Armory Park is the first Toledo ballpark for which any photograph is known to survive. The various sources listed herein give somewhat different descriptions of the ballpark's location. The clearest description is provided by the book Baseball in Toledo, which includes a "bird's-eye-view" (p. 20) of the downtown area, including the Armory and the ballpark. This illustration is not contemporary, but is a reconstruction drawn in 1943. That book does not give specific dimensions, but states that right field was so short that fly balls hit over the fence in that area were ground-rule doubles.
The Armory itself was on the south corner of Spielbusch Avenue (to the northwest, the portion of the road later renamed Judge Joseph Flores Avenue) and Orange Street (to the northeast). The next street southwest was Beech Street. The lot between Beech and the Armory was the location of the ballpark, precisely where the current U.S. District Courthouse now stands. The ballpark and the rest of the Armory property were bounded on the southeast by North Ontario Street.
When the land was redeveloped for the government complex, Beech and Ontario were removed as public streets in that area, resulting in the larger block now bounded by Speilbusch, Orange, North Erie Street (southeast) and Jackson Street (southwest). The Lucas County Courthouse is across Jackson to the southwest.
The home plate / grandstand area of the ballpark was tucked into the Spielbusch-Beech corner, with the lot being otherwise surrounded by a board fence, except for the left field area, whose high masonry wall was actually the rear wall of the Armory building. This is visible in the photograph in the external link.
This venue immediately replaced one of the two previous Toledo ballparks, Ewing Street Park. Weekend games continued to be played at Bay View Park through the 1900 season. For the next 8½ seasons, Armory Park was the Mud Hens exclusive home.
The final game at Armory Park was played on July 2, 1909, the day before Swayne Field's debut. (Toledo Baseball Guide, p. 98)
|Location||Spielbusch Ave. & Orange St.|
|Toledo Mud Hens (AA) (1897-1908)|
Toledo Athletic Association (OL) (1902-1906)
Toledo Maroons (OL) (1907-1908)
Toledo Maroons (NFL) (1922)
The 1902 Michigan Wolverines football team represented the University of Michigan in the 1902 Western Conference football season. In their second year under head coach Fielding H. Yost, Michigan finished the season undefeated with an 11–0 record, outscored their opponents by a combined score of 644 to 12, and became known as the second of Yost's famed "Point-a-Minute" teams. With a conference record of 5–0, Michigan won the Big Nine Conference championship. The 1902 Michigan Wolverines have also been recognized as the national champions by the Billingsley Report, Helms Athletic Foundation, Houlgate System, and National Championship Foundation, and as co-national champions by Parke H. Davis.Quarterback Boss Weeks was the team's captain and the leader of the Wolverines' offense that twice scored more than 100 points against opponents and averaged 58.5 points per game. Right halfback Albert E. Herrnstein was the team's leading scorer with 135 points on 27 touchdowns (valued at five points under 1902 rules). Fullback James E. Lawrence was the second-leading scorer with 113 points on 12 touchdowns and 53 extra point kicks (then known as "goals from touchdown"). Willie Heston, Joe Maddock and Paul J. Jones added 15, 12 and 11 touchdowns, respectively.1902 Notre Dame football team
The 1902 Notre Dame football team was an American football team that represented the University of Notre Dame in the 1902 college football season. In its first season with James Farragher as coach, the team compiled a 6–2–1 record and outscored all opponents by a combined total of 203 to 51.1915 Akron Indians season
The 1915 Akron Indians season was their eight season in existence. The team played in the Ohio League and posted a 1–3–1 record.Armory Park Historic Residential District
Armory Park Historic Residential District is a historic district in Tucson, Arizona. It was listed on the NRHP in 1976 and the district boundaries were increased in 1996.Part of the eastern section of the Armory Park Historic Residential District was first developed as company housing for employees of the Southern Pacific Railroad. When the railroad moved out of this area and combined with Union Pacific Railroad, the houses were auctioned off and moved to other areas.In 2000, a solar-powered housing development, known as Armory Park del Sol, was built here. Developer John Wesley Miller named the streets in the subdivision after historic people and events of the area, referring to both railroads that were important to its history. This subdivision and its locally themed street names were featured in a December 2013 "Street Smarts" column, published in the Arizona Daily Star newspaper.Clinton and Russell
Clinton and Russell was a well-known architectural firm founded in 1894 in New York City, United States. The firm was responsible for scores of notable New York City buildings, downtown and throughout the city.Dusk Music Festival
The Dusk Music Festival is an annual music and arts festival held at Armory Park in Tucson, Arizona. It was founded by Steve Stratigouleas, John Rallis, Page Repp, and Pete Turner in 2016. Dusk Music Festival showcases internationally-known musical artists, as well as local artists from Arizona.Henry O. Jaastad
Henry O. Jaastad (1872–1965) was an influential Tucson, Arizona architect. His firm created over 500 buildings and Jaastad was Mayor of Tucson for 14 years. A number of his works are listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places for their architecture.List of baseball parks in Toledo, Ohio
This is a list of venues used for professional baseball in Toledo, Ohio. The information is a synthesis of the information contained in the references listed.Ohio League
The Ohio League was an informal and loose association of American football clubs active between 1902 and 1919 that competed for the Ohio Independent Championship (OIC). As the name implied, its teams were mostly based in Ohio. It is the direct predecessor to the modern National Football League (NFL).
