Army Ground Forces

The Army Ground Forces were one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the Army Air Forces and Army Service Forces. Throughout their existence, Army Ground Forces were the largest training organization ever established in the United States. Its strength of 780,000 troops on 1 May 1942 grew to a peak of 2,200,000 by 1 July 1943. Thereafter its strength declined as units departed for overseas theaters.[1]

Army Ground Forces
United States Army Forces Command SSI
Army Ground Forces Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.
Active1942–1948
Country United States
Branch United States Army
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Lieutenant General Lesley J. McNair
Lieutenant General Ben Lear
General Joseph Stilwell
General Jacob L. Devers

Origins

Army Ground Forces traced their origins back to General Headquarters, United States Army (GHQ), which were activated on 26 July 1940.[2] Although inactive before this date, GHQ had long featured in mobilization plans as far back as 1921 as a headquarters for directing US field armies overseas, similar to that of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.[3] This was not realized in practice because the war was fought in many theaters, so overall direction was exercised by the War Department's General Staff. GHQ also did not become the equivalent of a theater command for the Zone of Interior; administrative authority was exercised by the G-4 of the War Department's General Staff through the Corps Areas and Service Commands. Instead, GHQ was drawn into the enormous task of raising and training an army.[4]

Nominally, the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, George C. Marshall, was the commanding general of GHQ, while his Chief of Staff was Lieutenant General Lesley J. McNair, who had been Commandant of the Command and General Staff School. However, since Marshall saw him infrequently and seldom visited GHQ (located at the Army War College), it was in practice McNair who directed GHQ.[5]

In March 1942, there was a sweeping reorganization of the Army that reduced the number of officers reporting to the Chief of Staff. Under Executive Order 9082 "Reorganizing the Army and the War Department" of 28 February 1942 and War Department Circular No. 59 of 2 March 1942, GHQ became Headquarters, Army Ground Forces, and opened at the Army War College on 9 March 1942. The posts of the chiefs of the four traditional combat arms – Infantry, Cavalry, Field Artillery, and Coast Artillery – were abolished and their functions, duties, and powers were transferred to the Army Ground Forces. McNair also became responsible for four new 'pseudo-arms' – airborne, armor, anti-aircraft and tank destroyer. He had the power to reorganize the ground army, cutting across traditional lines without branch rivalries.[6]

Since later commands, such as the Continental Army Command and Forces Command were redesignations of their predecessors, they celebrated their birthday as 9 March 1942, the day Army Ground Forces were established.[2]

Organization of Ground Troops

In 1942, it was estimated that between 200 and 350 divisions would be required to defeat Germany and Japan.[7] However, only 89 divisions were ultimately readied. This was partially because requirements for service troops and overhead was greater than anticipated, and because the Army's overall strength became fixed at a lower level than expected. Army strength was fixed at 7,500,000 enlisted men in 1942[8] and was subsequently cut to 7,004,000 enlisted men in 1943.[9] Further cuts of 433,000 men were made by March 1945.[10] As a result, divisions scheduled for activation in the second half of 1943 were postponed to 1944, then canceled entirely, and no new divisions were formed after June 1943.[11]

By May 1945, 96% of all tactical troops were overseas. No new units were forming and there were no reserves. Fortunately, these sufficed to bring about the defeat of Germany and Japan, largely because the Soviet Union carried most of the burden of fighting the German Army on the Eastern Front. However, it also meant that divisions were kept in the line longer than anticipated and took heavier casualties. In three months of intensive combat, an infantry division could expect 100% casualties in its three infantry regiments. Units were maintained by a continuous flow of individual replacements. Such conditions placed great strain on the combat soldier who remained in action until he became a casualty.[12]

Energetic and painstaking efforts were made by Army Ground Forces to optimize the divisions for combat operations. Non-essential troops and equipment were eliminated. The principle was established that a unit would have only the equipment that it would normally need. Other economies were also made. For example, trucks were replaced, wherever possible, by trailers. While admittedly not as useful as trucks, not only were they cheaper to produce, but they required less personnel to maintain, and less space to ship. As a result of economies, 89 divisions were active in 1945 for the same number of personnel as required to man 75 in 1943.[13] General Douglas MacArthur pointed out that the division, while initially well-balanced, soon became unbalanced in combat as the infantry took casualties faster than other arms, requiring the relief of the entire division when most of its components were capable of further effort.[14]

