Aristides

Aristides (/ˌærəˈstaɪdiːz/; Greek: Ἀριστείδης, Aristeides; 530–468 BC) was an ancient Athenian statesman. Nicknamed "the Just", he flourished in the early quarter of Athens' Classical period and is remembered for his generalship in the Persian War. The ancient historian Herodotus cited him as "the best and most honourable man in Athens",[1] and he received similarly reverent treatment in Plato's Socratic dialogues.

20 - Stoà of Attalus Museum - Ostracism against Aristeides (483 BC) - Photo by Giovanni Dall'Orto, Nov 9 2009
An ostrakon bearing the name of Aristeides, displayed in the Ancient Agora Museum in Athens

Biography

Aristides and the Citizens
Aristides and the citizens

Aristides was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. Of his early life, it is only told that he became a follower of the statesman Cleisthenes and sided with the aristocratic party in Athenian politics. He first came to notice as strategos in command of his native tribe Antiochis at the Battle of Marathon, and it was no doubt in consequence of the distinction which he then achieved that he was elected archon eponymos for the ensuing year (489–488). Pursuing a conservative policy to maintain Athens as a land power, he was one of the chief opponents of the naval policy proposed by Themistocles.[2]

According to Plutarch, the rivalry between Aristides and Themistocles began in their youth, when they competed for the love of a beautiful boy called Stesilaüs from Ceos.[3] The conflict between the two leaders ended in the ostracism of Aristides at a date variously given between 485 and 482. It is said that, on this occasion, an illiterate voter who did not recognise Aristides approached the statesman and requested that he write the name of Aristides on his voting shard to ostracize him. The latter asked if Aristides had wronged him. "No," was the reply, "and I do not even know him, but it irritates me to hear him everywhere called 'the Just'."[2] Aristides then wrote his own name on the ballot.[4]

Early in 480, Aristides profited by the decree recalling exiles to help in the defence of Athens against Persian invaders, and was elected strategos for the year 480–479. In the Battle of Salamis, he gave loyal support to Themistocles, and crowned the victory by landing Athenian infantry on the island of Psyttaleia and annihilating the Persian garrison stationed there.[2]

Aristides and Alexander 479 BCE
Aristides warned by Alexander I of Macedon of the impending Persian attack at the Battle of Plataea, 479 BC.

In 479, he was re-elected strategos, and given special powers as commander of the Athenian forces at the Battle of Plataea; he is also said to have suppressed a conspiracy among some in the army. He so won the confidence of the Ionian allies that, after revolting from the Spartan admiral Pausanias, they gave him the chief command and left him with absolute discretion in fixing the contributions of the newly formed confederacy, the Delian League. His assessment was universally accepted as equitable, and continued as the basis of taxation for the greater part of the league's duration. He continued to hold a predominant position in Athens. At first he seems to have remained on good terms with Themistocles, whom he is said to have helped in outwitting the Spartans over the rebuilding of the walls of Athens.[2]

He is said by some authorities to have died at Athens, by others on a journey to the Black Sea. The date of his death is given by Nepos as 468. He lived to witness the ostracism of Themistocles, towards whom he always displayed generosity, but he died before the rise of Pericles. His estate seems to have suffered severely from the Persian invasions, for apparently he did not leave enough money to defray the expenses of his burial, and it is known that his descendants even in the 4th century received state pensions.[2]

Authorities

Answer of Aristides to the ambassadors of Mardonius
Answer of Aristides to the ambassadors of Mardonius.