A proposal to add teams from outside Ohio, such as the Latrobe Athletic Association, to form a formal league known as the "Football Association" fell through prior to the 1904 season.
Though a champion was declared by the group throughout its existence, a formal league was not founded until 1920, when several Ohio League teams added clubs from other states to form the American Professional Football Association. In 1922, the APFA became the National Football League.
All but one of the remaining Ohio League teams left the NFL after the 1926 season, with one team, the Dayton Triangles, surviving until 1929.Oneohtrix Point Never
Daniel Lopatin (born July 25, 1982), best known by the recording alias Oneohtrix Point Never (also styled OPN), is a Brooklyn-based American composer, producer and singer-songwriter of experimental electronic music. He began releasing synth-based recordings under the moniker in the mid-2000s, receiving initial acclaim for the 2009 compilation Rifts. He subsequently explored varied approaches, including sample-based composition and MIDI production, on albums such as Replica (2011), R Plus Seven (2013), and Garden of Delete (2015). In 2013 he signed to British electronic label Warp.
Lopatin has collaborated with artists such as Anohni, Tim Hecker, Ishmael Butler, David Byrne, Iggy Pop and FKA Twigs. He has also participated in several side projects throughout his career, including the duo Ford & Lopatin and his influential alias Chuck Person, and has contributed scoring work to films such as The Bling Ring (2013) and Good Time (2017); the latter won him the Soundtrack Award at the 2017 Cannes Film Festival.Park Avenue Armory
The Park Avenue Armory Conservancy, generally known as Park Avenue Armory, is a nonprofit cultural institution within the historic Seventh Regiment Armory building located at 643 Park Avenue on New York City's Upper East Side. The institution displays unconventional artwork, including performing and visual arts.
Park Avenue Armory leased the building for 99 years from New York State in 2006.Seventh Regiment Armory
The Seventh Regiment Armory, also known as Park Avenue Armory, is a historic brick building that fills an entire city block on New York's Upper East Side.Swayne Field
Swayne Field was a minor league baseball park in Toledo, Ohio. It was the home of the Toledo Mud Hens from July 3, 1909, until the club disbanded after the 1955 season. It was also home to a short-lived entry in the South-Michigan League in 1914.
The park was named for Noah H. Swayne, Jr., the son of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Noah Haynes Swayne, who donated the land for the ballpark. The double-decker ballpark replaced Armory Park. The main stand was built of steel and concrete, one of the first minor league ballparks not made primarily of wood.
The ballpark was located on a block bounded by Monroe Street (southwest, first base), Detroit Avenue (southeast, right field), Council Street (northeast, left field) and railroad tracks (northwest, third base). Ground was broken on March 6, 1909, and the park opened on July 3. The opening game crowd got its money's worth, as the game went 18 innings, Columbus edging out Toledo 12-11. (Toledo Baseball Guide, p. 97)
Field dimensions initially were 360 feet down the left field line, 482 feet to center field, and 327 to right field. The park initially held 11,800 spectators. 1928 expansion added 3,000 more seats. Inner bleachers cut the center field distance to 425. In 1945, an inner fence cut down the size of the left and center field areas further, to become more "home run friendly".
With the Mud Hens calling this field their home for the better part of 461⁄2 years, this was the longest-lived of the many ballparks used for professional ball in Toledo. There were a few interruptions. The Mud Hens were transferred to Cleveland for 1914 and 1915 by their owner, who was also the owner of the Cleveland Indians. This was done to keep the Federal League at bay, by ensuring that there was a home game every day at Cleveland's League Park.
Another team was placed in Toledo for 1914, as part of the South-Michigan League. The "Soumichers" or "Little Mud Hens" drew poorly and became strictly a road team for the second half of the season. There was no club in 1915. In 1916, the original Mud Hens transferred back from Cleveland, with the Fed having folded.
The Mud Hens had little success over the years, and in mid-1952 the team transferred to Charleston, West Virginia. Another AA club transferred to Toledo for 1953, but after three seasons it left, and Swayne Field was demolished soon after. The Swayne Field Shopping Center now sits on the site. Much of the original left field wall still exists, forming a decaying barrier on the northeast edge of the block, facing Council Street.
