allied expectations of finishing the war by Christmas 1944.SBV Vitesse
SBV Vitesse (Stichting Betaald Voetbal Vitesse), widely known as Vitesse Arnhem, or simply as Vitesse (Dutch pronunciation: [viˈtɛsə]), is a Dutch professional football club based in Arnhem (Gelderland). Established on 14 May 1892, Vitesse is the oldest professional football club in the Eredivisie. The club has enjoyed some success in the competition, has featured in the UEFA Cup competition and became the first Dutch football club to be owned by a foreigner when it was taken over by Georgian businessman Merab Zjordania in 2010. Since 1998, the club has played its home games at the GelreDome. Their best result in the Eredivisie was third place in 1997–98. The club won the KNVB Cup in 2016–17.
Throughout the years, Vitesse established itself as a stepping stone for future world class players like Willem Hesselink, Just Göbel, Roy Makaay, Pierre van Hooijdonk, Mahamadou Diarra, Philip Cocu, Nikos Machlas, Sander Westerveld, Raimond van der Gouw, Wilfried Bony, Martin Ødegaard and Nemanja Matić.Storm Over Arnhem
Storm Over Arnhem is a 1981 board wargame designed by Courtney F. Allen, published by the Avalon Hill game company, and depicts the battle for Arnhem bridge over the Lower Rhine river during Operation Market Garden in World War II. This battle was fought between elements of the British 1st Airborne Division and elements of the German Bocholt Battalion and 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions. The plan was for the airborne forces to seize and hold the Arnhem bridge for two days, before being relieved by the British XXX Corps. However, Operation Market Garden failed in numerous places, and the airborne troops were never relieved. They did however achieve more than their objective by capturing and holding the northern end of the Arnhem Bridge with some 700+ men for four days.Top End
The Top End of Australia's Northern Territory is a geographical region encompassing the northernmost section of the Northern Territory, which aside from the Cape York Peninsula is the northernmost part of the Australian continent. It covers a rather vaguely defined area of perhaps 245,000 km2 (94,595 sq mi) behind the northern coast from the Northern Territory capital of Darwin across to Arnhem Land with the Indian Ocean on the west, the Arafura Sea to the north, and the Gulf of Carpentaria to the east, and with the almost waterless semi-arid interior of Australia to the south, beyond the huge Kakadu National Park.The Top End contains both of the Territory's cities and one of its major towns, Darwin, Palmerston and Katherine. The well-known town of Alice Springs is located further south, in the arid southern part of the Northern Territory, sometimes referred to by Australians as the Red Centre.
The landscape is relatively flat with river floodplains and grasslands with eucalyptus trees along with rocky areas and patches of rainforest, and in western Arnhem Land a high rugged sandstone plateau cut through with gorges, much of which is in Kakadu National Park. The rivers that form the wetlands include the South and East Alligator Rivers, Mary River, and the Glyde River. The climate is tropical monsoon with a wet and dry season, bringing the highest rainfall in northern Australia (over 1,200 mm (47 in) per year). Temperatures do not fluctuate widely throughout the year.
There are a number of islands off the Top End coast including the Tiwi Islands (Bathurst Island and Melville Island), and Groote Eylandt as well as many smaller ones.
|Climate data for Arnhem, Netherlands|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.5
|Average high °C (°F)||5.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−24.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||88.8
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||56.9||81.7||115.9||166.3||196.7||181.9||193.8||178.1||134.3||110.1||60.8||45.7||1,522.2|
|Source: knmi.nl (Klimaatatlas van Nederland, normaalperiode 1981–2010, http://www.klimaatatlas.nl/tabel/stationsdata/klimtab_8110_275.pdf)|
Places adjacent to Arnhem
Municipalities of Gelderland