Armed Forces of Montenegro

The Armed Forces of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vojska Crne Gore) consists of an army, navy and air force. There has been no conscription in Montenegro; the military is a fully professional standing army.

The military currently maintains a force of 1,950 active duty members. The bulk of its equipment and forces were inherited from the Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro; as Montenegro contained the entire coastline of the former union, it retained practically the entire naval force.

In June 2017 Montenegro joined NATO as 29th member.

Armed Forces of Montenegro
Montenegrin: Vojska Crne Gore
Military of Montenegro
Founded 1879 (reconstituted 2006)
Service branches Montenegrin Ground Army
Montenegrin Navy
Montenegrin Air Force
Headquarters Podgorica
Website http://www.vojska.me/vojska
Leadership
President Milo Đukanović
Minister of Defence Predrag Bošković
Chief of the General Staff Brigadier general Dragutin Dakić
Manpower
Military age 18+
Conscription Abolished in 2006
Active personnel 1,950 (2017)
Reserve personnel 400
Expenditures
Budget 54 million Euro (2017)
Percent of GDP 1.65% (2015)
Industry
Domestic suppliers TARA group
Foreign suppliers  Austria
 Germany
 Russia
 Serbia
Related articles
History Battle of Martinići (1796)
Battle of Krusi (1796)
Battle of Lopate (1796)
Siege of Cattaro (1813)
Battle of Grahovac (1858)
Battle of Kolašin (1858)
Battle of Vučji Do (1876)
Battle of Fundina (1876)
Battles for Plav and Gusinje (1879)
First Balkan War (1912-1913)
Siege of Shkoder ( 1913)
Second Balkan War (1913–1913)
First World War (1914-1918)
Christmas Uprising (1919)
Second World War
Ranks Military ranks of Montenegro

Command

Leadership

Ministry of Defense

Bases

Air Bases

Golubovci Airbase (Podgorica)

Naval Bases

Bar Naval base (Bar)

"Pero Ćetković" base (Bar)

Pristan base (Herceg Novi)

Army Bases

Army base "Milovan Šaranović" (Danilovgrad)

Army base "13 jul", Nikšić (Nikšić)

Army base "V. K. Volođa" (Pljevlja)

Army base "Breza" (Kolašin)

Army base "Masline" (Podgorica) - Planned for adaptation

Army base "Nova lokacija" (Andrijevica) - Planned from 2020.year

Units and structure

Montenegro Armed forces Orbat
Structure of the Military of Montenegro 2017. (click to enlarge)
  • Generalstab Vojske Crne Gore.png General Staff - Podgorica[1]
  • Pjesadijski bataljon.pngInfantry Battalion
    • 1st Infantry Company
    • 2nd Infantry Company
    • 3rd Infantry (Mountain) Company
    • 4th Infantry Company
    • Fire Support Company
    • Engineer Company
    • Signal Platoon
    • NBC Defence Platoon
    • Service Squad
  • Vazduhoplovstvo.pngAir Force
    • Helicopter Squadron
    • Support Company
    • Air Surveillance & Reporting Center, in Golubovci, reports to NATO's Integrated Air Defense System CAOC Torrejón in Spain
    • Signal Platoon
    • 1st Air-Defense Platoon
    • 2nd Air-Defense Platoon
    • Service Squad
  • Mornarica Crne Gore.pngNavy
    • Patrol Boat 33
    • Patrol Boat 34
    • Coastal Surveillance Company
    • Training Ship "Jadran"
    • Auxiliary Boats Detachment
    • Marine Detachment
    • Support Company
  • Logistika.pngLogistic Battalion
  • Trening centar.pngTraining Center
  • Garda Pocasna.pngHonorary Guard Company
  • Specijalci.pngIntelligence-Reconnaissance Company
  • Vojna Policija.pngMilitary Police Company
  • Signal Company MNE.pngSignal Company

The Military before 1918

After military successes in the wars 1876-1878 during which the Principality of Montenegro was enlarged by a large territory, from the Tara River in the north to the Adriatic Sea in the south (liberated towns Podgorica, Nikšić, Kolašin, Andrijevica, Bar and Ulcinj), reorganization in Montenegrin army was conducted in 1880. Each kapetanija (municipality) formed its reserve battalion. There were 42 battalions in total. Since 1881, regular military exercises were conducted.

