Arkhangelsk (Russian: Арха́нгельск, IPA: [ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk]), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea. The city spreads for over 40 kilometers (25 mi) along the banks of the river and numerous islands of its delta. Arkhangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval and early modern Russia until 1703. A 1,133-kilometer-long (704 mi) railway runs from Arkhangelsk to Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl, and air travel is served by the Talagi Airport and a smaller Vaskovo Airport. As of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 348,783, down from 356,051 recorded in the 2002 Census, and further down from 415,921 recorded in the 1989 Census.
Location of Arkhangelsk
Location of Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk (Arkhangelsk Oblast)
|Federal subject||Arkhangelsk Oblast|
|City status since||1584|
|• Body||City Council of Deputies|
|• Head||Igor Godzish|
|• Total||294.42 km2 (113.68 sq mi)|
|Elevation||3 m (10 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||50th in 2010|
|• Density||1,185/km2 (3,070/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk|
|• Capital of||Arkhangelsk Oblast, city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk|
|• Urban okrug||Arkhangelsk Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Arkhangelsk Urban Okrug, Primorsky Municipal District|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8182|
|City Day||Last Sunday of June|
The arms of the city display the Archangel Michael in the act of defeating the Devil. Legend states that this victory took place near where the city stands, hence its name, and that Michael still stands watch over the city to prevent the Devil's return.
Vikings knew the area around Arkhangelsk as Bjarmaland. Ohthere of Hålogaland told circa 890 of his travels in an area by a river and the White Sea with many buildings. This was probably the place later known as Arkhangelsk. According to Snorri Sturluson, Vikings led by Thorir Hund raided this area in 1027.
In 1989, an unusually impressive silver treasure was found by local farm workers by the mouth of Dvina, right next to present-day Arkhangelsk. It was probably buried in the beginning of the 12th century, and contained articles that may have been up to two hundred years old at that time.
Most of the findings comprised a total of 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb) of silver, largely in the form of coins. Jewelry and pieces of jewelry come from Russia or neighboring areas. The majority of the coins were German, but the hoard also included a smaller number of Kufan, English, Bohemian, Hungarian, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian coins.
It is hard to place this find historically until further research is completed. There are at least two possible interpretations. It may be a treasure belonging to the society outlined by the Norse source material. Generally such finds, whether from Scandinavia, the Baltic area, or Russia, are closely tied to well-established agricultural societies with considerable trade activity.
Alternatively, like the Russian scientists who published the find in 1992, one may see it as evidence of a stronger case of Russian colonization than previously thought.
The main trade center of the area at that time was Kholmogory, located 75 kilometers (47 mi) southeast of Arkhangelsk, up the Dvina River, about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) downstream from where the Pinega River flows into the Dvina. Written sources indicate that Kholmogory existed early in the 12th century, but there is no archeological material to illuminate the early history of the town. It is not known whether the origin of this settlement was Russian, or if it goes back to pre-Russian times. In the center of the small town (or Gorodok) that is there today is a large mound of building remains and river sand, but it has not been archeologically excavated.
The area of Arkhangelsk came to be important in the rivalry between Norwegian and Russian interests in the northern areas. From Novgorod, the spectrum of Russian interest was extended far north to the Kola Peninsula in the 12th century. However, here Norway enforced taxes and rights to the fur trade. A compromise agreement entered in 1251 was soon broken.
In 1411, Yakov Stepanovich from Novgorod went to attack Northern Norway. This was the beginning of a series of clashes. In 1419, Norwegian ships with five hundred soldiers entered the White Sea. The "Murmaners", as the Norwegians were called (cf. Murmansk), plundered many Russian settlements along the coast, among them the Archangel Michael Monastery.
Three English ships set out to find the Northeast passage to China in 1553; two disappeared, and one ended up in the White Sea, eventually coming across the area of Arkhangelsk. Ivan the Terrible found out about this, and brokered a trade agreement with the ship's captain, Richard Chancellor. Trade privileges were granted to English merchants in 1555, leading to the founding of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina. Dutch merchants also started bringing their ships into the White Sea from the 1560s. Scottish and English merchants also traded in the 16th century; however, by the 17th century it was mainly the Dutch that sailed to the White Sea area.
