Armed Forces of Montenegro

The Armed Forces of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vojska Crne Gore) consists of an army, navy and air force. There has been no conscription in Montenegro; the military is a fully professional standing army.

The military currently maintains a force of 1,950 active duty members, this number will be increased to 2,368 through 2019. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force.

In June 2017 Montenegro joined NATO as 29th member.

Armed Forces of Montenegro
Montenegrin: Vojska Crne Gore
Voska Crne Gore
Current form2006 (reconstituted)
Service branchesMontenegrin Ground Army
Montenegrin Navy
Montenegrin Air Force
Commander-in-chiefMilo Đukanović
Minister of DefencePredrag Bošković
Chief of the General StaffBrigadier general Dragutin Dakić
Military age18+
ConscriptionAbolished in 2006
Active personnel2,368 (2019)
Reserve personnel2,791
Budget54 million Euro (2017)
Percent of GDP1.65% (2015)
Domestic suppliersTARA Aerospace and Defence Products AD
Foreign suppliers Austria
Related articles
HistoryBattle of Bar (1042)
Battle of Martinići (1796)
Battle of Krusi (1796)
Battle of Lopate (1796)
Siege of Cattaro (1813)
Battle of Grahovac (1858)
Battle of Kolašin (1858)
Battle of Vučji Do (1876)
Battle of Fundina (1876)
Battles for Plav and Gusinje (1879)
First Balkan War (1912-1913)
Siege of Shkoder ( 1913)
Second Balkan War (1913–1913)
First World War (1914-1918)
Christmas Uprising (1919)
Second World War
RanksMilitary ranks of Montenegro



Ministry of Defense


Air Bases

Golubovci Airbase (Podgorica)

Naval Bases

Bar Naval base (Bar)

"Pero Ćetković" base (Bar)

Pristan base (Herceg Novi)

Army Bases

Army base "Milovan Šaranović" (Danilovgrad)

Army base "13 jul", Nikšić (Nikšić)

Army base "V. K. Volođa" (Pljevlja)

Army base "Breza" (Kolašin)

Army base "Masline" (Podgorica) - Planned for adaptation

Army base "Nova lokacija" (Andrijevica) - Planned from 2020.year

Units and structure

Montenegro Armed forces Orbat
Structure of the Military of Montenegro 2017. (click to enlarge)
  • Generalstab Vojske Crne Gore.png General Staff - Podgorica[1]
  • Pjesadijski bataljon.pngInfantry Battalion
    • 1st Infantry Company
    • 2nd Infantry Company
    • 3rd Infantry (Mountain) Company
    • 4th Infantry Company
    • Fire Support Company
    • Engineer Company
    • Signal Platoon
    • NBC Defence Platoon
    • Service Squad
  • Vazduhoplovstvo.pngAir Force
    • Helicopter Squadron
    • Support Company
    • Air Surveillance & Reporting Center, in Golubovci, reports to NATO's Integrated Air Defense System CAOC Torrejón in Spain
    • Signal Platoon
    • 1st Air-Defense Platoon
    • 2nd Air-Defense Platoon
    • Service Squad
  • Mornarica Crne Gore.pngNavy
    • Patrol Boat 33
    • Patrol Boat 34
    • Coastal Surveillance Company
    • Training Ship "Jadran"
    • Auxiliary Boats Detachment
    • Marine Detachment
    • Support Company
  • Logistika.pngLogistic Battalion
  • Trening centar.pngTraining Center
  • Garda Pocasna.pngHonorary Guard Company
  • Specijalci.pngIntelligence-Reconnaissance Company
  • Vojna Policija.pngMilitary Police Company
  • Signal Company MNE.pngSignal Company

The Military before 1918

After military successes in the wars 1876-1878 during which the Principality of Montenegro was enlarged by a large territory, from the Tara River in the north to the Adriatic Sea in the south (liberated towns Podgorica, Nikšić, Kolašin, Andrijevica, Bar and Ulcinj), reorganization in Montenegrin army was conducted in 1880. Each kapetanija (municipality) formed its reserve battalion. There were 42 battalions in total. Since 1881, regular military exercises were conducted.

Supreme Commander of the Montenegrin army was the monarch, Prince / King Nikola I. Operational command, organization and financial support of the Montenegrin army was entrusted to the Ministry of Defence, the department of the Government of the Principality / Kingdom of Montenegro.