Supreme Commander of the Montenegrin army was the monarch, Prince / King Nikola I. Operational command, organization and financial support of the Montenegrin army was entrusted to the Ministry of Defence, the department of the Government of the Principality / Kingdom of Montenegro.

Vucji Do flag
Montenegrin military Krstaš barjak riddled with bullets after victory in the Battle of Vučji Do

General Staff of the Montenegrin army was part of the Ministry of Defence.

In 1882 first 14 Montenegrins were sent to officer schools abroad, particularly in Italy and Russia. In 1886, 10 of them completed their education and they become first trained officers in Montenegrin warrior history. These Montenegrin officers held courses in Podgorica, Nikšić and Cetinje.

In September 1895, the first permanent Infantry NCO school in Podgorica was opened, and the first NCOs got desečar rank. At the end of 1896, artillery officer school in Cetinje was established - the first Montenegrin officer school.

Formations

NSRW Balkans03
Montenegrin Artillery
Montenegro King%27s Militia
The King's Militia salutes Nicholas I in Lyons, France after his exile

In 1906 Montenegrin army received the first systematized regulations, and the Law on Organization of the Army was adopted in 1910. Infantry and artillery, were established, followed by two specialized branches (reconnaissance and pioneering), and additional branches (medics, military workshop, the military court staff, gendarmerie and logistics).

In 1913 the Montenegrin gendarmerie become a special Military Police unit.

Since the establishment of the internal Montenegrin telecommunications system in 1869, vital for the flow of military-defense information, it was under the jurisdiction of Ministry of the military.

Until 1912, the territory of the Kingdom of Montenegro was divided into four divisional areas:

After wars 1912th-1913th established additional two divisions field:

By 1912, the Montenegrin Army had 11 brigade areas, 52 districts and 322 battalion troop areas. Divisions were composed of 2-3 Infantry Brigade.

Each divisional command had three artillery batteries. On the eve of the First Balkan War Kingdom of Montenegro lined up 55,000 soldiers.

After the establishment of the Kingdom of Montenegro in 1910, Montenegro was involved in three wars with the first one being the First Balkan War, in alliance with Serbia, Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria against the Ottoman Empire. The Second Balkan War was fought between Montenegro, Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire against Bulgaria, with Bulgaria consequently losing significant territory in the north, Thrace, and Macedonia.

The Military of Montenegro before 1918, was much larger than today's military. During World War I, Montenegro mobilised 50,000 troops. The Commander-in-Chief was King Nikola I of Montenegro, while the General of Staff was Božidar Janković. Units included:

  • Pljevlja Division

The Pljevlja Division was commanded by brigadier Luka Gojnić. The division was made up of 10 battalions. It had around 6,000 soldiers, and patrolled the area east from Pljevlja.

  • Herzegovina Detachment

The Herzegovina Detachment was commanded by Serdar (Count) Janko Vukotić. The detachment was made up of 15 battalions. It had around 15,000 soldiers, and patrolled the border with Herzegovina.

  • Lovćen Detachment

The Lovćen Detachment was commanded by divizijar Mitar Martinović. The detachment was made up of 18 battalions. It had around 8,000 soldiers, and patrolled the areas of Lovćen and Sutorman.

  • Old Serbia' Detachment

The 'Old Serbia' Detachment was commanded by brigadier Radomir Vešović. The detachment was made up of 13 battalions. It had around 6,000 soldiers, and secured the Albanian border.

Uniforms

Most soldiers of the Montenegrin army had no uniforms. At mobilization, the soldiers were issued a rifle and a badge to put in the cap. Both soldiers and officers in the reserve wore national costume. The badges in the caps had different designs depending on the rank of the wearer.

Moritz Ruhl - Montenegrinische Armee 1914 - Paradeuniformen
Dress Uniforms. 1. Komandir in national costume, 2/3. Divizijar, 4. Vojvod in national costume, 5/6. Officers, 7. Officer of the Royal Escort in national costume, 8. Private soldier, 9. Divizijar.
Moritz Ruhl - Montenegrinische Armee 1914 - Felduniformen
Field Uniforms. 1. Private soldier, 2. Bugler, 3. Corporal (all in field uniforms), 4.Captain in field uniform, 5. Lieutenant in cloak, 6. Komandir in field uniform, 7. Komandir, 8. Reserve soldier (both in national costumes), 9. Soldier of the Royal Escort in field uniform, 10. Brigadir in great coat.