In 1584 Ivan ordered the founding of New Kholmogory (which would later be renamed after the nearby Archangel Michael Monastery). At the time access to the Baltic Sea was still mostly controlled by Sweden, so while Arkhangelsk was icebound in winter, it remained Moscow's almost sole link to the sea-trade. Local inhabitants, called Pomors, were the first to explore trade routes to Northern Siberia as far as the trans-Urals city of Mangazeya and beyond. In December 1613, during the Time of Troubles, Arkhangelsk was besieged by Polish-Lithuanian marauders commanded by Stanislaw Jasinski (Lisowczycy), who failed to capture the fortified town. In 1619 and in 1637 a fire broke out, and the complete city was burned down.
In 1693, Peter the Great ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk. A year later the ships Svyatoye Prorochestvo (Holy Prophecy), Apostol Pavel (Apostle Paul), and the yacht Svyatoy Pyotr (Saint Peter) were sailing in the White Sea. However, he also realized that Arkhangelsk would always be limited as a port due to the five months of ice cover, and after a successful campaign against Swedish armies in the Baltic area, he founded St. Petersburg in May 1703. Nonetheless, Akhangelsk continued to be an important naval base and maritime centre in the Russian north.
In 1722, Peter the Great decreed that Arkhangelsk should no longer accept goods that amounted to more than was sufficient for the town (for so-called domestic consumption). It was due to the Tsar's will to shift all international marine trade to St. Petersburg. This factor greatly contributed to the deterioration of Arkhangelsk that continued up to 1762 when this decree was canceled.
Arkhangelsk declined in the 18th century as the Baltic trade became ever more important. In the early years of the 19th century, the arrest and prolonged detention by Russian authorities of John Bellingham, an English export representative based at Arkhangelsk, was the indirect cause of Bellingham later assassinating British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval.
Arkhangelsk's economy revived at the end of the 19th century when a railway to Moscow was completed and timber became a major export. The city resisted Bolshevik rule from 1918 to 1920 and was a stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army supported by the military intervention of British-led Entente forces along an Allied expedition, including a North American contingent known as the Polar Bear Expedition. It was also the scene of Mudyug concentration camp.
During both world wars, Arkhangelsk was a major port of entry for Allied aid. During World War II, the city became known in the West as one of the two main destinations (along with Murmansk) of the Arctic Convoys bringing supplies in to assist the Soviet Union. During Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, Arkhangelsk was one of two cities (the other being Astrakhan) selected to mark the envisaged eastern limit of Nazi control. This military operation was to be halted at this A-A line but never reached it as the German forces failed to capture either of the two cities and also failed to capture Moscow.
On March 16, 2004, fifty-eight people were killed in an explosion at an apartment block in the city.
Arkhangelsk is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Primorsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is, together with five rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk is incorporated as Arkhangelsk Urban Okrug.
The mayor (as of July 2017) is Igor Viktorovich Godzish, who was elected in 2015.
For administrative purposes, the city is divided into nine territorial okrugs:
Arkhangelsk was home to Pomorsky State University and Arkhangelsk State Technical University which merged with several other institutions of higher learning in 2010 to form the Northern (Arctic) Federal University.
Arkhangelsk is also home to the Northern State Medical University, Makarov state Maritime Academy,and a branch of the All-Russian Distance Institute of Finance and Economics.
Mikhail Lomonosov came from a Pomor village near Kholmogory. A monument to him was installed to a design by Ivan Martos in 1829. A monument to Peter the Great was designed by Mark Antokolsky in 1872 and installed in 1914.
After its historic churches were destroyed during Joseph Stalin's rule, the city's main extant landmarks are the fort-like Merchant Yards (1668–1684) and the New Dvina Fortress (1701–1705). The Assumption Church on the Dvina embankment (1742–1744) was rebuilt in 2004.
In 2008, it was decided that the city's cathedral, dedicated to the Archangel Michael, which had been destroyed under the Soviets, would be rebuilt. The foundation stone was laid in November 2008 by the regional Bishop Tikhon. The cathedral, situated near the city's main bus station and river port, is expected to be completed and consecrated in 2019.
Another remarkable structure is the Arkhangelsk TV Mast, a 151-meter (495 ft) tall guyed mast for FM-/TV-broadcasting built in 1964. This tubular steel mast has six crossbars equipped with gangways, which run in two levels from the central mast structure out to the each of the three guys. On these crossbars there are also several antennas installed (image).