Herodotus is not the only trustworthy authority on Aristides' life. He is also the subject of one of Plutarch's Parallel Lives, who, though writing during the Roman Empire, had at his disposal a range of historical sources that no longer survive, and he was a conscientious scholar who weighed his evidence carefully. Aristides is praised by Socrates in Plato's dialogues Gorgias and Meno as an exceptional instance of good leadership.[5][6]

In Plato's dialogue Theaetetus, Socrates refers to Aristides, the grandson of the famous Aristides, less positively, bringing him as an example of a student who leaves his care too soon and realizes later that he is a fool.[7]

Notes

  1. ^ Herodotus, Histories, 8.79
  2. ^ a b c d e  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCaspari, Maximilian Otto Bismarck (1911). "Aristides". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 494–495.
  3. ^ Parallel Lives, Aristides.
  4. ^ Plutarch. Life of Aristeides, VII, 5–6.
  5. ^ Plato, Gorgias, 526a–b
  6. ^ Plato, Meno, 94a1
  7. ^ Plato, Theaetetus 150d–151a
1875 Kentucky Derby

The 1875 Kentucky Derby was the first running of the Kentucky Derby. The race took place on May 17, 1875. The first Kentucky Derby was a 1.5-mile race, and the traditional distance of 1.25 miles was not established until the 1896 Derby. Thirteen of the fifteen jockeys in the race, including winner Oliver Lewis, were African-American. Attendance was estimated at 10,000.The winner was Aristides, by two lengths. His jockey was Oliver Lewis, his trainer was Ansel Williamson, and his owner was H.P. McGrath. Aristides' half-brother and stablemate Chesapeake also ran in the race. Both Aristides' jockey and trainer were black. Aristides's time of 2 minutes and 37.75 seconds was at the time a world record for the distance.

Aelius Aristides

Publius Aelius Aristides Theodorus (Greek: Αἴλιος Ἀριστείδης; 117–181 CE) was a Greek orator and author considered to be a prime example of the Second Sophistic, a group of celebrated and highly influential orators who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 CE. More than fifty of his orations and other works survive, dating from the reigns of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. His early success was interrupted by a decades-long series of illnesses for which he sought relief by divine communion with the god Asclepius, effected by interpreting and obeying the dreams that came to him while sleeping in the god's sacred precinct; he later recorded this experience in a series of discourses titled Sacred Tales (Hieroi Logoi). In his later life, Aristides resumed his career as an orator, achieving such notable success that Philostratus would declare that “Aristides was of all the sophists most deeply versed in his art.”

Albert Edelfelt

Albert Gustaf Aristides Edelfelt (21 July 1854 – 18 August 1905) was a Finnish painter. He lived in the Grand Duchy of Finland and made Finnish culture visible abroad, before Finland gained full independence.

Andrew Marvell

Andrew Marvell (; 31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, satirist and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678. During the Commonwealth period he was a colleague and friend of John Milton. His poems range from the love-song "To His Coy Mistress", to evocations of an aristocratic country house and garden in "Upon Appleton House" and "The Garden", the political address "An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland", and the later personal and political satires "Flecknoe" and "The Character of Holland".

Aristide Maillol

Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol (French: [mɑjɔl]; December 8, 1861 – September 27, 1944) was a French sculptor, painter, and printmaker.

Aristides (horse)

Aristides (1872–1893) was an American Thoroughbred racehorse that won the first Kentucky Derby in 1875.

In 1875, the Derby was raced at a mile and a half, the distance it would remain until 1896, when it was changed to its present mile and a quarter. Aristides also had a relative racing in the first Kentucky Derby in 1875.

Aristides Gomes

Aristides Gomes (born 8 November 1954) is the Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau, appointed in April 2018, and also previously served as Prime Minister from 2 November 2005 to 13 April 2007. He has subsequently served as President of the Republican Party for Independence and Development (PRID).

Aristides Josuel dos Santos

Aristides Josuel dos Santos, also commonly known as Josuel dos Santos (born 14 June 1970), is a Brazilian former professional basketball player.

Aristides Pereira

Aristides Maria Pereira (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐɾiʃˈtidɨʒ mɐˈɾiɐ pɨˈɾejɾɐ]; 17 November 1923 – 22 September 2011) was a Cape Verdean politician. He was the first President of Cape Verde, serving from 1975 to 1991.

Aristides Pereira International Airport

Aristides Pereira International Airport (Portuguese Aeroporto Internacional Aristides Pereira) (IATA: BVC, ICAO: GVBA) is an airport in Cape Verde located on the island of Boa Vista, about 5 km southeast of the island capital Sal Rei. It is the third-busiest airport in the country.

