Arkansas Post

The Arkansas Post was the first European settlement in the lower Mississippi River Valley and present-day Arkansas when Henri de Tonti established it in 1686 as a French trading post on the banks of the lower Arkansas River.[3] The French and Spanish traded with the Quapaw for years, and the post was of strategic value to the French, Spanish, and Americans. It was designated as the first capital of the Arkansas Territory in 1819, but lost that status to Little Rock in 1821. During the years of fur trading, Arkansas Post was protected by a series of forts. The forts and associated settlements were located at three known sites and possibly a fourth, as the waterfront area was prone to erosion and flooding.[3][5]

The land encompassing the second (and fourth) Arkansas Post site (Red Bluff) was designated as a state park in 1929. In 1960 about 757.51-acre (306.55 ha) of land at the site was protected as a National Memorial and National Historic Landmark; it commemorates the history of several cultures and time periods: the Quapaw, the French settlers who inhabited the small entrepôt as the first Arkansans, Spanish rule, an American Revolutionary War skirmish in 1783, the first territorial capital of Arkansas, and an American Civil War battle in 1863.[5][6]

Three archeological excavations have been conducted at the site, beginning in the 1950s. Experts say the most extensive cultural resources at the site are archeological, both for the 18th and 19th-century settlements, and the earlier Quapaw villages.[5] Due to changes in the river and navigation measures, the water level has risen closer to the height of the bluffs, which used to be well above the river. The site is now considered low lying. Erosion and construction on the river have resulted in the remains of three of the historic forts being under water in the river channel.[5]

Arkansas Post National Memorial
Arkansas Post National Memorial 005
Map showing the location of Arkansas Post National Memorial
Map showing the location of Arkansas Post National Memorial
Map showing the location of Arkansas Post National Memorial
Map showing the location of Arkansas Post National Memorial
LocationArkansas, Arkansas, United States
Coordinates34°1′8″N 91°20′56″W / 34.01889°N 91.34889°WCoordinates: 34°1′8″N 91°20′56″W / 34.01889°N 91.34889°W[1]
Area757.51 acres (306.55 ha)[2]
EstablishedJuly 6, 1960[3]
Named forArkansea (French word for the Quapaw word meaning "land of downriver people")
Visitors37,127[4]
Governing bodyNational Park Service
WebsiteArkansas Post National Memorial

History

French ownership (1686–1763)

First location

Henri de Tonti
Henri de Tonti

The Arkansas Post was founded in the summer of 1686 by Henri de Tonti, Jacques Cardinal, Jean Couture, and four other Frenchmen as a trading post near the site of a Quapaw village named Osotouy, about 35 miles upriver from the strategically significant confluence of the Arkansas with the Mississippi River. The post was established on land given to De Tonti for his service in René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle's 1682 expedition. The agreement with the local Quapaw consisted of trading French goods for beaver furs, although this arrangement did not yield much profit, as the Quapaw had little interest in hunting beaver. Even so, trade and friendly relations with the Quapaw and other local native peoples, such as the Caddo and Osage, were integral to the post's survival for most of its operations.[3]

ArkansasPost1689
Annie Hatley, Depiction of Arkansas Post in 1689, Arkansas State Archives, 1904

The French settlers initially called the post Aux Arcs ("at the home of the Arkansas," as Arkansea was the Algonquian name for the Quapaw used by the Illinois and related tribes). The first structures erected at the site were a simple wooden house and fence. The small settlement was the first permanent French holding west of the Mississippi and the first European settlement in the Lower Mississippi Valley.[7] There the French conducted the first documented Christian services in Arkansas.[3]

The importance of the post was fully realized in 1699, when King Louis XIV began to invest more resources into French Louisiana. John Law's Mississippi Company made a venture from 1717 to 1724 recruiting German settlers to turn the surrounding area into a major agricultural hub. The plan was to grow crops on the lower Arkansas for trade with Arkansas Post, New Orleans, and French Illinois. About 100 slaves and indentured servants were brought to the area as workers, and land grants were offered to German settlers. However, this project failed when the company withdrew from Arkansas Post due to the burst of the Mississippi Bubble. Most of the slaves and indentured servants were relocated elsewhere along the Lower Mississippi, but a few remained in or near the post, becoming hunters, farmers, and traders.[3]