Vucji Do flag
Montenegrin military Krstaš barjak riddled with bullets after victory in the Battle of Vučji Do

General Staff of the Montenegrin army was part of the Ministry of Defence.

In 1882 first 14 Montenegrins were sent to officer schools abroad, particularly in Italy and Russia. In 1886, 10 of them completed their education and they become first trained officers in Montenegrin warrior history. These Montenegrin officers held courses in Podgorica, Nikšić and Cetinje.

In September 1895, the first permanent Infantry NCO school in Podgorica was opened, and the first NCOs got desečar rank. At the end of 1896, artillery officer school in Cetinje was established - the first Montenegrin officer school.


NSRW Balkans03
Montenegrin Artillery
Montenegro King's Militia
The King's Militia salutes Nicholas I in Lyons, France after his exile

In 1906 Montenegrin army received the first systematized regulations, and the Law on Organization of the Army was adopted in 1910. Infantry and artillery, were established, followed by two specialized branches (reconnaissance and pioneering), and additional branches (medics, military workshop, the military court staff, gendarmerie and logistics).

In 1913 the Montenegrin gendarmerie become a special Military Police unit.

Since the establishment of the internal Montenegrin telecommunications system in 1869, vital for the flow of military-defense information, it was under the jurisdiction of Ministry of the military.

Until 1912, the territory of the Kingdom of Montenegro was divided into four divisional areas:

After wars 1912th-1913th established additional two divisions field:

By 1912, the Montenegrin Army had 11 brigade areas, 52 districts and 322 battalion troop areas. Divisions were composed of 2-3 Infantry Brigade.

Each divisional command had three artillery batteries. On the eve of the First Balkan War Kingdom of Montenegro lined up 55,000 soldiers.

After the establishment of the Kingdom of Montenegro in 1910, Montenegro was involved in three wars with the first one being the First Balkan War, in alliance with Serbia, Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria against the Ottoman Empire. The Second Balkan War was fought between Montenegro, Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire against Bulgaria, with Bulgaria consequently losing significant territory in the north, Thrace, and Macedonia.

The Military of Montenegro before 1918, was much larger than today's military. During World War I, Montenegro mobilised 50,000 troops. The Commander-in-Chief was King Nikola I of Montenegro, while the General of Staff was Božidar Janković. Units included:

  • Pljevlja Division

The Pljevlja Division was commanded by brigadier Luka Gojnić. The division was made up of 10 battalions. It had around 6,000 soldiers, and patrolled the area east from Pljevlja.

  • Herzegovina Detachment

The Herzegovina Detachment was commanded by Serdar (Count) Janko Vukotić. The detachment was made up of 15 battalions. It had around 15,000 soldiers, and patrolled the border with Herzegovina.

  • Lovćen Detachment

The Lovćen Detachment was commanded by divizijar Mitar Martinović. The detachment was made up of 18 battalions. It had around 8,000 soldiers, and patrolled the areas of Lovćen and Sutorman.

  • Old Serbia' Detachment

The 'Old Serbia' Detachment was commanded by brigadier Radomir Vešović. The detachment was made up of 13 battalions. It had around 6,000 soldiers, and secured the Albanian border.


Most soldiers of the Montenegrin army had no uniforms. At mobilization, the soldiers were issued a rifle and a badge to put in the cap. Both soldiers and officers in the reserve wore national costume. The badges in the caps had different designs depending on the rank of the wearer.

Moritz Ruhl - Montenegrinische Armee 1914 - Paradeuniformen
Dress Uniforms. 1. Komandir in national costume, 2/3. Divizijar, 4. Vojvod in national costume, 5/6. Officers, 7. Officer of the Royal Escort in national costume, 8. Private soldier, 9. Divizijar.
Moritz Ruhl - Montenegrinische Armee 1914 - Felduniformen
Field Uniforms. 1. Private soldier, 2. Bugler, 3. Corporal (all in field uniforms), 4.Captain in field uniform, 5. Lieutenant in cloak, 6. Komandir in field uniform, 7. Komandir, 8. Reserve soldier (both in national costumes), 9. Soldier of the Royal Escort in field uniform, 10. Brigadir in great coat.

Ranks and Badges

All Montenegrins between 18 and 62 years were conscripts. Recruitment was done three times a year, and the recruits are in peacetime had to have at least 25 years.