This eventually brought the entire training program down. In 1941, replacements were produced by Replacement Training Centers (RTCs). As new divisions were mobilized, they took their manpower directly from reception centers.[15] The RTCs provided replacements for filler, and were organized to provide replacements in the proportion of units in the army. Army Ground Forces was responsible for training replacements for the four statutory arms (infantry, cavalry, field and coast artillery) and the three new pseudo-arms (armor, antiaircraft artillery, and tank destroyer). Replacements for the other arms and services were handled by the Army Service Forces.[16] Casualties in combat units, particularly infantry units, exceeded the capacity of the RTCs to replace them. By February 1944, some 35,249 men had been taken from combat units in training for use as replacements; another 29,521 had been transferred from low priority units to fill up units preparing to move overseas.[17] Between April and September 1944, as casualties in Normandy began to bite, some 91,747 men were stripped from twenty-two divisions in the United States.[18] Maintaining 700,000 men in infantry units required 1,800,000 men in the infantry arm by April 1945.[19] Over 1,000,000 replacements were shipped between September 1943 and August 1945, of whom 82% were infantry.[20] Volunteers for the infantry were accepted from other arms and services.[21] By 1944, all new inductees were being sent to RTCs, where they were trained for 13 to 17 weeks before being sent to combat units. As casualties mounted, a massive comb-out began as the Army Ground Forces struggled to provide replacements. Personnel from non-combat assignments were pulled from duty, hastily trained, and then reassigned to units as combat infantry replacements.

The result was that divisions embarking for overseas in late 1944 and early 1945 had much less training than those leaving earlier. The last division to depart for overseas, the 65th Infantry Division, fared worst of all:

If the plans for building and training this division had been carried out as originally laid down by General McNair and his staff, the 65th when it moved overseas in 1945 might have been the most battleworthy of the long line of divisions produced by the Army Ground Forces. For into the planning of the organization, training, and equipment of this unit was poured the accumulated experience of four years' intensive effort. But, mainly because of personnel exigencies the control of which lay beyond the jurisdiction of the Army Ground Forces, the 65th was about the least ready for combat of all divisions trained in World War II. Its regiments had never worked with their supporting battalions of artillery in field exercises. The division commander had never maneuvered his command as a unit; in fact, the division had never been together, except for reviews and demonstrations, and its composition had changed greatly from one assembly to another. In the infantry regiments, only one man in four had been with the division for a year, and almost every fourth man had joined his unit within the past three months. The division was more of a hodgepodge than a team.[22]

Special divisions

In 1942, the 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 90th Infantry Divisions were converted to motorized divisions, intended to operate with armored divisions, similar to the German Panzergrenadier divisions. These divisions had more transport than regular infantry divisions. However the proportion of infantry in the armored divisions was increased in 1943, and the regular infantry division actually had sufficient transport if trucks were taken from other duties, so the additional shipping space required for them did not appear worthwhile, and all were converted back to regular infantry divisions.[23]

Three light divisions were formed, in response to combat experience in 1942 and 1943. The 10th Light Division was formed as a light division specializing in mountain warfare, the 71st Light Division as one specializing in jungle warfare, and the 89th Light Division as a light truck division. Theater commanders were lukewarm about the concept. General MacArthur felt that they had insufficient firepower, and they performed unsatisfactorily in training maneuvers, so the 71st and 89th were converted to regular infantry divisions. Despite its jungle training, the 71st Infantry Division was rushed to Europe in response to the German Ardennes Offensive. The 10th remained a special mountain division and fought as such in Italy.[24]

Airborne

Five airborne divisions (11th, 13th, 17th, 82nd and 101st) were formed, but as early as the Allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky) in July 1943 it was apparent that there would not be sufficient troop carrier aircraft to employ them in the manner for which they had been intended. The activation of the 15th Airborne Division in 1943 was canceled, but this did nothing to reduce the disproportionate ratio of airborne to infantry divisions, as all divisions scheduled for activation in late 1943 were eventually canceled. General McNair considered converting the airborne divisions in the United States to light divisions but following the failure of the light division concept, the decision was taken to ship them as airborne divisions, cognizant of the fact that they would operate as light infantry divisions.[25]