By 1720, the post had lost much of its significance to the French because of the lack of profit in trading with the Quapaw, and the population was low.[5] In 1723, the post was occupied by thirteen French soldiers and Lieutenant Avignon Guérin de La Boulaye was the commander. Father Paul du Poisson was priest at the post from July 1727 until his death in 1729. The post was significantly expanded in 1731, when its new commander, First Ensign Pierre Louis Petit de Coulange, built a barrack, a powder magazine, a prison, and a house for himself and future commanders.[3]

On May 10, 1749, during the Chickasaw Wars, the post experienced its first military engagement. Chief Payamataha of the Chickasaw attacked the rural areas of the post with 150 of his warriors, killing and capturing several settlers.[3]

The site of this first post is believed to be near what is now called the Menard-Hodges Site, located about 5 miles (8.0 km) (but about 25 miles (40 km) by road) from the Arkansas Post Memorial. This property, like the memorial a National Historic Landmark, is owned by the National Park Service, but is undeveloped.[8]

Second location (Red Bluff)

As a result of the Chickasaw raid and continued threats of attack, Ensign Louis Xavier Martin de Lino, the commander at the time, moved the post upriver, further from the Chickasaw territory east of the Mississippi, and closer to the Quapaw villages, the post's main trading partners. This new location, about 45 miles from the mouth of the Arkansas, was called Écores Rouges (Red Bluff), at "the heights of the Grand Prairie" and was situated on a bend in the river, on higher ground than the previous location.[3]

In 1752, Captain Paul Augustin Le Pelletier de La Houssaye, the next commander, rebuilt the post's important structures such as the barrack, prison, and powder magazine. In addition to these structures, he expanded the commander's house to include a chapel and quarters for the priest. He added a storehouse, hospital, bake house, and latrine. To protect the post's new buildings, he erected a stockade eleven feet in height.[3][5]

Third location

In 1756, after the start of the Seven Years' War, Captain Francois de Reggio moved the post to a location only 10 miles from the Mississippi in order for the post to better respond to British and Chickasaw attacks. Whereas the first two locations had been on the Arkansas' north bank, this one was on the south. The layout of this post was generally similar, containing the usual important structures protected by a stockade.[3]

Spanish ownership (1763–1802)

Colbert's Raid
Depiction of the Spanish sortie during the Colbert Raid

After the British defeated the French in the Seven Years' War and gained most of their North American territories, France ceded the area west of the Mississippi to Spain in exchange for the British gaining land in Florida.[3] The post was officially ceded to Spain in 1763, but Spain did not take up administration of the post until 1771.[5]

Initially the Spanish kept the post at the third site and built the first Fort Carlos to defend it.[9] The majority of the post's population remained French even after it was ceded to Spain. This complicated Spain's effort for diplomacy. In 1772, Commander Fernando de Leyba was ordered to assert dominance over the local French and to reduce the amount of feasts and gifts for the local Quapaw, as it was costing the colonial government too much. This brought the Spanish close to hostilities with the Quapaw, but eventually Commander Leyba conceded the goods and conflict was avoided.[3]

Fourth location (Red Bluff)

In 1777 and 1778, the post was partially inundated by flood waters. The garrison captain, Balthazar de Villiers, wrote to the Spanish governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez, requesting the post be moved upriver. De Villiers cited annual flooding and the long distance from the local Quapaw villages as concerns.[9]

In the fall of 1178 Colonel David Rogers and Capt. Robert Benham made a stop here while on their to meet with Gálvez to convince him that Spain should enter the war with England.

Gálvez gave permission for de Villiers to move the post back to the site of the second French post, 36 miles upriver at Red Bluff, and in 1779, the post was relocated. The colonists hoped the settlement would be less flood-prone.[9] Fort San Carlos III was built here in July 1781, near the former Le Houssaye fort. It consisted of several small buildings surrounded by a stockade.

