The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia.
The older Armenian calendar was based on an invariant year length of 365 days. As a result, the correspondence between it and both the solar year and the Julian calendar slowly drifted over time, shifting across a year of the Julian calendar once in 1,461 calendar years (see Sothic cycle). Thus, the Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian 2010/2011) completed the first full cycle.
An analytical expression of the Armenian date includes ancient name of Day of week, Christian name of Day of week, named Day of month, Date, Month, Year number after 552 A.D. and the religious feasts.
The Armenian calendar is divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus an additional (epagomenal) five days are called aweleacʿ ("superfluous"). Years are usually given in Armenian numerals, letters of the Armenian alphabet preceded by the abbreviation ԹՎ for t’vin "in the year" (for example, ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ "in the year 1455").
The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar, and, as noted by Antoine Meillet, Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system.
|1||նաւասարդ||nawasard||new year||Avestan*nava sarəδa|
|2||հոռի||hoṙi||two||From Georgian ორი (ori) meaning "two"|
|3||սահմի||sahmi||three||From Georgian სამი (sami) meaning "three"|
|5||քաղոց||kʿałocʿ||month of crops||From Old Armenian քաղեմ (kʿałem) meaning "to gather" from PIE *kʷl̥-|
|6||արաց||aracʿ||From old armenian արաց(aracʿ),meaning harvest time, harvest of grape/fruit|
|7||մեհեկան||mehekan||festival of Mithra||Iranian *mihrakān- ; Zoroastrian Mitrō|
|8||արեգ||areg||sun month||From Old Armenian արեւ (arew) meaning "sun" from PIE *h₂rew-i- also meaning sun|
|9||ահեկան||ahekan||fire festival||Iranian *āhrakān- ; Zoroastrian Ātarō|
|10||մարերի||mareri||mid-year||Avestan maiδyaīrya ; Zoroastrian Dīn|
|12||հրոտից||hroticʿ||Pahlavi *fravartakān ; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰|
|13||աւելեաց||aweleacʿ||redundant, superfluous||Epagomenal days|
|2||Hrand||earth mixed with fire|
|12||Ani||name of a city|
|14||Vanat||host, refectioner of a monastery|
|21||Gorgor||name of a mountain|
|22||Kordvik||6th province in Armenia Major|
|27||Vahagn||Zoroastrian Vahrām ; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day|
|29||Varag||name of a mountain|
Abun (or Abuna, which is the status constructus form used when a name follows: Ge'ez አቡነ ’abuna/abune, 'our father'; Amharic and Tigrinya) is the honorific title used for any bishop of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church as well as of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. It was historically used solely for the head of the Coptic Orthodox Church in Ethiopia during the more than 1000 years when the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria appointed only one bishop at a time to serve its Ethiopian flock. When referred to without a name following, it is Abun, and if a name follows, it becomes Abuna ... (e.g., Abuna Paulos).Anania Shirakatsi
Anania Shirakatsi (Anania Širakac'i, Armenian: Անանիա Շիրակացի; 610–685 AD), also known as Ananias of Shirak or Širak) was an Armenian philosopher, mathematician, astronomer, geographer and alchemist. His most famous works are Ashkharatsuyts (Geography) and Cosmography and the Calendar. Robert H. Hewsen describes him as "Armenia's First Scientist".Bedkhem Church
The Bedkhem Church (Other names: Bedghehem church or Beyt Lahm church or Bethlehem church) is an Armenian Apostolic church in the Julfa quarter in Isfahan, Iran. One of the most important historical churches of the city, it belongs to the Abbas I era. The church is located in the Julfa square near Saint Mary Church. The Bedkhem church was built by an Armenian merchant named Khaje Petros. There are decorations and paintings on its walls depicting the life of Jesus. The 72 exquisite paintings, painted by Armenian artists, are presented in two rows. In the lower row the paintings are painted sequentially, but in the upper row each painting is in a separate frame.The architecture and the gilded decorations of the church's dome are notable. Inside the church there are inscriptions in Armenian which date back to 1627 and 1711. The inscriptions are installed in remembrance of those who performed charitable work for the church.On the southern portal there is an inscription as follows:
Pray for Khaje Petros, who was a good man, in the presence of God. He built this church by his own personal expenditure for the immortality of his name and his father's name (Vali Jan) and his mother's name (Shoushan) and his family's name in 1077 (in the Armenian calendar which is 1627 in the Gregorian calendar).The church has three parts:
The entrance with a balcony, which seems to have been a special place for engaged girls.
The chapel, above which is the dome.