The European Theater of Operations (ETO) favored a larger airborne division than Army Ground Forces, developing a larger division with two parachute infantry regiments, a glider infantry regiment almost identical to a standard infantry regiment and more support units, a total of 12,979 men. Airborne divisions in ETO were reorganized on this establishment. The 11th Airborne Division in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA) remained on the old AGF establishment. With a strength of only 8,500 men, it had one parachute infantry regiment and two smaller glider infantry regiments.[26]

Anti-Aircraft

No arm was in such urgent demand in 1942 as anti-aircraft units, and these units were shipped at high priority as soon as, and sometimes even before, they were fully trained. Once the Allied Air Forces began to get the upper hand, demand tapered off and it became apparent that anti-aircraft units had been over-produced. Many units were then broken up for infantry replacements.[27]

Armor

While Army Ground Forces endeavored to provide the troops with the best equipment available, they were not always able to provide better equipment than the German enemy. This was particularly apparent with respect to armor. American commanders tended, when forced to make a choice, to prefer mobility to firepower. The result was a number of uninspiring designs. In particular, the M6 Heavy Tank was a dud which convinced Army Ground Forces that heavy tanks were no good and Ordnance Department that Army Ground Forces did not really want one. The M4 Sherman medium tank found itself out-performed by German tanks which began appearing in 1943.[28] Opposition from Army Ground Forces was one of the primary factors for the late and limited introduction of the M26 Pershing into the European Theater.

In 1942, the Operations Division (OPD) of the War Department General Staff estimated that, by the end of 1943, 140 divisions would be mobilized, of which 46 would be armored. A severe shortage of shipping space, combined with Army Ground Forces doubts about whether this was the correct ratio of infantry armored units, led to this being revised downward to just 16 armored divisions actually being active in 1943.[29]

Trimming the tables of organization of the armored divisions in 1943, Army Ground Forces cut the number of tank battalions in the armored division from 6 to 3 and reduced the number of tanks from 390 to 263. In process, the number of non-divisional tank battalions increased to 65, permitting more combined training with the infantry divisions. Later, it became standard practice to attach a non-divisional tank battalion to each infantry division where possible. Almost 4,000 personnel were cut from the division establishment although the number of Sherman tanks was only reduced by a quarter. While the old armored division organization was cumbersome and inefficient, the new was flexible but sometimes too lean and light, requiring supplementing. All armored divisions were converted to the new tables except the 2nd and 3rd, which remained under the old, with some modifications.[30]

Artillery

Although also frequently out-ranged by their German counterparts, American artillery built up a reputation for effectiveness and the infantry increasingly relied on the artillery to get them forward. The War Department General Staff ignored the Army Ground Force's recommendations for a powerful heavy artillery arm, authorizing only 81 medium and 54 heavy non-divisional artillery battalions instead of the 140 and 101 recommended by Army Ground Forces, only to have combat experience in Italy prove that air power could not substitute for heavy artillery. As a result, over 100 medium and heavy artillery battalions were activated in 1944, mostly through the conversion of coast artillery units.[31]

Cavalry

Two horse cavalry divisions existed in 1941. The 1st Cavalry Division was shipped to Australia, where it was originally envisioned that it could operate in the mounted role. However, by the time it embarked, the defense of Australia was no longer paramount and it served in the South West Pacific Area in the dismounted role.[32] The 2nd Cavalry Division was formed twice. Originally a bi-racial division, its white components were broken up to provide troops for armored units. It was reformed as a colored division only to be broken up again to provide service units.[33] Two non-divisional cavalry regiments served as infantry in the South West Pacific Area and China Burma India. All other cavalry units were converted to the mechanized cavalry reconnaissance role. However, they only spent about 6% of their time on reconnaissance tasks, leading to a postwar consensus that either they lacked the combat power to perform their assigned role or had simply been misused altogether.[34]

Tank Destroyer

The tank destroyer arm was probably the most controversial. Tank destroyers based on the M3 Half-track proved too vulnerable in the North African campaign and tank destroyers were re-equipped with guns. Later, good self-propelled gun carriages became available, but massed enemy armor became scarce and most tank destroyer units began operating as field artillery. Some 25 tank destroyer battalions were inactivated to fill depleted infantry and armoured divisions.[35]

Post-War

Army Ground Forces survived the post-war reorganization of the War Department. It became Army Field Forces in 1948, Continental Army Command (CONARC) in 1955, and was ultimately divided into United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) and United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) in 1973. FORSCOM wears the former Army Ground Forces' shoulder sleeve insignia to this day.