Ranks and Badges

All Montenegrins between 18 and 62 years were conscripts. Recruitment was done three times a year, and the recruits are in peacetime had to have at least 25 years.

  • Officer ranks were: potporučnik, poručnik, kapetan, komandir, brigadir, divizijar
  • NCO ranks were: desečar, donarednik, narednik
  • Ceremonial ranks were: serdar, vojvoda
Moritz Ruhl - Montenegrinische Armee 1914 - Abzeichen
Cap Badges. From left to right. First row: Vojvod, Brigadir, Komandir, Lieutenant: Second row: Barjakdar = ensign, Vodnik = sergeant, Desečar = corporal, gunner

Peacekeeping operations

Montenegro participates in peace operations under the NATO and UN auspices as military troops and observers. Minister of Defense said that 85 soldiers are trained for international missions.[2] Montenegrin soldiers are trained by the German Bundeswehr.[3]

Montenegro sent 45 troops and medical personnel to the ISAF mission in Afghanistan, and continues contributing in new Resolute Support Mission mission.[4][5]

Montenegro also participates in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, UNMIL, Cyprus, UNFICYP as military observers and Somalia, EU-NAVFOR.

Current Mission Organization Country Nr. of personnel
RS NATO Afghanistan 25 Members (Military troops and medical team)
UNMIL UN Liberia Officers as military observers
UNFICYP UN Cyprus Officers as military observers
EU-NAVFOR EU Somalia 8 Members (APVD team)[6]
KFOR NATO Kosovo 40 Members (Military troops and medical team)

Equipment

Ground Army

Weapon Country Manufactured Cartridge Quantity Pictures Notes
Pistols
Glock 17[7]  Austria 9×19mm ARMS %26 Hunting 2012 exhibition (474-23) Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military.[8]
Zastava CZ 99  Yugoslavia
 Serbia
9×19mm Crvena Zastava 99 Standard Gun of Montenegrin Military
Tara TM9  Montenegro 9×19mm Testing
Submachine guns
Heckler & Koch MP5  Germany 9×19mm Parabellum MP5t Used by Special Forces.[9][10]
Assault Rifles
Zastava M59/66  Yugoslavia 7.62×39mm Yugoslavian SKS M59 66 Ceremonial rifle
G36  Germany 5.56×45mm NATO 655
(as of 2015)[11]
800px-G36bw Standard rifle of Montenegrin Military
Steyr AUG  Austria 5.56×45mm NATO Steyr-AUG.jpeg Used by Special Forces
Heckler & Koch HK416  Germany 5.56×45mm NATO HK416 Used by Special Forces.[9][12]
Tara TM4  Montenegro 5.56×45mm NATO Testing
Zastava M70/M70A  Yugoslavia
 Serbia
7.62×39mm Zastava M-70 In reserve
Sniper Rifles
Heckler & Koch PSG1  Germany 7.62×51mm NATO PSG1 and MSG 90 PSG 1 and MSG 90 in service.[13][14]
Zastava M93 Black Arrow  Yugoslavia
 Serbia
12.7×108mm Sniper Zastava M93 In service
Zastava M76  Yugoslavia
 Serbia
7.92×57mm Zastava-M76-Full In reserve
Zastava M91  Yugoslavia
 Serbia
7.62×54mmR Sniper Zastava M91 In reserve
Machine Guns
Zastava M84  Yugoslavia
 Serbia
7.62×54mmR ZastavaM84gpmg In service.[9]
Zastava M72  Yugoslavia
 Serbia
7.62×39mm M72B1 In reserve
Grenade launcher
BGA 30mm  Serbia 30mm Zastava BGA 30mm 01 In service
Heckler & Koch AG36  Germany 40mm GewehrAG36 In service
Anti-tank
M79 "Osa"  Yugoslavia 90mm rocket M79-OSA In service, planned to buy new MANPATS
M80 "Zolja"  Yugoslavia 64mm rocket Zolja1 In service, planned to buy new MANPATS
9M14 Malyutka  Soviet Union
 Yugoslavia
64mm rocket Malyutka In service
Mortar
M57 mortar  Yugoslavia 60mm %D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B0%D1%87 %D0%9C57 60%D0%BC%D0%BC In service
M69 mortar  Yugoslavia 82mm 44 %D0%9C%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B0%D1%87 %D0%9C69 82%D0%BC%D0%BC 14 active,(30 in reserve)
M74/M75 mortar  Yugoslavia 120mm 32 Mortar 120 mm M-75 Croatian Army In service.[15]
Howitzer
D-30J 122 mm  Soviet Union 122 mm 12 Military Montenegro 23 In service.[15]
MLRS
M-94 Plamen-S  Yugoslavia 128 mm 18 M94 Plamen S 128mm 1 In service.[15]
Armoured personnel carrier
BOV VP М86  Yugoslavia 6 BOVM86MNE In service.[16][15]
Achleitner RCV Survivor  Austria
 Germany
4[16] RCVSURVIVORMNE In service[17] with special forces[9], planned to buy another 26 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a MAN truck chassis.
LAPV Enok  Germany 6 Bundeswehr LAPV Enok Donated by Germany in 2018.[18]
Humvee  United States (0)20 Img hmmwv Upcoming donation from USA.[16]
Otokar Cobra  Turkey 1 Paradbaku98 Nuclear, Biological,Chemical Reconnaissance Vehicle.
Tank destroyer
BOV 1 POLO M-83  Yugoslavia 9 BOV POLO In service, armed with 6 AT-3 missiles. [15]
Off-road utility vehicle
Achleitner MMV Survivor  Austria
 Japan
16 MMVSURVIVORMNE In service[16], planned to buy another 20 vehicles. Achleitner modification on a Toyota SUV chassis.
Toyota Hilux  Japan EB (15168558335) In service
Toyota Land Cruiser  Japan In service, Ambulance vehicle.
Puch 300GD
Puch 290D
[19]
 Austria PUCHMERCEDESGCLASSMNE In service
Mercedes-Benz G-Class[19]  Germany Mercedes G class - Montenegro Military In service
Pinzgauer 710  Austria PINZGAUERMNE In service
Lada Niva 1.5
Lada Niva 1.7
 Russia Lada Niva front 20080228 In service
Trucks
TAM 110
TAM 130
TAM 150
 Yugoslavia
 Slovenia
Military Montenegro In service
FAP 2026
FAP 2226
FAP 1314
 Yugoslavia
 Serbia
FAP 2026 In service
Iveco Trakker  Italy In service, Dump truck.
Iveco EuroCargo  Italy In service, Dump truck.
Logistics vehicles
IMK TG-110
IMK TG-140
IMK TG-160
IMK TG-190
IMK TG-220
 Yugoslavia Military Montenegro 36 Tracked bulldozer
IMK ULT-160  Yugoslavia Military Montenegro 31 Wheeled bulldozer
CAT 434F  United States CATVCG Backhoe loader
Mercedes-Benz Unimog  Germany UNIMOG Multi-purpose utility vehicle