  • Officer ranks were: potporučnik, poručnik, kapetan, komandir, brigadir, divizijar
  • NCO ranks were: desečar, donarednik, narednik
  • Ceremonial ranks were: serdar, vojvoda
Moritz Ruhl - Montenegrinische Armee 1914 - Abzeichen
Cap Badges. From left to right. First row: Vojvod, Brigadir, Komandir, Lieutenant: Second row: Barjakdar = ensign, Vodnik = sergeant, Desečar = corporal, gunner

Peacekeeping operations

Montenegro participates in peace operations under the NATO and UN auspices as military troops and observers. Minister of Defense said that 85 soldiers are trained for international missions.[2] Montenegrin soldiers are trained by the German Bundeswehr.[3]

Montenegro sent 45 troops and medical personnel to the ISAF mission in Afghanistan, and continues contributing in new Resolute Support Mission mission.[4][5]

Montenegro also participates in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, UNMIL, Cyprus, UNFICYP as military observers and Somalia, EU-NAVFOR.

Current Mission Organization Country Nr. of personnel
RS NATO Afghanistan 25 Members (Military troops and medical team)
UNMIL UN Liberia Officers as military observers
UNFICYP UN Cyprus Officers as military observers
EU-NAVFOR EU Somalia 8 Members (APVD team)[6]
KFOR NATO Kosovo 40 Members (Military troops and medical team)


Ground Army

Weapon Country Manufactured Cartridge Quantity Pictures Notes
Glock 17[7]  Austria 9×19mm ARMS & Hunting 2012 exhibition (474-23) Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military.[8]
Zastava CZ 99  Yugoslavia
9×19mm Crvena Zastava 99 Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military
Tara TM9  Montenegro 9×19mm Testing
Submachine guns
Heckler & Koch MP5  Germany 9×19mm Parabellum MP5t Used by Special Forces.[9][10]
Assault Rifles
Zastava M59/66  Yugoslavia 7.62×39mm Yugoslavian SKS M59 66 Ceremonial rifle
G36  Germany 5.56×45mm NATO 655
(as of 2015)[11]
800px-G36bw Standard rifle of Montenegrin Military
Steyr AUG  Austria 5.56×45mm NATO Steyr-AUG.jpeg Used by Special Forces
Heckler & Koch HK416  Germany 5.56×45mm NATO HK416 Used by Special Forces.[9][12]
Tara TM4  Montenegro 5.56×45mm NATO Testing
Zastava M70/M70A  Yugoslavia
7.62×39mm Zastava M-70 In reserve
Sniper Rifles
Heckler & Koch PSG1  Germany 7.62×51mm NATO PSG1 and MSG 90 PSG 1 and MSG 90 in service.[13][14]
Zastava M93 Black Arrow  Yugoslavia
12.7×108mm Sniper Zastava M93 In service
Zastava M76  Yugoslavia
7.92×57mm Zastava-M76-Full In reserve
Zastava M91  Yugoslavia
7.62×54mmR Sniper Zastava M91 In reserve
Machine Guns
Zastava M84  Yugoslavia
7.62×54mmR ZastavaM84gpmg In service.[9]
Zastava M72  Yugoslavia
7.62×39mm M72B1 In reserve
Grenade launcher
BGA 30mm  Serbia 30mm Zastava BGA 30mm 01 In service
Heckler & Koch AG36  Germany 40mm GewehrAG36 In service
M79 "Osa"  Yugoslavia 90mm rocket M79-OSA In service, planned to buy new MANPATS
M80 "Zolja"  Yugoslavia 64mm rocket Zolja1 In service, planned to buy new MANPATS
9M14 Malyutka  Soviet Union
64mm rocket Malyutka In service
M57 mortar  Yugoslavia 60mm Минобацач М57 60мм In service
M69 mortar  Yugoslavia 82mm 44 Минобацач М69 82мм 14 active, (30 in reserve)
M74/M75 mortar  Yugoslavia 120mm 32 Mortar 120 mm M-75 Croatian Army In service.[15]
D-30J 122 mm  Soviet Union 122 mm 12 Military Montenegro 23 In service.[15]
M-94 Plamen-S  Yugoslavia 128 mm 18 M94 Plamen S 128mm 1 In service.[15]
Armoured personnel carrier
BOV VP М86  Yugoslavia 6 BOVM86MNE In service.[16][15]
Achleitner RCV Survivor  Austria
4[16] RCVSURVIVORMNE In service[17] with special forces[9], planned to buy another 26 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a MAN truck chassis.
LAPV Enok  Germany 6 Bundeswehr LAPV Enok Donated by Germany in 2018.[18]
Humvee  United States (0)20 Img hmmwv Upcoming donation from USA.[16]
Otokar Cobra  Turkey 1 Paradbaku98 Nuclear, Biological,Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle.
Tank destroyer
BOV 1 POLO M-83  Yugoslavia 9 BOV POLO In service, armed with 6 AT-3 missiles. [15]
Off-road utility vehicle
Achleitner MMV Survivor  Austria
16 MMVSURVIVORMNE In service[16], planned to buy another 20 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a Toyota SUV chassis.
Toyota Hilux  Japan EB (15168558335) In service
Toyota Land Cruiser  Japan In service, Ambulance vehicle.
Puch 300GD
Puch 290D
Mercedes-Benz G-Class[19]  Germany Mercedes G class - Montenegro Military In service
Pinzgauer 710  Austria PINZGAUERMNE In service
Lada Niva 1.5
Lada Niva 1.7
 Russia Lada Niva front 20080228 In service
TAM 110
TAM 130
TAM 150
Military Montenegro In service
FAP 2026
FAP 2226
FAP 1314
FAP 2026 In service
Iveco Trakker  Italy In service, Dump truck.
Iveco EuroCargo  Italy In service, Dump truck.
Logistics vehicles
IMK TG-110
IMK TG-140
IMK TG-160
IMK TG-190
IMK TG-220
 Yugoslavia Military Montenegro 36 Tracked bulldozer
IMK ULT-160  Yugoslavia Military Montenegro 31 Wheeled bulldozer
CAT 434F  United States CATVCG Backhoe loader
Mercedes-Benz Unimog  Germany UNIMOG Multi-purpose utility vehicle