During the last two decades of the 18th century, several Americans settled the post, building a separate American village on the bluffs north of the river, nearer to the Quapaw villages. Many of these settlers arrived as refugees from the Revolutionary War.[5]

On 17 April 1783, James Colbert, a British Indian trader and partisan, conducted a raid with fellow partisans and their Chickasaw allies against Spanish forces controlling Arkansas Post. This was part of a small British campaign against the Spanish on the Mississippi River during the American Revolutionary War, when power was shifting in North America. The Spanish defended it with their soldiers, Quapaw allies, and settlers acting as Indians to scare off the partisans.[7][9][10]

With deterioration of Fort San Carlos due to river action cutting away at the bluff, the Spanish chose a site about half a mile from the waterfront, where in the 1790s they built Fort San Estevan de Arkansas. The complex included a house, large barracks, storehouse and kitchen, all surrounded by a stockade.[5][9]

Second French ownership (1802–1804)

Although Spain ceded Louisiana and the Arkansas Post to France in 1800, no French officials were sent to administrate the post. The Spanish garrison remained to oversee the post until it was sold to the United States.[3]

United States ownership (1804–present)

In 1804, Arkansas Post became a part of the United States as a result of the Louisiana Purchase from France. By the time the post was sold, it contained 30 houses in rows along two perpendicular streets. These were inhabited mostly by the post's French population. The American settlers had remained in the separate village north of the post, although further American settlement began after purchase by the United States, and American buildings were built in the main part of the post alongside the French and Spanish ones. The post was guarded by Fort San Estevan, renamed Fort Madison by the new American administration. Fort Madison was in use until 1810 when it was abandoned due to erosion and flooding.[5]

In 1805, a trading house was built at the north end of the post, operated by Jacob Bright. The location became a major frontier post for travelers heading west, with explorers like Stephen Harriman Long and Thomas Nuttall passing through.[5]

Arkansas Post was selected to be the capital of Arkansas County in 1813, and in 1819, it was selected as the first capital of the new Arkansas Territory. It became the center of commercial and political life in Arkansas. The territory's first newspaper, the Arkansas Gazette, was founded in 1819 at the post by William E. Woodruff. A tavern owned by William Montgomery was operated at the post from 1819 to 1821, and this structure also served as the meeting place for the first Arkansas Territorial General Assembly in February 1820. The tavern was located in the same building as Jacob Bright's trading house. During its period as territorial capital, the post grew substantially, and two towns were established near it.[5]

Gradually, settlement drifted further into the Arkansas River valley, and Little Rock became the territory's dominant settlement. When the territorial capital was moved there in 1821, the territory's major businesses and institutions moved as well, and Arkansas Post lost much of its importance.[3]

The settlement continued to be somewhat important as a river town through the 1840s. A French entrepreneur, Colonel Frederick Notrebe, came to dominate commercial life at the post. His establishment consisted of a house, a store, a brick store, a warehouse, a cotton gin, and a press. In the 1840s, the post was further expanded with several buildings, including one to serve as the Arkansas Post Branch of the State Bank of Arkansas. By the 1850s, the post was in a period of decline and the population shrunk significantly.[5]

A well and cistern were built at the post in the early 1800s and remain intact at the memorial site to this day.[5]

Confederate control (1861–1863)

Battle of Fort Hindman
Battle of Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post in 1863

During the American Civil War, the post remained an important strategic site militarily. In 1862, the Confederate Army constructed a massive defensive earthwork known as Fort Hindman, named after Confederate General Thomas C. Hindman. It was located on a bluff 25 feet above the river on the north bank, with a mile view up and downriver. It was designed to prevent Union forces from going upriver to Little Rock, and to disrupt Union movement on the Mississippi. On January 9–11 of 1863, Union forces conducted an amphibious assault on the fortress backed by ironclad gunboats as part of the Vicksburg Campaign. Because the Union forces outnumbered the defenders (33,000 to 5,500), they won an easy victory and captured the post, with most of the Confederate garrison surrendering. During the battle, the artillery bombardments destroyed or severely damaged both the fort and the civilian areas, after which Arkansas Post lost any status it had retained since being replaced as the territorial capital, and became a mostly rural area.[5][11]

The Union victory relieved much of the harassment by Confederate forces on the Mississippi and contributed to the eventual victory at Vicksburg.[5]

During the period of Confederate control, the state bank building was used as a hospital. Parts of the Confederate road, trenches, and artillery positions built at the post during this era are still visible at the memorial site.[5]

Modern commemorations

Arkansas Post park map
Arkansas Post National Memorial map

The Arkansas Post National Memorial is a 757.51-acre (306.55 ha) protected area in Arkansas County, Arkansas in the United States. The National Park Service manages 663.91 acres (268.67 ha) of the land, and the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism manages a museum on the remaining grounds. The former site of Arkansas Post was made into a state park in 1929. The park began with 20 acres donated by Fred Quandt, a descendant of German immigrants whose family still lives in Arkansas. In the following years, additional acreage was acquired and numerous improvements made with the support of Works Progress Administration labor. It is located on a peninsula formed by the former channel of the Arkansas River.