Commanders

Notes

  1. ^ Moenk 1972, p. 23
  2. ^ a b Moenk 1972, p. 13
  3. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 5
  4. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 8
  5. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 6
  6. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 152
  7. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 198
  8. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 216–217
  9. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 226
  10. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 242
  11. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 244–246
  12. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 193–194
  13. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 318
  14. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, pp. 227–229
  15. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, pp. 171–172
  16. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, pp. 173
  17. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, p. 201
  18. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, p. 208
  19. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 245
  20. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, p. 218
  21. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, pp. 422–423
  22. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 487–488
  23. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 336–339
  24. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 342–349
  25. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 177
  26. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, p. 349
  27. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 418–423
  28. ^ Green, Thomson & Roots 1955, pp. 236–239, 278–287
  29. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 392–394
  30. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 326–335
  31. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 233–235
  32. ^ Hofmann 2006, p. 289
  33. ^ Palmer, Wiley & Keast 1948, pp. 55, 493
  34. ^ Hofmann 2006, pp. 387–388
  35. ^ Greenfield, Palmer & Wiley 1947, pp. 423–434

References

  • Green, Constance McLaughlin; Thomson, Harry C.; Roots, Peter C. (1955), "The Ordnance Department: Planning Munitions for War", US Army in World War II, Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History
  • Greenfield, Kent; Palmer, Robert R.; Wiley, Bell I. (1947), "The Organization of Ground Combat Troops", United States Army in World War II, Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History, OCLC 6993009
  • Hofmann, George F. (2006), Through Mobility We Conquer: The Mechanization of US Cavalry, Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0-8131-2403-4
  • Moenk, Jean R. (1972), A History of Command and Control of Army Forces in the Continental United States, Fort Monroe: Historical Office, Office of Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations and Reserve Forces
  • Palmer, Robert R.; Wiley, Bell I.; Keast, William R. (1948), "The Procurement and Training of Ground Combat Troops", US Army in World War II, Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History, ISBN 0-16-001906-0

Further reading

109th Motorized Division (Soviet Union)

The 109th Motorized Division was formed from the 109th Rifle Division in January, 1940, in the Transbaikal Military District. It was one of the first Red Army mechanized divisions formed and also one of the first to be fully equipped with motor vehicles and tanks. Shortly before the German invasion, in late May, 1941, it began moving west by rail, arriving in western Ukraine on June 18. The division went into action on June 26, but by early July had lost most of its tanks and trucks. It was soon pulled back into the reserves of Southwestern Front and converted into the 304th Rifle Division.

1st Guards Breakthrough Artillery Division

The 1st Guards Glukhov Order of Lenin, Red Banner, Orders of Suvorov, Kutuzov, and Bogdan Khmelnitsky Breakthrough Artillery Division was the formal name of the 1st Guards Breakthrough Artillery Division (Russian: 1-я гвардейская артиллерийская дивизия прорыва), a division of the Red Army (the Soviet Army from 1946) that existed during World War II and the early period of the Cold War.

2nd Guards Airborne Division

The 2nd Guards Airborne Division was a division of the Red Army during World War II.

Army Service Forces

The Army Service Forces were one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the Army Air Forces and Army Ground Forces. They were created on 28 February 1942 by Executive Order Number 9082 "Reorganizing the Army and the War Department" and War Department Circular No. 59, dated 2 March 1942.

Arno von Lenski

Arno Ernst Max von Lenski (20 July 1893 – 4 October 1986) was a German military officer and general who served in the Imperial German army, the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany, and after the war in the National People's Army of the German Democratic Republic, where he was also a politician.

Balad Ruz

Balad Ruz (Lurish: بلدروز) is a Lur city in the Diyala province of Iraq.

Balad Ruz has a radio station that was opened Dec. 18 2006, known as Al Noor Radio Station, meaning “The Light” in Arabic.

The current commander of all Iraqi Army ground forces Lt. General Ali Ghaidan Majid is from Balad Ruz.

Bombardment group

A bombardment group or bomb group was a group of bomber aircraft the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. It was the equivalent of an infantry regiment in the Army Ground Forces, or a bomber wing in the British Commonwealth air forces. A bombardment group was the key tactical control and administrative organization for bombers in all theaters of operation, and was commanded by a colonel or lieutenant colonel.