Class Country Manufactured Variants Quantity Pictures Notes
Kotor class  Yugoslavia - P-33 Kotor
- P-34 Novi Sad
Patrolni brod klasa Kotor P34 2 in active service
Fast attack craft
Končar class  Yugoslavia - RTOP-405 Jordan Nikolov Orce
- RTOP-406 Ante Banina
Rtop 405 Under reconstruction. The ship RTOP-405 was to be completed in 2018.
Transport and support
PO class  Yugoslavia - PO91 1 1 in reserve
Salvage tug  Yugoslavia - PR-41 (Orada)
- LR-77
PR41 ORADA 2 in active service
Sailing ship
Jadran  Germany Used as a training ship 1 Jadran saling ship.JPEG 1 in active service
Motor sailboat  Yugoslavia - Bojana
- Milena
Sailing boatVCG 2 in active service
Diving boat  Yugoslavia -Ronilačka baraksa 81
-Ronilačka barkasa 85
Brm81 2 in active service
Motor boat Polycat  Netherlands 1 1 in active service
Motor boat  Yugoslavia - ČM 33 1 1 in active service
Inflatable boat
Valiant 620PT  United Kingdom Used by Marine Platoon 2 Montenegrian Military inflatable boat 2 in active service
Motor Yacht
Jadranka  Yugoslavia VIP Yacht 1 Jadranka Presidential yacht in Military of Montenegro Offered for sale
Floating Crane
Floating Crane  Yugoslavia LDI 18 1 LDI18 1 in active service

Air Force

Aircraft Country Manufactured Variant Quantity Pictures Notes
Armed Advanced Jet Trainer
Soko G-4 Super Galeb  Yugoslavia G-4 / N-62 4 SOKOSuperGalebG4 Not operational.[15]
Trainer Aircraft
Utva 75  Yugoslavia Utva 75 / V-53 3 LOLAUtva75 Not operational.[15]
Cessna 421 Golden Eagle  United States Cessna 421B Golden Eagle 1 Cessna421B-Landing One for transport, medical evacuation and training.
Transport and Utility Helicopters
SOKO Gazelle  France
HI-42 Hera
HN-45 Gama
13 GazelleMNE Produced under license in Yugoslavia.[15] Planned replacement with new helicopters in the next 5 years, one of the possible helicopter is Bell 505 Jet Ranger X.
Bell 412  United States
Bell 412 One EP variant and two EPI variants. Medical evacuation, search and rescue, aerial firefighting, patrol.[20][21]
Mil Mi-8  Soviet Union Mi-8T/HT-40 1 Montenegrian airforce mi 8 Not in use.
Air Defence
9K32 Strela-2M  Soviet Union
Portable low-altitude SAM SA-7 Planned to buy new MANPADS.
Bofors 40 mm  Sweden Autocannon 40mm L/70,
works with GIRAFFE Radar
L70 Bofors V i PVO VS Planned for modernization
GIRAFFE Radar  Sweden Early warning radar, works
with Bofors 40mm L/70
Zirafa Radar Planned for modernization