Navy

Class Country Manufactured Variants Quantity Pictures Notes
Frigate
Kotor class frigate  Yugoslavia - P-33 Kotor
- P-34 Novi Sad
1
1
Patrolni brod klasa Kotor P34 2 in active service
Fast attack craft
Končar class fast attack craft  Yugoslavia - RTOP-405 Jordan Nikolov Orce
- RTOP-406 Ante Banina
1
1
Rtop 405 Under reconstruction. The ship RTOP-405 was to be completed in 2018.
Transport and support
PO class  Yugoslavia - PO91 1 1 in reserve
Tugboats
Salvage tug  Yugoslavia - PR-41 (Orada)
- LR-77
1
1
PR41 ORADA 2 in active service
Sailing ship
Jadran  Germany Used as a training ship 1 Jadran saling ship.JPEG 1 in active service
Motor sailboat  Yugoslavia - Bojana
- Milena
1
1
Sailing boatVCG 2 in active service
Motorboat
Diving boat  Yugoslavia -Ronilačka baraksa 81
-Ronilačka barkasa 85
1
1
Brm81 2 in active service
Motor boat Polycat  Netherlands 1 1 in active service
Motor boat  Yugoslavia - ČM 33 1 1 in active service
Inflatable boat
Valiant 620PT  United Kingdom Used by Marine Platoon 2 Montenegrian Military inflatable boat 2 in active service
Motor Yacht
Jadranka  Yugoslavia VIP Yacht 1 Jadranka Presidential yacht in Military of Montenegro Offered for sale
Floating Crane
Floating Crane  Yugoslavia LDI 18 1 LDI18 1 in active service