The apseThe church has a rectangular plan. The doors are 31 m long and 14 m high. Its dome is 26 in height. Opposite the church, there is a courtyard with two entrances.Calendar of saints (Armenian Apostolic Church)
This is a calendar of saints list for the Armenian Apostolic Church.Caspian calendar
The Tabarian calendar is the indigenous solar calendar of the Mazandaranis.Christian era (disambiguation)
Christian era may refer to
the time since Christianisation in any given regional context.
decline of Greco-Roman paganism
Ancient Roman Christianity
Christianization of the Germanic peoples
Christianization of the Slavs
in Christian eschatology, the age of the Church, between the age of Law and the Millennial age, see Dispensation (period)
calendar eras: Calendar era#Christian era
the Dionysian era or Common Era used in Western Christianity
Etos Kosmou (Greek Orthodoxy)
Era of the Martyrs (Diocletian era)
Incarnation Era, see Ethiopian calendar
Armenian calendar era (AD 552, year of the Monophysite schism)Coptic monasticism
Coptic Monasticism is claimed to be the original form of Monasticism as St. Anthony of Egypt became the first one to be called "monk" (Gr: μοναχός) and he was the first to established a Christian monastery which is now known as the Monastery of Saint Anthony in the Red Sea area. St. Anthony's Monastery (also known as the Monastery of Abba Antonious) is now the oldest monastery in the world.
Although Saint Anthony's way of life was focused on solidarity, Saint Pachomius the Cenobite, a Copt from Upper Egypt, established communal monasticism in his monasteries in upper Egypt which laid the basic monastic structure for many of the monasteries today in many monastic orders (even outside Coptic Orthodoxy).Ethiopian ecclesiastical titles
Ethiopian ecclesiastical titles refers to the offices of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, a hierarchical organization. Some of the more important offices are unique to it.Ezana of Axum
‘Ezana of Axum (Ge'ez: ዒዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 AD) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan. He himself employed the style (official title) "king of Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan". Tradition states that ‘Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida (Ousanas) while still a child and his mother, Sofya served as regent.French Coptic Orthodox Church
The French Coptic Orthodox Church (French: Métropole copte orthodoxe de France) is a Coptic Orthodox church centered in France. It is within the Oriental Orthodox tradition.Mar Awgin
Mar Awgin (died 363 AD), also known as Awgin of Clysma or Saint Eugenios, [Armenian Մարուգէ] founded the first cenobitic monastery of Asia and is regarded as the founder of monasticism in Mesopotamia.Miaphysitism
Miaphysitism is Cyril of Alexandria's Christological formula holding that in the person of Jesus Christ, divine nature and human nature are united (μία, mia – "one" or "unity") in a compound nature ("physis"), the two being united without separation, without mixture, without confusion and without alteration.Historically, Chalcedonian Christians have considered Miaphysitism in general to be amenable to an orthodox interpretation, in contrast to Monophysitism. Since 1142, Oriental Orthodoxy uses the term "Miaphysite" for themselves but prefer to call themselves non-Chalcedonians.Nine Saints
The Nine Saints were a group of missionaries who were important in the initial growth of Christianity in what is now Ethiopia during the late 5th century. Their names were Abba Aftse, Abba Alef, Abba Aragawi, Abba Garima (Isaac, or Yeshaq), Abba Guba, Abba Liqanos, Abba Pantelewon, Abba Sehma, and Abba Yem’ata. Although frequently described as coming from Syria, only two or three actually came from that province; according to Paul B. Henze, others have been traced to Constantinople, Anatolia, and even Rome.The Ethiopian historian Tadesse Tamrat speculates that they may have been connected with the anti-Monophysite and anti-Miaphysite persecutions that followed the Council of Chalcedon, which adopted Dyophysitism. Tradition states that upon arrival they were welcomed by the Axumite king Ella Amida. Their activities spread Christianity beyond "a narrow corridor between Adulis and Aksum along the caravan routes." Besides converting the local inhabitants to Christianity, they also founded a number of monastic houses that followed the rule of Saint Pachomius: Abba Aftse founded the monastery at Yeha; Abba Alef the northernmost establishment at Bi'isa on the south bank of the Mareb River; the foundation of the important monastery of Debre Damo is attributed to Abba Aragawi; Abbas Liqanos and Pantelewon are credited with establishing Pentalewon Monastery in Axum; Abba Garima founded Abba Garima Monastery north of Adwa; Abba Guba the one at Madara; Abba Sehma one at Sedenya; and Abba Yem’ata founded the southernmost one of the group in the Gar'alta, noted for its Abuna Yemata Guh church named after him.Old Calendarists
An Old Calendarist is any Eastern Orthodox Christian who uses the historic Julian calendar (called the "Old Style Calendar", "Church Calendar" or "Old Calendar"), proposed by the Roman statesman Julius Caesar, and whose church body is not in communion with the Eastern Orthodox churches that use the New Calendar.