Aristides Royo

Aristides Royo Sánchez (born August 14, 1940 in La Chorrera, Panamá Province) was President of Panama from October 11, 1978 to July 31, 1982, when he was pressured to resign by the military.

He studied law at the University of Salamanca in Spain, returning to Panama in 1965. During the military dictatorship, he served as Education Minister from 1973 to 1974 and helped negotiate the Torrijos–Carter Treaties in 1977.

Following his presidency, he was appointed Ambassador to Spain (1994–1996) and France (1998–1999).

Presidents and heads of state of Panama from 1968 to 1989 were mainly appointed by either General Omar Torrijos or General Manuel Noriega, who were the two powerful strongmen during that period. President Jimmy Carter negotiated the Panama Canal treaties with General Torrijos in 1978, which were opposed by then presidential candidate Ronald Reagan. Eleven years later, President George H. W. Bush launched the Invasion of Panama to remove General Manuel Noriega from power.

Aristides de Sousa Mendes

Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐɾiʃˈtiðɨʒ ðɨ ˈsowzɐ ˈmẽdɨʃ]) GCC, OL (July 19, 1885 – April 3, 1954) was a Portuguese consul during World War II.

As the Portuguese consul-general in the French city of Bordeaux, he defied the orders of António de Oliveira Salazar's Estado Novo regime, issuing visas and passports to an undetermined number of refugees fleeing Nazi Germany, including Jews. For this, Sousa Mendes was punished by the Salazar regime with one year of inactivity with the right to one half of his rank's pay, being obliged subsequently to be retired. However he ended up never being forced to retire and he received a full consul salary until his death in 1954. Sousa Mendes was vindicated in 1988, more than a decade after the Carnation Revolution, which toppled the Estado Novo.

For his efforts to save Jewish refugees, Sousa Mendes was recognized by Israel as one of the Righteous Among the Nations, the first diplomat to be so honored, in 1966.

Aristides of Athens

Aristides the Athenian (also Saint Aristides or Marcianus Aristides; Greek: Ἀριστείδης Μαρκιανός) was a 2nd-century Christian Greek author who is primarily known as the author of the Apology of Aristides. His feast day is August 31 in Roman Catholicism and September 13 in Eastern Orthodoxy.

Arístides Rojas

Arístides Fabián Rojas Aranda (born 1 August 1970) is a former Paraguayan footballer who played as a striker.

He represented Paraguay at the 1998 FIFA World Cup. At club level he played for Club Guaraní, Olimpia Asunción, Club Atlético Colegiales (all from Paraguay), Aalst (Belgium), RC Lens (France), Independiente and Unión de Santa Fe (Argentina).

Rojas was the Paraguayan 1st Division top goalscorer in 1996, playing for Guarani.

Eugenius Aristides Nisbet

Eugenius Aristides Nisbet (December 7, 1803 – March 18, 1871) was an American politician, jurist, and lawyer.

Fred (cartoonist)

Frédéric Othon Théodore Aristidès (5 March 1931 – 2 April 2013), known by his pseudonym Fred, was a French cartoonist in the Franco-Belgian comics tradition. He is best known for his series Philémon.

Human rights in Cape Verde

Human rights in Cape Verde are addressed under the national constitution.

The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted that in general, the government respected the basic rights of citizens, however there were concerns in certain areas such as prison conditions, legal process and discrimination.

Olympian (comics)

The Olympian is the name of two fictional characters in DC Comics.

Oscar de la Renta

Óscar Arístides Renta Fiallo (22 July 1932 – 20 October 2014), known professionally as Oscar de la Renta, was a Dominican-American fashion designer. Born in Santo Domingo, he was trained by Cristóbal Balenciaga and Antonio del Castillo. De la Renta became internationally known in the 1960s as one of the couturiers who dressed Jacqueline Kennedy. He worked for Lanvin and Balmain. His eponymous fashion house has boutiques around the world including in Harrods of London and Madison Avenue in New York.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.