An unusual example of local "vernacular architecture" was the so-called Sutyagin house. This thirteen-story, 44-meter (144 ft) tall residence of the local entrepreneur Nikolay Petrovich Sutyagin was reported to be the world's, or at least Russia's, tallest wooden house. Constructed by Mr. Sutyagin and his family over the course of fifteen years (starting in 1992), without plans or a building permit, the structure deteriorated while Mr. Sutyagin spent a few years in prison on racketeering charges. In 2008, it was condemned by the city as a fire hazard, and the courts ordered it to be demolished by February 1, 2009. On December 26, 2008, the tower was pulled down, and the remainder of the building was dismantled manually by early February 2009.
The cultural life of Arkhangelsk includes:
An airstrip in Arkhangelsk was the fictional setting for a level in the 1997 hit videogame Goldeneye 007.
The Russian North, and, in particular, the area of Arkhangelsk, is notable for its folklore. Until the mid-20th century, fairy tales and bylinas were still performed on the daily basis by performers who became professionals. Starting from the 1890s, folkloric expeditions have been organized to the White Sea area and later to other areas of the Arkhangelsk Governorate in order to write down the tales and the bylinas, especially in Pomor dialects. In the 1920s, mostly due to the efforts of Anna Astakhova, these expeditions became systematic. By the 1960s, the performing art was basically extinct. These folkloric motives and fairy tales inspired the literary works of Stepan Pisakhov and Boris Shergin, who were both natives of Arkhangelsk.
|Climate data for Arkhangelsk|
|Record high °C (°F)||5.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−9.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−12.7
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−45.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||38
|Average rainy days||2||2||4||10||17||17||18||19||22||19||9||4||143|
|Average snowy days||27||26||23||13||6||1||0||0.03||1||13||25||28||163|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||84||80||72||68||69||75||81||85||88||89||87||80|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||13||56||117||193||262||298||301||203||116||59||19||6||1,643|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)|
Bandy is the biggest sport in the city and is considered a national sport in Russia. Vodnik, the local team, nine times became the Russian champion (1996–2000 and 2002–2005). Their home arena has the capacity of 10000. Arkhangelsk hosted the Bandy World Championship in 1999 and 2003. The 2011–2012 season Russian Bandy League final was played here on March 25, 2012. The 2016 Youth-17 Bandy World Championship was played in Arkhangelsk between 28–31 January.
JSC "2nd Arkhangelsk United Aviation Division" (Russian: ОАО «2-й Архангельский объединенный авиаотряд», translit. OAO «2-j Archangeljskij ob‘jedinenný aviaotrjad») is an airline based in Arkhangelsk, Russia. It operates regional passenger and cargo services, as well as overseas humanitarian and peace-keeping work. Its main base is Vaskovo Airport, Arkhangelsk.Administrative divisions of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Arkhangelsk Oblast is divided into six cities and towns of oblast significance, twenty-one districts, and two island territories (Franz Joseph Land and Victoria Island). Besides, Mirny is a town under the federal government management.
In terms of the area, the biggest administrative districts are Novaya Zemlya (90,650 square kilometres (35,000 sq mi)) and Mezensky District (34,400 square kilometres (13,300 sq mi)). The smallest one is Solovetsky District.
In terms of the population, the biggest administrative district is Velsky District (61,819 in 2002), the smallest ones are Solovetsky District (968), Novaya Zemlya (2716), and Leshukonsky District (10,708).Arkhangelsk Governorate
Arkhangelsk Governorate (Russian: Архангельская губерния, Arkhangelskaya guberniya) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire, which existed from 1796 until 1929. Its seat was in Arkhangelsk. The governorate was located in the north of the Russian Empire and bordered Tobolsk Governorate in the south-east, Vologda Governorate in the south, Olonets Governorate in the southwest, Sweden (later Grand Duchy of Finland and later independent Finland) in the west, and Norway in north-west. In the north, the governorate was limited by the White and Barents Seas.