European Theater of Operations, United States Army

The European Theater of Operations, United States Army (ETOUSA) was a United States Army formation which directed US Army operations in parts of Europe from 1942 to 1945. It referred to Army Ground Forces, United States Army Air Forces, and Army Service Forces operations north of Italy and the Mediterranean coast, in the European Theater of World War II. It was bordered to the south by the North African Theater of Operations, US Army (NATOUSA), which later became the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTOUSA).

The term theater of operations was defined in the US Army field manuals as the land and sea areas to be invaded or defended, including areas necessary for administrative activities incident to the military operations. In accordance with the experience of World War I, it was usually conceived of as a large land mass over which continuous operations would take place and was divided into two chief areas-the combat zone, or the area of active fighting, and the Communications Zone, or area required for administration of the theater. As the armies advanced, both these zones and the areas into which they were divided would shift forward to new geographic areas of control.

Fort McPherson

Fort McPherson was a U.S. Army military base located in Atlanta, Georgia, bordering the northern edge of the city of East Point, Georgia. It was the headquarters for the U.S. Army Installation Management Command, Southeast Region; the U.S. Army Forces Command; the U.S. Army Reserve Command; the U.S. Army Central.

Named after Major General James Birdseye McPherson, this fort was founded by the U.S. Army in September 1885. However, this site, had been in use by military units since 1835, and it was used as a Confederate Army base during the American Civil War. During the Reconstruction Era, it was named the "McPherson Barracks", and it served as a post for the Federal troops who were occupying Atlanta. With the end of Reconstruction, the McPherson Barracks was closed and sold off in 1881, though the site continued to be occupied during the summers by U.S. troops stationed in Florida. In 1885, the land was again purchased by the Army at which to station ten army companies.

During World War I, Fort McPherson was used as a camp for Imperial German Navy prisoners of war and as a training site for the Active Army and Georgia National Guard. A rifle Range was operated along the ridge where current Stanton road now exists. The Deploying officers and NCOs surveyed the local civil war entrenchments parallel to the Railroad along Utoy Creek to learn about trench warfare.

During the General Textile Workers Strike in 1934, this fort was used as a detention center to hold picketers who had been arrested while striking at a cotton mill in Newnan, Georgia.

Fort McPherson's nearest Army neighbor, and its sub-post, is Fort Gillem, previously established as the Atlanta Army Depot in 1941, is located in Forest Park, Georgia, approximately 11 miles to the southeast. Fort Gillem was a logistical support base, housing some Army, Department of Defense, and other government agencies. Those units include the First Army, the U.S. Army and Air Force Exchange Distribution Center, the Military Entrance Processing Station, and the U.S. Army Second Recruiting Brigade. Fort Gillem also hosts the only crime lab of the U.S. Army. Fort McPherson and Fort Gillem shared most common services. Fort Gillem is now a military enclave following Fort McPherson's closing due to the 2005 BRAC commission.

In 2007, there were 2,453 active duty soldiers and 3,784 civilian employees at both forts, with a total active duty and civilian employee payroll of $529,874,972.

With only 102 family quarters and 272 single soldier billets at Fort McPherson, and 10 family quarters at Fort Gillem, the active duty military and Department of the Army civilian employees lived in civilian housing in the surrounding Fulton, DeKalb, Clayton, Fayette, and Henry Counties.

Other important users of the fort facilities were the 98,700 or more Atlanta area military and naval retirees and their family members. These residents live mostly in Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, Clayton, Fayette, Gwinnett, and Henry counties.

For urban mass transit, Ft. McPherson was mostly served by the Lakewood/Fort McPherson MARTA (Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority) station.

On June 26, 2015, Fort Mac LRA became the owner of 145 acres of property on the former Fort McPherson in Southwest Atlanta, Georgia. Fort Mac LRA is responsible for ensuring quality reuse and redevelopment of 145 acres on the former Army post. The Fort Mac LRA board of directors are nominated by the Mayor of Atlanta, the Fulton County Commission or the Governor. In June 2015, 330 acres of Fort McPherson was purchased by actor/producer Tyler Perry to be the new home of Tyler Perry Studios.

Islamic Republic of Iran Army Ground Forces

The Islamic Republic of Iran Army Ground Forces (Persian: نیروی زمینی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎), acronymed NEZAJA (Persian: نزاجا‎) is the ground forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army.