In 1956–1957, Preston Holder conducted the first archeological excavations at the site. His team found remains of the eighteenth-century French colonial village within the area of the current memorial. The trenches discovered there were later identified as traditional French colonial residential building patterns of poteaux-en-terre.[12] By this time, the remains of the 1752 La Houssaye fort, 1779 Fort San Carlos III, 1790s Fort San Estevan, and Fort Hindman were all under water in the former Arkansas River channel, an area then used as a navigation lake. No archeological evidence remains for those forts because of the erosion.[5]

On July 6, 1960 the site was designated a National Memorial, and a National Historic Landmark on October 9, 1960.[5][13][14] As with all National Historic Landmarks, Arkansas Post was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[15]

In 1964 the National Park Service undertook some partial reconstruction of colonial remains on site, including the 1779 Fort San Carlos III built by the Spanish. Additional archeological excavations of the colonial settlement were done for the National Park Service in 1966 and 1970–1971. Nineteenth-century buildings identified include the state bank and residences. Most of the residences were built in a French or Spanish colonial style, although a house's architecture varied based on the resident's culture. Also discovered in various excavations were thousands of ceramic shards. John Walthall, the state archeologist for Arkansas, said in the 1990s that the archeological resources constitute the most valuable cultural resources within the area of the memorial, including nearly unexplored Quapaw settlements, as well as the 18th- and 19th-century European and American settlements. Archeological ventures have generally been more successful in the more northerly portion of the historic site because it was less prone to erosion and flooding. No physical traces remain of the post's historical waterfront because of such erosion.[5]

Arkansas River at Arkansas Post 001

Over time, the Arkansas River eroded the settlement away. This portion of the river was the site of the Civil War fort

Arkansas Post National Memorial 005

Partial reconstruction of the Revolutionary War era fort

Arkansas Post National Memorial 003

Today, a sidewalk and interpretive signs lead visitors through the historical town site

See also

References

  1. ^ "Arkansas Post National Memorial". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  2. ^ "Listing of acreage as of December 31, 2011". Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o DuVal, Kathleen (May 9, 2011). "Arkansas Post". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture. The Butler Center. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  4. ^ "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t House, John H. (December 3, 1998). "Arkansas Post" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Registration. National Park Service.
  6. ^ "History & Culture". National Park Service. November 2, 2006. Retrieved March 19, 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Arkansas Post National Memorial", American Latino Heritage, Travel Itineraries, National Park Service, accessed 8 June 2013
  8. ^ "The Weathervane, Volume 2, Number 2 (2006)". National Park Service. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
  9. ^ a b c d e Edwin C. Bearss (November 1974). "Special History Report: The Colbert Raid" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  10. ^ David Sesser (September 14, 2010). "Colbert Raid". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  11. ^ Mark K. Christ (December 31, 2010). "Battle of Arkansas Post". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  12. ^ John Walthall, "An Analysis of Late Eighteenth-Century Ceramics from Arkansas Post at Ecores Rouges", Southeastern Archeology 10:98–113
  13. ^ "Arkansas Post". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 25, 2007.
  14. ^ "Arkansas Post—Accompanying 1 photo, exterior, undated" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Registration. National Park Service. December 3, 1998.
  15. ^ National Park Service (January 23, 2007). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.

External links

Government
General information
Arkansas

Arkansas ( AR-kən-saw) is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Arkansas is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States. The capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business, culture, and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, education, and economic center. The largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.

The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, aircraft, poultry, steel, and tourism, along with cash crops of cotton, soybeans and rice.

The culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, theaters, novels, television shows, restaurants, and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; former President Bill Clinton who served as the 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas; his wife, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton; former NATO Supreme Allied Commander General Wesley Clark, Walmart magnate Sam Walton; singer-songwriters Johnny Cash, Charlie Rich, and Glen Campbell; actor-filmmaker, Billy Bob Thornton; the poet C. D. Wright; and physicist William L. McMillan, who was a pioneer in superconductor research; have all lived in Arkansas.