The area of the governorate is currently split between Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Oblasts, the Komi Republic, the Republic of Karelia, and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug.Arkhangelsk Oblast
Arkhangelsk Oblast (Russian: Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Including Nenetsia, Arkhangelsk Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population (including Nenetsia) was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.The city of Arkhangelsk, with a population of 348,716 as of the 2010 Census, is the administrative center of the oblast. The second largest city is the nearby Severodvinsk, home to Sevmash, the main shipyard for the Russian Navy. Among the oldest populated places of the oblast are Kholmogory, Kargopol, and Solvychegodsk; there are a number of Russian Orthodox monasteries, including the Antoniev Siysky Monastery and the World Heritage Site of the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea.
Plesetsk Cosmodrome is one of three spaceports in Russia (the other two are Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan Oblast and Yasny in Orenburg Oblast).Ernst Krenkel Observatory
Ernst Krenkel Observatory (Russian: Обсерватория имени Эрнста Кренкеля), also known as Kheysa, was a former Soviet rocket launching site located on Heiss Island, Franz Josef Land. It is named after a famous Arctic explorer Ernst Krenkel, a member of the crew of the North Pole-1 drift ice station and other notable Soviet polar expeditions.
It served the MR-12 from 1956 to 1980 for the start of elevator research rocketry.Graham Bell Island
Graham Bell Island (Russian: Остров Греэм-Белл, Ostrov Greem-Bell) is an island in the Franz Josef Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, and is administratively part of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Kara crater
Kara is a meteor crater in the Yugorsky Peninsula, Nenetsia, Russia.Heavily eroded, it is presently 65 kilometres (40 mi) in diameter, though it is thought to be originally 120 kilometres (75 mi) before erosion. Its age is estimated to be 70.3 ± 2.2 million years old (Late Cretaceous). Impactite outcrops located on the Baydarata Gulf (Baydaratskaya) shore north-east of the crater imply that the original size of the crater could have been the 4th largest on Earth. The crater is not exposed at the surface.
The Kara crater lies in the southeastern end of the Yugorsky Peninsula, while the Ust-Kara site lies offshore, 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) east of the small Kara or Karskaya Guba inlet. It was formerly believed that these two sites were two separate craters and that they formed a twin impact structure from the Late Cretaceous. However, it seems that the Ust-Kara site does not exist as a separate site. Apparently, the suevite outcrops of the Ust-Kara impact structure are only a part of the Kara impact structure.Kotlas Airport
Kotlas Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Котлас) (IATA: KSZ, ICAO: ULKK) is a small airport in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia located 4 km southeast of Kotlas. It primarily services general aviation and small turboprop aircraft.There is passenger service to Arkhangelsk (Vaskovo Airport) three times per week.Mezen Airport
Mezen Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Мезень) (ICAO: ULAE) is an airport in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia located 4 km north of Mezen. It handles small transport planes. There are several weekly flights to Arkhangelsk and several flights per month to the remote locations of Mezensky District — the selos of Koyda, Moseyevo, and Safonovo.
In 1883, a weather station was open in Mezen. It was operating under the authority by the Russian Geographical Society but run by single individuals. In 1939 the observations suitable for aviation started, and from 1942, the weather station was used to support the flights.Nordavia
Nordavia (Russian: Нордавиа), formerly known as Aeroflot-Nord (Аэрофлот-Норд), is an airline with its head office on the grounds of Talagi Airport in Arkhangelsk, Russia. It mainly operates scheduled domestic and regional services. Its main bases are Talagi Airport and Moscow Domodedovo Airport. Nordavia is a joint-stock company.Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya (Russian: Но́вая Земля́, IPA: [ˈnovəjə zʲɪmˈlʲa], lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island. West of Novaya Zemlya is the Barents Sea, and to the east is the Kara Sea.
Novaya Zemlya is composed of two main islands, the northern Severny Island and the southern Yuzhny Island, which are separated by the Matochkin Strait. Administratively, it is incorporated as Novaya Zemlya District, one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Novaya Zemlya Urban Okrug.The population of Novaya Zemlya, as of the 2010 Census, was about 2,429, of which 1,972 resided in Belushya Guba, an urban-type settlement that is the administrative center of Novaya Zemlya District.