Military Montenegro 33

Members of Special Forces Brigade

153035 52436623 morn-1

Members of Marine Detachment

Military Montenegro 24

Special forces

Montenegro Afganistan

Montenegrin troops in Afghanistan

Avganistan (4)

Montenegrin troops in Afghanistan

Army Montenegro

Infantry Company

Military Montenegro 9

Infantry Company

Military Montenegro 3


Military Montenegro 4

Achleitner RCV Survivor

Military Montenegro 7


Military Montenegro 8

Combat drill

Military Montenegro 11


Military Montenegro 18

NBC Defence

Military Montenegro 20

Military Police

Montenegrian Military inflatable boat

Montenegrin navy boat


Montenegrin soldier holding a HK MP5

Patrolni brod klasa Kotor P34

Kotor class Frigate

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Spremaju se za Avganistan". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.
  3. ^ David Noack: Subsidiary Troops (German: Hilfstruppen),, 17.03.2008.
  4. ^ "Kasarna Danilovgrad: Svečanost za vojnike koji idu u Avganistan". Archived from the original on 8 March 2010.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Crnogorci brane "Esbjerg" od pirata".
  7. ^ Page 15
  8. ^ "PIŠTOLJ - GLOCK 17".
  9. ^ a b c d "Specijalci bez greške i na 40°C". (in Montenegrin). 23 July 2015.
  11. ^ "Schriftliche Fragen an die Bundesregierung im Monat Januar 2015; Frage Nr. 195" (PDF) (in German).
  12. ^ "HECKLER AND KOCH - HK 416".
  14. ^ "HECKLER AND KOCH MSG 90".
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h International Institute for Strategic Studies (14 February 2017). The Military Balance 2017. 117 (1 ed.). London, United Kingdom: Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 978-1857439007.
  16. ^ a b c d "Mašan – czarnogórski samochód opancerzony". (in Polish). 30 August 2018.
  17. ^ "2.5 TOYOTA RCV SURVIVOR I 4x4".
  18. ^ Bozinovski, Igor (13 September 2018). "Germany gifts light armoured vehicles to Montenegro". Skopje: IHS Jane's.
  19. ^ a b Montenegro army land ground armed forces military equipment armored vehicle intelligence pictures - Army Recognition
  20. ^ Bozinovski, Igor (5 February 2018). "Montenegro orders three Bell 412 helicopters". IHS Jane's 360. Skopje. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  21. ^ Zuvela, Maja; Sekularac, Ivana; Potter, Mark (30 January 2018). "Montenegro inks deal to buy three helicopters from Bell Helicopter". Reuters. Sarajevo. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.

External links

Chief of the General Staff (Montenegro)

The Chief of the General Staff (Montenegrin: Начелник Генералштаба / Načelnik Generalštaba) is the chief of the General Staff and Armed Forces of Montenegro. The chief of staff is appointed by the President of Montenegro, who is the commander-in-chief. The position dates back to the Principality of Montenegro. The current Chief of the General Staff is Brigadier General Dragutin Dakić.

Honour Guard Company (Montenegro)

The Honour Guard of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Pocasna Garda Vojske Crne Gora, Cyrillic: Почасна гарда Војска Црне Горе) is an honor guard unit of the Armed Forces of Montenegro.


The LAPV Enok is a Light Armoured Patrol Vehicle of the Bundeswehr, mostly in use with the German Army. It is a significantly further developed Wolf SSA, based on the Mercedes-Benz G-Class.

The LAPV Enok is being manufactured by Armored Car Systems GmbH (ACS), based in Aichach, a wholly owned subsidiary of 'Gruma Commercial Vehicles' based in Derching. Important subcontractors are the companies LeTech - Special Purpose Vehicles (formerly Lennartz Technik) in Welzheim and the Austrian Magna Steyr based in Graz.