Arkansas County, Arkansas

Arkansas County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,019. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the county has two county seats, De Witt and Stuttgart.The first of the state's 75 present-day counties to be created, Arkansas County was formed on December 13, 1813, when this area was part of the Missouri Territory. The county was named after the Arkansas River (itself named for the Arkansas tribe), as was the subsequent Arkansas Territory. This was later split off from Missouri Territory and eventually admitted to the union as a state. The riverfront areas in the Arkansas Delta were developed for cotton plantations, based on the use of enslaved African Americans. Cotton was the major commodity crop before and after the Civil War. Other crops such as soybeans are also cultivated now, in industrial-scale production.

Arkansas County is one of seven present-day counties in the United States that have the same name as the state in which they are located.

Arkansas Highway 169

Highway 169 (AR 169, Ark. 169, and Hwy. 169) is a designation for three state highways in Southeast Arkansas. One route of 7.82 miles (12.59 km) begins at Sulphur Springs and runs northeast to Hancock Road in Crossett. A second route of 1.27 miles (2.04 km) in McGehee begins at Highway 4 and runs east to US Highway 65/US Highway 165 (US 65/US 165). A third route of 2.21 miles (3.56 km) begins at US 165 and runs east to Arkansas Post. All routes are maintained by the Arkansas Department of Transportation (ArDOT).

Arkansas Post, Arkansas

Arkansas Post is an unincorporated community located along the north side of the Arkansas River in Arkansas County, Arkansas, United States, near the Arkansas Post National Memorial. Arkansas Highway 169 ends here.

Battle of Arkansas Post (1783)

The Battle of Arkansas Post (also known as the Colbert Raid or Colbert Incident) was a battle of the Anglo-Spanish War fought at Arkansas Post on April 17, 1783. It was a part of a series of small battles fought between Spanish and British forces in the Lower Mississippi region from 1779, when Spain entered the war on the side of the United States, to the war's end. The battle consisted of an attack on the Spanish-controlled post by British partisans led by James Colbert. The battle's primary engagement was a six-hour siege of the post's fort and a subsequent sortie by the Spanish defenders, causing the British forces to rout.The battle actually took place three months after the preliminary peace treaty between Spain and Great Britain was signed on January 20, but word of the treaty had not yet reached the Lower Mississippi region. It was the only battle of the Revolutionary War fought in what is now the state of Arkansas.

Battle of Arkansas Post (1863)

The Battle of Arkansas Post (also known as Battle of Fort Hindman) was fought from January 9 until 11, 1863, near the mouth of the Arkansas at Arkansas Post, as part of the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. Although a Union victory, it did not move them any closer to Vicksburg.

Geography of Arkansas

The geography of Arkansas varies widely. The state is covered by mountains, river valleys, forests, lakes, and bayous in addition to the cities of Arkansas. Hot Springs National Park features bubbling springs of hot water, formerly sought across the country for their healing properties. Crowley's Ridge is a geological anomaly rising above the surrounding lowlands of the Mississippi embayment.

The Buffalo National River, as it flows through The Ozarks to the White River, is a popular tourist attraction. It was designated the first national river in 1972 after years of conservation efforts in opposition to a United States Army Corps of Engineers plan to dam the river. The Arkansas River enters the state near Van Buren and flows southeast through Little Rock to empty into the Mississippi River near Arkansas Post. Most of the river serves barge traffic to Tulsa, Oklahoma as the McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System. Through south Arkansas, the Ouachita River and the Saline River run roughly parallel to the Arkansas, and the major rivers in northeast Arkansas are the White River and St. Francis River. The Red River runs through the southwest corner of the state.

Arkansas has many manmade lakes across the state, many are the basis for state parks, wildlife management areas, or other recreation. Bull Shoals Lake, DeGray Lake, Lake Dardanelle, Lake Ouachita all have state parks along their shores, and Beaver Lake, Table Rock Lake, Greers Ferry Lake, Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine are also major recreation lakes in the state.The Ozarks is a broad term for many mountainous counties in northwest Arkansas. This region is usually referred to the Ozarks because the term Northwest Arkansas is the colloquial name for the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area, including Benton, Madison, Washington counties in Arkansas and McDonald County, Missouri. The Ozark, however, span from the Arkansas River in the south through north central Arkansas. The Boston Mountains subset contain highest peaks in the Ozarks.