In Iran, it is also called Artesh, (ارتش) which is Persian for "army." In 2007, the regular Iranian Army was estimated to have 350,000 personnel (220,000 conscripts and 130,000 professionals) plus around 350,000 reservists for a total of 700,000 soldiers according to the CSIS. Conscripts serve for 21 months and have professional military training.

Iran has two parallel land forces with some integration at the command level: the regular Artesh (Army), and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, also known as the Sepaah (IRGC).

Jacob L. Devers

Jacob Loucks Devers (; 8 September 1887 – 15 October 1979) was a general in the United States Army who commanded the 6th Army Group in the European Theater during World War II. He was involved in the development and adoption of numerous weapons, including the M4 Sherman and M26 Pershing tanks, the DUKW amphibious truck, the Bell H-13 Sioux helicopter and the M16 rifle.

A graduate of the United States Military Academy, Devers was commissioned in the field artillery in 1909. During World War I, he was an instructor at the School of Fire at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and did not serve in France until after the November 11 armistice ended the fighting, when he attended the French artillery school at Treves. Between the two world wars he was a staunch advocate of mechanization at a time when the idea of phasing out horses met strong resistance from conservative gunners.

When World War II broke out in Europe, Devers was stationed in Panama. He was promoted to major general in October 1940 and took command of the newly formed 9th Infantry Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, a base whose construction he oversaw. Appointed Chief of the Armored Force in August 1941, he supervised its expansion from four armored divisions to sixteen. He was an articulate proponent of the emerging tactical doctrine of combined arms, and rejected the American doctrine that held that tanks were for exploitation, not for fighting other tanks. He pressed American industry to produce more powerful engines, and, often against the views of his superiors, pushed the development of the M4 Sherman, a medium tank with a 75mm gun. Not satisfied with the Sherman, he called for still more heavily armed and armored tanks. He wanted 250 of the new M26 Pershing tanks for Operation Overlord, but was overruled.

In May 1943, Devers became European Theater of Operations, United States Army (ETOUSA) commander. His principal tasks were overseeing preparation of detailed plans and the buildup of men and materiel for Overlord, and supporting the Combined Bomber Offensive. He clashed with General Dwight D. Eisenhower over the diversion of ETOUSA resources to Eisenhower's North African Theater of Operations. Eisenhower succeeded him at ETOUSA in January 1944, and Devers went to the Mediterranean as Commander North African Theater of Operations, United States Army (NATOUSA), and Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater, to British General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson. Devers was involved in the organization, planning and leadership of Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France in August 1944. He led the 6th Army Group in France and Germany through the advance to the Rhine, the German counterattack in Operation Northwind, the operations to reduce the Colmar Pocket and the Western Allied invasion of Germany. After the war he commanded the Army Ground Forces.

Losey Field

Losey Field is a former United States Army Air Forces World War II air base on Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico. It is located on the southern coast of Puerto Rico. Today it is a military training center of the Puerto Rico National Guard called Fort Allen.Losey Field was established by the Army Air Corps in 1941 and was used during World War II by fighter & bomber units. It was named for Captain Robert M. Losey, an aeronautical meteorologist who in April 1940 became the United States' first military casualty in World War II. Units assigned were:

4th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron (13th Composite Wing, 72nd Observation Group) 1 April 1941 – 27 October 1943

20th Troop Carrier Squadron (Sixth Air Force Base Command) 10 May–June 1942

36th Fighter Group (Headquarters), January 1941-May 194322d Fighter Squadron, 6 January-13 December 1941 (P-40 Warhawk)

23rd Fighter Squadron, 6 January-31 May 1941; 15 November-13 December 1941(P-40 Warhawk)

32d Fighter Squadron, 6 January 1941-19 February 1942; 9 March-14 June 1943 (P-40 Warhawk)417th Bombardment Squadron (25th Bombardment Group) 29 May 1943 – 24 March 1944 (B-18 Bolo)After the departure of the 417th Bombardment Squadron in 1944, the airfield was turned over to Army ground forces. It was renamed Camp Losey in 1950

Rank insignia of the Iranian military

This article tackes the ranks and insignia of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is divided into three forces:

Islamic Republic of Iran Army or I.R.I. Army or in Persian ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران

Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps or IRGC or in Persian سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی

Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran or in Persian نیروی انتظامی جمهوی اسلامی ایرانThe IRIA is divided into four branches of service:

Army ground forces

Air force

Air defense force

Navy

Rudolf Bamler

Rudolf Bamler (6 May 1896 – 13 March 1972) was a German general during World War II. Although Bamler was a member of the Nazi Party he would later serve as a leading member of the East German security forces.