The revived Mud Hens would begin in 1965 at Lucas County Stadium in Maumee, Ohio, which had been remodeled specifically to attract baseball to Toledo again.Syracuse and Binghamton Railroad
The Syracuse and Binghamton Railroad was established on August 18, 1851, and opened for business on October 18, 1854. The road merged in 1856 into Syracuse and Southern Railroad which was renamed to Syracuse, Binghamton and New York Railroad when the company reorganized after foreclosure in 1857.The road linked to the earlier Oswego and Syracuse Railroad line shortly after both came under control of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (DL&WRR) in 1869. This was accomplished despite difficulties caused by the use of wide gauge rails by one railroad and standard gauge by the other.Toledo Maroons
The Toledo Maroons were a professional American football team based in Toledo, Ohio in the National Football League in 1922 and 1923. Prior to joining the NFL, the Maroons played in the unofficial "Ohio League" from 1902 until 1921.Toledo Mud Hens
The Toledo Mud Hens are a professional Minor League Baseball team based in Toledo, Ohio. The Mud Hens play in the International League and are affiliated with the Detroit Tigers franchise of Major League Baseball, based about 50 miles (80 km) north of Toledo. They play their home games at Fifth Third Field.Toledo Rockets
The Toledo Rockets are the athletic teams that represent the University of Toledo. The Rockets are a Division I Football Bowl Subdivision team in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and play in the Mid-American Conference (MAC). The school's colors are midnight blue and gold.Toledo's principal rivals are the Falcons of Bowling Green State University. The two teams play for a trophy each year known as the Peace Pipe, a prize that originated in basketball but progressed to football in 1980. This rivalry is sometimes known as "The Battle for I-75" because the cities of Toledo and Bowling Green are located just off Interstate 75 and only 20 miles separate the two campuses.Tucson, Arizona
Tucson () is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area (MSA) was 980,263. The Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area (CSA), with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second most-populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor. The city is 108 miles (174 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi (97 km) north of the U.S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States (2014).
Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson (some within or overlapping the city limits) include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde, Tortolita, and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast, Catalina and Oracle to the north, and Green Valley to the south.
Tucson was founded as a military fort by the Spanish when Hugo O'Conor authorized the construction of Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón. It was included in the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821. The US acquired Tucson via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8, 1854. Tucson temporarily served as the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory during the American Civil War. Tucson was Arizona's largest city by population during the territorial period and early statehood, until it was surpassed by Phoenix between 1910 and 1920. Nevertheless, population growth remained strong during the late 20th century. In 2017, Tucson was the first American city to be designated a "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO.The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón [tukˈson], is derived from the O'odham Cuk Ṣon [tʃʊk ʂɔːn], meaning "(at the) base of the black [hill]", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo".Whitefish Bay National Guard Armory
Whitefish Bay National Guard Armory was located at 1225 East Henry Clay Street, on six acres of land at the southwest corner of Henry Clay Street and Ardmore Avenue, in Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin. The red brick building with crenelated top and central tower was called "the finest armory in the state". Inside were well-lit classrooms off wide terrazzo corridors, double staircase with ornate ogee window, gymnasium, kitchen, and lounge with beamed ceiling and mammoth fireplace. Built in 1928, it was designed by prolific local architect Herbert W. Tullgren.
The land was part of a 19-acre plot purchased in 1870 by Friedrick Gustave Rabe, a German immigrant, who built a white frame farmhouse for his wife and two daughters. His land was bordered by Henry Clay Street on the north, Ardmore Avenue on the east, Fairmount Avenue on the south, and Marlborough Drive and Kimbark Place on the west. After Rabe's death, the property was purchased by Otto Falk, vice president of Falk Corporation, and a prominent Wisconsin National Guard officer.
Starting around 1909, the property was used as a summer camp by a National Guard artillery unit. The farmhouse was occupied by three different commanding officers and their families. Numerous Wisconsin National Guard units trained on this property for duty in the Mexican border war, World War I, World War II, and the Korean Conflict. It became home to the United States Army’s 32nd Infantry Division. Called “Red Arrow Division” to signify its tenacity in piercing the enemy line, their shoulder patch design forms a striking centerpiece to the site’s current memorial garden.
In 1927, 13 acres were sold to the village as a site for Whitefish Bay High School, which opened in 1932. Architect Tullgren was chosen to design the high school, as well as village hall, and elementary schools Cumberland, Richards, and Henry Clay (now Whitefish Bay Middle School).In 1941, red brick garages were added to the west side of the armory. A two-story addition to the farmhouse provided offices, classroom, and a pine-paneled officers' club room, affectionately dubbed “the white house". Many important village events, such as weddings and proms, were held in the armory. For years, local 16-year old residents took their driver’s license exams in its classroom. In 1989, it was named a Milwaukee County Landmark.In 1995, the village of Whitefish Bay bought the property. Public hearings were held to determine how the building should be used. Numerous suggestions were considered but, in 1998, a decision was made to raze the building, garages, and farmhouse for use as a park. Efforts were made to save the farmhouse, one of the oldest buildings in the village, but it was razed in 2000. The armory building and garages were demolished in 2004.Now known as Armory Park, the site is home to Whitefish Bay Veterans Monument and Memorial Garden.
Defunct stadiums of the National Football League
†= Team's stadium under construction or refurbishment at time
1 = A team used the stadium when their permanent stadium was unable to be used as a result of damage.