Air Force

Aircraft Country Manufactured Variant Quantity Pictures Notes
Armed Advanced Jet Trainer
Soko G-4 Super Galeb  Yugoslavia G-4 / N-62 4 SOKOSuperGalebG4 Not operational.[15]
Trainer Aircraft
Utva 75  Yugoslavia Utva 75 / V-53 4 LOLAUtva75 Not operational.[15]
Transport and Utility Helicopters
SOKO Gazelle  France
 Yugoslavia
HO-42/45
HI-42 Hera
HN-45 Gama
13 GazelleMNE Produced under license in Yugoslavia.[15]
Bell 412  United States
 Canada
412EP
412EPI
1
2
Bell 412 One EP variant and two EPI variants. Medical evacuation, search and rescue, aerial firefighting, patrol.[20][21]
Mil Mi-8  Soviet Union Mi-8T/HT-40 1 Montenegrian airforce mi 8 Not in use.
Air Defence
9K32 Strela-2M  Soviet Union
 Yugoslavia
Portable low-altitude SAM SA-7 Planned to buy new MANPADS.
Bofors 40 mm  Sweden Autocannon 40mm L/70,
works with GIRAFFE Radar
L70 Bofors V i PVO VS Planned for modernization
GIRAFFE Radar  Sweden Early warning radar, works
with Bofors 40mm L/70
Zirafa Radar Planned for modernization

Gallery

Military Montenegro 33

Members of Special Forces Brigade

153035 52436623 morn-1

Members of Marine Detachment

Military Montenegro 24

Special forces

Montenegro Afganistan

Montenegrin troops in Afghanistan

Avganistan (4)

Montenegrin troops in Afghanistan

Army Montenegro

Infantry Company

Military Montenegro 9

Infantry Company

Military Montenegro 3

Sniper

Military Montenegro 4

Achleitner RCV Survivor

Military Montenegro 7

BOV M86

Military Montenegro 8

Combat drill

Military Montenegro 11

Soldier

Military Montenegro 18

NBC Defence

Military Montenegro 20

Military Police

Montenegrian Military inflatable boat

Montenegrin navy boat

HEKLER

Montenegrin soldier holding a HK MP5

Patrolni brod klasa Kotor P34

Kotor class Frigate

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.gov.me/ResourceManager/FileDownload.aspx?rId=287551&rType=2
  2. ^ "Spremaju se za Avganistan". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.
  3. ^ David Noack: Subsidiary Troops (German: Hilfstruppen), german-foreign-policy.com, 17.03.2008.
  4. ^ "Kasarna Danilovgrad: Svečanost za vojnike koji idu u Avganistan". Archived from the original on 8 March 2010.
  5. ^ "{title}". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Crnogorci brane "Esbjerg" od pirata".
  7. ^ http://www.gov.me/files/1256832119.pdf Page 15
  8. ^ "PIŠTOLJ - GLOCK 17". www.vojska.me.
  9. ^ a b c d "Specijalci bez greške i na 40°C". www.rtcg.me (in Montenegrin). 23 July 2015.
  10. ^ "AUTOMAT HECKLER AND KOCH - MP5". www.vojska.me.
  11. ^ "Schriftliche Fragen an die Bundesregierung im Monat Januar 2015; Frage Nr. 195" (PDF) (in German).
  12. ^ "HECKLER AND KOCH - HK 416". www.vojska.me.
  13. ^ "POLUAUTOMATSKA SNAJPERSKA PUŠKA PSG 1". www.vojska.me.
  14. ^ "HECKLER AND KOCH MSG 90". www.vojska.me.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h International Institute for Strategic Studies (14 February 2017). The Military Balance 2017. 117 (1 ed.). London, United Kingdom: Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 978-1857439007.
  16. ^ a b c d "Mašan – czarnogórski samochód opancerzony". www.altair.com (in Polish). 30 August 2018.
  17. ^ "2.5 TOYOTA RCV SURVIVOR I 4x4". www.vojska.me.
  18. ^ Bozinovski, Igor (13 September 2018). "Germany gifts light armoured vehicles to Montenegro". www.janes.com. Skopje: IHS Jane's.
  19. ^ a b Montenegro army land ground armed forces military equipment armored vehicle intelligence pictures - Army Recognition
  20. ^ Bozinovski, Igor (5 February 2018). "Montenegro orders three Bell 412 helicopters". IHS Jane's 360. Skopje. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  21. ^ Zuvela, Maja; Sekularac, Ivana; Potter, Mark (30 January 2018). "Montenegro inks deal to buy three helicopters from Bell Helicopter". Reuters. Sarajevo. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.

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