Ljubiša Jokić

Ljubiša Jokić (Serbian Cyrillic: Љубиша Јокић; born 24 September 1958) is the former Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro.He completed Air Force High School in Mostar (Bosnia and Hercegovina) and graduated from Air Force Military Academy - aircraft pilot program in Pula (Croatia). After Academy, he continued with further education and development programs for expanding himself. He attended General Staff Academy in () and he graduated in 1995. As the crown of his education he graduated from in 1999.

For the excellent results as flying teacher obtained, he was reward with the Flying Instructor title, as well as he was awarded with Gold Flight Medal.

After Air Force Academy, he started as flying teacher till 1989 when he was appointed as Commander of a basic flight unit. 5 years later (1994), he was appointed as Squadron Commander. He replaced flying duties in 1997, with taking over air traffic control and he became Chief of air - traffic control on airport Podgorica. He returned to military part of job during the period from 1999 to 2003, when he was designated as Air Brigade Commander (1999) as well as Military Airport Air Base Commander (2002).

Since April 2003, he has been in charge for many very important areas that were of the crucial significance and relevance for the country. He was appointed as Head of Military Cabinet of the President of and, at the same time, as Defense Supreme Counsel Secretary of and . At the end of 2004 he got a very important role in transformation process of the Army in and he was named as Deputy of Minister of Defense for Human Resources. The top of his military carrier is title Head of General Staff of Serbia and Montenegro (from September 2005 to June 2006).

From July 2007 to December 2011 he has been Montenegro military representative to NATO and EU military committee.

In March 2012 he is appointed as Senior Military Adviser in Permanent Mission of Montenegro at OSCE and Military Attaché in Austria, Czech Republic and Slovakia.

From August 2016 he is appointed as Senior Military Adviser MOD.

From January 2017 to October 2017 he is appointed as Head of General Staff of Montenegro.

Military ranks of Montenegro

The Military ranks of Montenegro are the military insignia used by the Armed Forces of Montenegro.


Montenegro ( (listen); Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora [tsr̩̂ːnaː ɡɔ̌ra]) is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest; Serbia and Kosovo to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the southwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079 (2011 census). Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.

During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. The independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, and by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852. Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year.

Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement. It is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.

NATO Integrated Air Defense System

The NATO Integrated Air Defense System (short: NATINADS) is a command and control network combining radars and other facilities spread throughout the NATO alliance's air defence forces. It formed in the mid-1950s and became operational in 1962 as NADGE. It has been constantly upgraded since its formation, notably with the integration of Airborne Early Warning aircraft in the 1970s. The United Kingdom maintained its own network, but was fully integrated with the network since the introduction of the Linesman/Mediator network in the 1970s. Similarily, the German network maintained an independent nature through GEADGE.

R-2 Mala-class swimmer delivery vehicle

The R-2 Mala is a class of swimmer delivery vehicles (SDVs) built for the Yugoslav, and later on, Croatian Navy. The two man wet SDVs are used for transporting naval commandos into hostile waters where they would perform sabotage on enemy warships and coastal installations. Weapons at their disposal included limpet mines.

With the start of the Croatian War of Independence SDVs in service with the Yugoslav Navy were relocated to FR Yugoslavia. Two new vehicles were completed for the Croatian Navy during the 1990s while a small number these vehicles were also exported to Syria and Sweden before the war.

Silba-class landing ship-minelayer

The Silba class (sometimes the Cetina class) is a class of three landing ships, also used as minelayers, built for the Yugoslav (JRM) and Croatian Navy (HRM) during the 1980s and 1990s. The ships were built at the Brodogradilište specijalnih objekata shipyard in Split with slight differences in armament configuration between the last two ships. By the time the Croatian War of Independence started, one ship was in service with the JRM while another was being completed.

The one in JRM service was relocated to Montenegro where it would be commissioned with the Navy of the new FR Yugoslavia. The second ship that was captured unfinished was completed by Croatian forces and entered service with the HRM, followed by a third that was laid down by Croatia in 1993. The two ships commissioned with the HRM remain in active service, providing assistance to civilian institutions aside from their regular military tasks. The fate of the first ship in the class remains unknown.

Armed Forces of Montenegro
Montenegro articles
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Militaries of Europe
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