The "Old Calendarists" are to be distinguished from Eastern Orthodox Christians or Eastern Orthodox Church bodies which are on the Old Calendar. The latter use the historic Julian calendar cited above, but are in communion with the Eastern Orthodox Churches that use the New Calendar (the Revised Julian calendar). Thus, to be "Old Calendarist" or "Old Calendar" is not the same thing as being "on the Old Calendar". The Russian Orthodox Church, for instance, is not Old Calendarist (or Old Calendar), but it is on the Old Calendar. There are a great many Eastern Orthodox Christians who are (or who belong to Churches that are) on the Old Calendar, but far fewer in number are the Eastern Orthodox Christians who are Old Calendar or Old Calendarist. It also should not be confused with the Oriental Orthodox churches, all of which are either on the Old Calendar or use their own calendar, but who are not in communion with either the Old Calendarists or mainstream Eastern Orthodoxy, although they are currently engaged in ecumenical dialogue with the latter. Nevertheless, inside the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem uses the Old Calendar in contrast to rest of the Armenian Church, which adopted the Gregorian Calendar while no member of the Armenian churches are using today the Armenian calendar. The Indian Orthodox Church uses the Gregorian calendar along with their autonomous Syriac Orthodox counterparts in India, the Malankara Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church, in contrast to the rest of the Syriac Church which uses its own calendar. The Ancient Church of the East (Julian Calendar) emerged as the result of a schism when Patriarch Shimun XXI Eshai introduced the Gregorian Calendar into the Assyrian Church of the East.
The Julian calendar, proposed by the pagan Roman general Julius Caesar, is commonly opposed to the Gregorian calendar introduced to Christianity by Pope Gregory XIII during the 16th century. An improved form of the Gregorian calendar, originally developed in 1785 and modified in 1923 by the Serbian astronomer Milutin Milanković, was first introduced by Greece for civil purposes only and later adopted by some Orthodox churches. In its present form it is known as the Revised Julian calendar and it will not diverge from the Gregorian until AD 2800 (see Greek Old Calendarists#History). A minority of Eastern Orthodox Christians regarded this as a surrender of the Eastern Orthodox Church to the Pope and continued following the old calendar. Some of these also broke communion with those who had adopted the new calendar, thus creating their own church, or denomination, which means in Latin "to take a new name".
This schism is the beginning of the Old Calendar Churches which suspended full communion or concelebration with other Eastern Orthodox churches ("New Calendarists") over the adoption by the latter of the Revised Julian calendar (called "New Calendar," although some churches did not specify the details of which New calendar they were adopting). This is the most common use of the term.
Those Orthodox Churches which remain in full communion with the New Calendarists and yet continue to use the Julian calendar include the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, the Macedonian Orthodox Church, the Russian Orthodox Church, the Serbian Orthodox Church, and the Georgian Orthodox Church. (The Julian calendar is also used by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia which has reunited with the Russian Orthodox Church.) Mount Athos, subordinate to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, also follows the Julian calendar.
In recent years both Old Calendar congregations and monasteries, as well New Calendar congregations and monasteries inside the Churches on the Old Calendar have been accepted into the official churches maintaining their own Calendar. Even some Russian Old Believers groups have been accepted into the official Russian Church while keeping their own traditions.Solar calendar
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar.
The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.Third Council of Ephesus
The Third Council of Ephesus was held in the Anatolian city of Ephesus in 475. It was presided over by Pope Timothy II of Alexandria, and also attended by Peter the Fuller, then Patriarch of Antioch, Paul the Exarch of Ephesus and Anastasius I of Jerusalem. There were reportedly 500-700 bishops present at the council. It ratified a recent encyclical of Emperor Basiliscus which condemned the Council of Chalcedon and particularly the Tome of Leo. This council thus constitutes one of the most significant synodical condemnations of Chalcedon for the Oriental Orthodox. In response to the accusations of certain Chalcedonians that they, the Non-Chalcedonians, had adopted the erroneous teachings of Eutyches, the attendees of Ephesus III summarily anathematized Eutyches and those of his teachings which compromised the humanity of Christ. Additionally, the council restored the complete autonomy of the Exarchate of Ephesus (corresponding to the civil Diocese of Asia), which had been compromised at Chalcedon by ascribing authority to the Patriarch of Constantinople over Thrace, Pontus, and Asia.Tir (god)
Tir or Tiur (Armenian: Տիր) was the god of written language, schooling, rhetoric, wisdom, and the arts worshiped in ancient Armenia.
He was the son of Hayk and considered to be the chief god Aramazd's messenger, fortune teller and the one who explained dreams, and who recorded the good and bad deeds of the men and the one who guided souls to the under world. He spent one month of the year documenting the birthdays and deaths of people in his journal, the other 11 months were spent on gifting power to writers, poets, musicians, sculptors, and architects.
Tir's temple was located near Artashat. The 4th month of the ancient Armenian Calendar was named after Tir; "Tre" or "Tri". Also named after him was the mountain Tirinkatar, the city Tirakatar, the villages Tre and Tirarich, and some Armenian names such as Tiran, Tirots, Tiridates. In the Hellenistic period Armenians considered Tir as the Greek gods Apollo and Hermes.Yared
Saint Yared (Ge'ez: ቅዱስ ያሬድ; April 25, 505 – May 20, 571) was a legendary Ethiopian musician from Tigray credited with inventing the sacred music tradition of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Ethiopia's system of musical notation. He is responsible for creating the Zema or the chant tradition of Ethiopia, particularly the chants of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which are still performed today. He is regarded as a saint of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church with a feast day of 11 Genbot (May 19). His name is from the Biblical person known in English as "Jared" (Gen. 5:15).