Armistice of Villa Giusti

The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. The armistice was signed on 3 November 1918 in the Villa Giusti, outside Padua in the Veneto, northern Italy, and took effect 24 hours later.[1]

Background and terms

By the end of October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Army was so fatigued that its commanders were forced to seek a ceasefire.

In the final stage of the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, a stalemate was reached and the troops of Austria-Hungary started a chaotic withdrawal. From 28 October onwards, Austria-Hungary sought to negotiate a truce but hesitated to sign the text of armistice. In the meantime, the Italians reached Trento, Udine, and landed in Trieste. After the threat to break off negotiations, the Austro-Hungarians, on 3 November, accepted the terms.

The cease-fire would start at 3pm on 4 November, but a unilateral order of the Austro-Hungarian high command made its forces stop fighting on 3 November.

Under the terms of the armistice, Austria-Hungary’s forces were required to evacuate not only all territory occupied since August 1914 but also South Tirol, Tarvisio, the Isonzo Valley, Gorizia, Trieste, Istria, western Carniola, and Dalmatia. All German forces should be expelled from Austria-Hungary within 15 days or interned, and the Allies were to have free use of Austria-Hungary’s internal communications. They were also obliged to allow the transit of the Entente armies, to reach Germany from the South.[2] Beginning in November 1918, the Italian Army with 20,000-22,000 soldiers occupied Innsbruck and all North Tyrol.[3]

After the war, the Kingdom of Italy annexed the Southern Tyrol (now Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol), according to the secret Treaty of London terms as well as Trieste and the Austrian Littoral.

Signatories

Italy:

  • Tenente Generale Pietro Badoglio
  • Maggior Generale Scipione Scipioni
  • Colonnello Tullio Marchetti
  • Colonnello Pietro Gazzera
  • Colonnello Pietro Maravigna
  • Colonnello Alberto Pariani
  • Capitano di Vascello Francesco Accinni

Austria-Hungary:

See also

References

  1. ^ Armistice Convention with Austria-Hungary
  2. ^ Cervone, Pier Paolo (1994). Vittorio Veneto, l'ultima battaglia (in Italian). Milano: Mursia (Gruppo Editoriale). ISBN 88-425-1775-5.
  3. ^ Di Michele, Andrea. Trento, Bolzano e Innsbruck: L’Occupazione Militare Italiana del Tirolo (1918-1920) (PDF) (in Italian). pp. 436–37.

External links

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