The indigenous population (from 1872 to the 1950s when it was resettled to the mainland) consisted of about 50–300 Nenetses who subsisted mainly on fishing, trapping, reindeer herding, polar bear hunting and seal hunting. Natural resources include copper, lead, and zinc.Novaya Zemlya was a sensitive military area during the Cold War years, and parts of it are still used for airfields today. The Soviet Air Force maintained a presence at Rogachevo on the southern part of the southern island, on the westernmost peninsula (71.61787°N 52.47884°E / 71.61787; 52.47884). It was used primarily for interceptor aircraft operations, but also provided logistical support for the nearby nuclear test area. Novaya Zemlya was the site of one of the two major nuclear test sites managed by the USSR, used for air drops and underground testing of the largest of Soviet nuclear bombs, in particular the October 30, 1961 air burst explosion of Tsar Bomba, the largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated.Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Plesetsk Cosmodrome (Russian: Космодро́м «Плесе́цк», tr. Kosmodróm "Plesétsk", IPA: [kəsmɐˈdrom plʲɪˈsʲet͡sk]) is a Russian spaceport located in Mirny, Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 800 km north of Moscow and approximately 200 km south of Arkhangelsk, dates from 1957. Originally developed as an ICBM site for the R-7 missile, it also served for numerous satellite launches using the R-7 and other rockets. Its high latitude makes it useful only for certain types of launches, especially the Molniya orbits, so for much of the site's history it functioned as a secondary location, with most orbital launches taking place from Baikonur, in the Kazakh SSR. With the end of the Soviet Union, Baikonur became foreign territory, and Kazakhstan charged $115 million usage fees annually. Consequently, Plesetsk has seen considerably more activity since the 2000s.Semenovskoye Shidrovo Airport
Semenovskoye Shidrovo is an airport in Russia located 8 km southeast of Bereznik. It consists of a paved airstrip.Solovetsky Islands
The Solovetsky Islands (Russian: Солове́цкие острова́), or Solovki (Соловки́), are an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia.
As an administrative division, the islands are incorporated as Solovetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. Within the framework of municipal divisions, they are incorporated as Solovetskoye Rural Settlement within Primorsky Municipal District. The administrative center of both divisions is the settlement of Solovetsky, located on Bolshoy Solovetsky Island. Almost all of the population of the islands lives in Solovetsky. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the district was 861 inhabitants.Solovki Airport
Solovki Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Соловки, Aėroport Solovki) (IATA: CSH, ICAO: ULAS) is an airport in Russia on the Solovetsky Islands. It is believed to have had a minor Russian Navy presence but primarily serves as an airport for the island.It appeared as a feature in the November/December 2016 issue of Airports of the World.Talagi Airport
Talagi Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Талаги) (IATA: ARH, ICAO: ULAA) is an international airport serving Arkhangelsk, Russia, located 11 kilometers outside the city. In 2001 it had 105,797 passengers and 921 tonnes of cargo. The airport was founded on February 5, 1963. It had an operational peak in 1990 with 952,457 passengers.
Talagi Airport serves as an airline hub for Nordavia.Tulgas
Tulgas is a traditional territory in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, associated with Tulgas River, a tributary of Northern Dvina.Vaskovo Airport
Vaskovo Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Васьково) is an airport in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia located 13 km southwest of central Arkhangelsk as the crow flies but 19 km by road. It is 10 km west of Isakogorka station.
It is a general aviation airfield. Google Earth high-resolution imagery shows about 50 small propeller planes and a few helicopters.
The airport is the main base for the airline 2nd Arkhangelsk Aviation Enterprise.
Commercial flights in small prop-planes operate to the Solovetsky Islands three times a week.Verkhnyaya Toyma Airport
Verkhnyaya Toyma is an airport in Russia located 1 km northeast of the rural locality (a selo) of Verkhnyaya Toyma. It is a paved civilian airstrip serving the region northwest of Kotlas. It is capable of handling Yak-42 and An-24 aircraft. The airport is located southeast of Verkhnyaya Toyma, immediately east of the local road connecting Verkhnyaya Toyma to the settlement of Dvinskoy.
In the 1980s, the airport was serving about 2-3 daily flights to Arkhangelsk and up to 7 daily flights to Kotlas, the regional transport hub. In addition, the selos around Verkhnyaya Toyma were connected to it by local passenger flights.In 2010, the airport is basically defunct, flights have not been carried out for years. Parts of the airport, including the building which previously hosted the navigation service, were offered for sale with possible usages as a storehouse for timber and as a basic hotel.