History of Arkansas

The history of Arkansas began millennia ago when humans first crossed into North America. Many tribes used Arkansas as their hunting lands but the main tribe was the Quapaw, who settled in Arkansas River delta upon moving south from Illinois. Early French explorers gave the territory its name, a corruption of Akansea, which is a phonetic spelling of the Illinois word for the Quapaw. This phonetic heritage explains why "Arkansas" is pronounced so differently than "Kansas" even though they share the same spelling. What began as a rough wilderness inhabited by trappers and hunters became incorporated into the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and became Arkansas Territory in 1819. Upon gaining statehood in 1836, Arkansas had begun to prosper under a plantation economy that was heavily reliant on slave labor. After the Civil War Arkansas was a poor rural state based on cotton. Prosperity returned in the 1940s. The state became famous for its political leadership, including President Bill Clinton (Governor, 1979–81 and 1983–92), and as the base for the Walmart Corporation.

James Miller (general)

James Miller (April 25, 1776 – July 7, 1851) was the first Governor of Arkansas Territory and a brevet brigadier general in the United States Army during the War of 1812. It was during his term as governor, and partly due to his influence, that the territory's capital was moved from Arkansas Post to Little Rock.

John Alexander McClernand

John Alexander McClernand (May 30, 1812 – September 20, 1900) was an American lawyer and politician, and a Union general in the American Civil War. He was a prominent Democratic politician in Illinois and a member of the United States House of Representatives before the war. McClernand was firmly dedicated to the principles of Jacksonian democracy and supported the Compromise of 1850.

McClernand was commissioned a brigadier general of volunteers in 1861. His was a classic case of the politician-in-uniform coming into conflict with career Army officers, graduates of the United States Military Academy. He served as a subordinate commander under Ulysses S. Grant in the Western Theater, fighting in the battles of Belmont, Fort Donelson, and Shiloh in 1861–62.

A close friend and political ally of Abraham Lincoln, McClernand was given permission to recruit a force to conduct an operation against Vicksburg, Mississippi, which would rival the effort of Grant, his department commander. Grant was able to neutralize McClernand's independent effort after it conducted an expedition to win the Battle of Arkansas Post, and McClernand became the senior corps commander in Grant's army for the Vicksburg Campaign in 1863. During the Siege of Vicksburg, Grant relieved McClernand of his command by citing his intemperate and unauthorized communication with the press, finally putting an end to a rivalry that had caused Grant discomfort since the beginning of the war. McClernand left the Army in 1864 and served as a judge and a politician in the postbellum era.

List of Arkansas state parks

There are 52 State Parks in the U.S. state of Arkansas, as of 2019. The state parks division of the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism (ADPT) is the governing body and operator of all parks, although jurisdiction is shared with other state agencies in a few cases.

The first Arkansas state park, Petit Jean State Park, opened in 1923 following an unsuccessful attempt by a lumber company to donate the Seven Hollows and canyon areas to the federal government as a National Park. Stephen Mather deemed the parcel too small in 1921, but the Arkansas General Assembly passed Act 276, allowing the Commissioner of State Lands to accept donations of land for public use.

The list gives an overview of Arkansas state parks and a brief history of their development since the first park opened in 1923. State parks range in size from 1 acre (0.40 ha) to 11,744 acres (4,753 ha).

List of National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas

The National Historic Landmarks in Arkansas represent Arkansas's history from the Louisiana Purchase through the Civil War and the Civil Rights Movement. It contains the landmarks designated by the U.S. Federal Government for the U.S. state of Arkansas. There are 16 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in Arkansas. Another NHL was formerly listed in the state but was moved to Oakland, California.

This page includes a list of National Park Service-administered historic areas in Arkansas.

List of ghost towns in Arkansas

This is an incomplete list of ghost towns in Arkansas, United States of America.

McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System

The McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System (MKARNS) is part of the inland waterway system originating at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa and running southeast through Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi River. The system was named for two Senators: Robert S. Kerr (D-OK) and John L. McClellan (D-AR), who pushed authorizing legislation through Congress. The system officially opened June 5, 1971. President Richard M. Nixon attended the opening ceremony. It is operated by the Corps of Engineers.Though it primarily follows the Arkansas River, it also follows portions of the Verdigris River in Oklahoma and the White River in Arkansas. It also includes the Arkansas Post Canal, a short canal named for nearby Arkansas Post National Memorial, connecting the Arkansas and White Rivers.

Through Oklahoma and Arkansas, dams artificially deepen and widen this modest sized river to build it into a commercially navigable body of water. The design enables traffic to overcome an elevation difference of 420 feet (130 m) between the Mississippi River and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa. Along the section of the Arkansas River that carries the McClellan-Kerr channel, the river sustains commercial barge traffic and offers passenger and recreational use and is a series of reservoirs. Total length of the system is 445 miles (716 km).

Sewall S. Farwell

Sewall Spaulding Farwell (April 26, 1834 – September 21, 1909) was a Civil War officer and one-term Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 2nd congressional district.

Born in Keene, Ohio, Farwell attended the common schools and an academy in Cleveland, Ohio.

He moved to Iowa in 1852, settling in Jones County, Iowa, and engaged in agricultural pursuits.

In 1862, after the outbreak of the Civil War, he enlisted in the Union Army as captain of Company H, 31st Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment. He was promoted to major in 1864, and served until the close of the war. He participated in the battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Siege of Vicksburg, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta, and Jonesboro, and Sherman's March to the Sea.Farwell served as member of the Iowa Senate from 1865 to 1869. He served (from 1869 to 1873) as an assessor of internal revenue, then (from 1875 to 1881) as collector of internal revenue.

In September 1880, Farwell won the Republican nomination on the 124th ballot to succeed Hiram Price as the Iowa 2nd congressional district's representative in the U.S. House. After winning the general election, he served in the Forty-seventh Congress. He won renomination in 1882, but was defeated in the general election by Democrat Jeremiah Henry Murphy. He served in Congress from March 4, 1881 to March 3, 1883.

Returning to Iowa, he served as president of the Monticello State Bank.

He died in Monticello on September 21, 1909, and was interred in Oakwood Cemetery. A dispute among the beneficiaries of his will was resolved by the Iowa Supreme Court in Farwell v. Carpenter, 142 N.W. 227 (Iowa 1913).

USS Glide (1862)

The first USS Glide was a sternwheel tinclad gunboat in the United States Navy during the American Civil War.

Glide originally built in Shousetown, Pennsylvania in 1862 and purchased by Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 17 November 1862. She was taken to Cairo, Illinois for fitting out and commissioned on 3 December 1862, Acting Lieutenant Selim E. Woodworth in command.

After fitting out, Glide departed on 3 January 1863 for the lower Mississippi River as part of the Mississippi Squadron. She participated in the fierce engagement at Fort Hindman, or Arkansas Post, 11 January as part of the division of light-draft gunboats under the overall command of Lieutenant Commander Watson Smith. As army forces launched the assault, Glide and the other gunboats helped to silence the powerful batteries. She passed the fort under heavy fire and proceeded upstream to cut off possible escape routes for the garrison.

After aiding in the important victory at Fort Hindman, helping to open the White River, Glide served briefly there as a gunboat and supply ship until she was sent to Cairo for repairs in early February 1863. While she was repairing there on 7 February 1863, an unexplained fire broke out forward and within a few minutes the tinclad was entirely destroyed.

USS Monarch (1862)

USS Monarch was a United States Army sidewheel ram that saw service in the American Civil War. She operated on the Mississippi River and Yazoo River during 1862 and 1863.

United States post office murals

United States post office murals are notable examples of New Deal art produced during the years 1934–43. They were commissioned through a competitive process by the United States Department of the Treasury. Some 1,400 murals were created for federal post office buildings in more than 1,300 U.S. cities. Murals still extant are the subject of efforts by the U.S. Postal Service to preserve and protect them.

XIII Corps (Union Army)

XIII Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. It was first led by Ulysses S. Grant and later by John A. McClernand and Edward O.C. Ord. It served in the Western Theater of civil war, Trans-Mississippi Theater and along the Gulf of Mexico.

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