Short backfire antenna

A short backfire antenna (or short back-fire, SBA, SBF or SBFA) is a type of a directional antenna, characterized by high gain, relatively small size, and narrow band.

It has a shape of a disc with a straight edge, with a vertical pillar with a dipole acting as the driven element in roughly the middle and a conductive disc at the top acting as a sub-reflector. The bottom disc has the diameter of two wavelengths, and its collar (edge) is quarter the wavelength tall. The center pillar consists of two coaxial tubes (their diameter has to be carefully chosen to give the desired impedance), with a quarter-wavelength slot cut into the outer tube

This structure behaves like a resonant cavity, resulting in a substantial gain in small space.

Short backfire antennas are used in some satellites, and in high-frequency (short-wavelength) communication equipment (often for communication with satellites) on ships and other applications where rugged construction is an advantage. They are also used for wireless LANs. The SBF antenna was invented by Dr. Hermann W. Ehrenspeck of Air Force Cambridge Research Labs based at Hanscom Air Force Base in Bedford, MA and was used for among other purposes, to provide Tactical Satellite Communications for U.S. Army ground forces due to the SBF's portability and gain.

The bandwidth of the antenna can be increased by using a conical main reflector instead of a flat one.

Archery target antenna is an evolution of the short-backfire antenna. The name is derived from its appearance. Its base diameter is 5 wavelengths (5 λ), the rim height is 0.7 λ, the diameter of the small center reflector is 0.7 λ, its height above the base is 0.7 λ as well, the height of the dipole above the base is 0.35 λ, there is one more reflector - an annular reflector - at the same height as the center reflector, with inner diameter 2.2 λ and outer diameter 3.7 λ. [1]

Short backfire antennas are able to achieve high aperture efficiencies, at right cavity size even beyond 100%.

Structure of the Iranian Army Ground Forces

The following article lists three Orders of Battle for the Iranian Army at different periods.

Note, that this is not the order of battle of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards but of the regular ground forces (Artesh). The source is Globalsecurity.org for the first three lists, and http://thearkenstone.blogspot.co.nz/2009/12/identifying-units-of-iranian-armed.html for the final series of notes.

Vietnamese military ranks and insignia

Vietnamese military ranks and insignia are specified by the National Assembly of Vietnam through Law on Vietnam People's Army Officer (No: 6-LCT/HĐNN7) on 30 December 1981.The Vietnam People's Army distinguishes three careerpaths: Officers (sĩ quan), non-commissioned officers (hạ sĩ quan), and enlisted members (chiến sĩ).

Because the shoulder insignia of all ranks are represented by an elongated pentagonal epaulette, they are, hence, either detailed or colour-coded to indicate rank, branch, as well as unit.

The shoulder epaulettes from those of enlisted soldiers to field officers are detailed with a silver crest with an encircled silver star. Those of generals and admirals have fully golden epaulettes with corresponding golden crests and encircled stars.

Ranks can show information about branches of military personnel.

Hem Colour of the ranks can show branches:

Army (ground forces): red

Air Force/ Air defence: azure

Navy: dark-purple

Border Defence: green

Coast Guard: blue.Army-Air Force-Navy ranks have background are yellow.

Border Defense Force's ranks have background is dark-green and hem colour is red.

Coast Guard's ranks have background is blue and hem colour is yellow.

Wilhelm Adam

Wilhelm Adam (28 March 1893 – 24 November 1978) was an officer in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. Following the German surrender after the Battle of Stalingrad, he became a member of the National Committee for a Free Germany. Adam later served in the National People's Army of East Germany.

Yugoslav Ground Forces

The Yugoslav Ground Forces (Serbo-Croatian: Kopnena Vojska – KoV, Cyrillic script: Копнена Војска – КоВ) was the ground forces branch of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) from 1 March 1945 until 20 May 1992 when it became the Ground Forces of Serbia and Montenegro (then called Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) under the threat of sanctions.

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