Aristide Maillol

Aristide Joseph Bonaventure Maillol (French: [mɑjɔl]; December 8, 1861 – September 27, 1944) was a French sculptor, painter, and printmaker.[1]

Aristide Maillol
Aristide Maillol
BornDecember 8, 1861
DiedSeptember 27, 1944 (aged 82)
Banyuls-sur-Mer, Roussillon
EducationÉcole des Beaux-Arts
Known forSculpture, painting


Aristide Maillol, Bas Relief, terracota, Armory Show catalogue image
Aristide Maillol, Bas Relief, terracotta. Exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show, New York, Chicago, Boston. Catalogue image (no. 110)

Maillol was born in Banyuls-sur-Mer, Roussillon. He decided at an early age to become a painter, and moved to Paris in 1881 to study art.[1] After several applications and several years of living in poverty, his enrollment in the École des Beaux-Arts was accepted in 1885, and he studied there under Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel.[2] His early paintings show the influence of his contemporaries Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Paul Gauguin.

Gauguin encouraged his growing interest in decorative art, an interest that led Maillol to take up tapestry design. In 1893 Maillol opened a tapestry workshop in Banyuls, producing works whose high technical and aesthetic quality gained him recognition for renewing this art form in France. He began making small terracotta sculptures in 1895, and within a few years his concentration on sculpture led to the abandonment of his work in tapestry.

La Rivière by Aristide Maillol (Barcelona)
Maillol, The River, bronze, 1938-1943, (displayed in Barcelona) in 2009

In July 1896, Maillol married Clotilde Narcis, one of his employees at his tapestry workshop. Their only son, Lucian, was born that October.[3]

Maillol's first major sculpture, A Seated Woman, was modeled after his wife. The first version (in the Museum of Modern Art, New York) was completed in 1902, and renamed La Méditerranée.[1] Maillol, believing that "art does not lie in the copying of nature", produced a second, less naturalistic version in 1905.[1] In 1902, the art dealer Ambroise Vollard provided Maillol with his first exhibition.[4]

The subject of nearly all of Maillol's mature work is the female body, treated with a classical emphasis on stable forms. The figurative style of his large bronzes is perceived as an important precursor to the greater simplifications of Henry Moore, and his serene classicism set a standard for European (and American) figure sculpture until the end of World War II.

Josep Pla said of Maillol, "These archaic ideas, Greek, were the great novelty Maillol brought into the tendency of modern sculpture. What you need to love from the ancients is not the antiquity, it is the sense of permanent, renewed novelty, that is due to the nature and reason."[5]

His important public commissions include a 1912 commission for a monument to Cézanne, as well as numerous war memorials commissioned after World War I.

Maillol served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal (1919–1954) a grant awarded to painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers, and musicians.[6]

He made a series of woodcut illustrations for an edition of Vergil's Eclogues published by Harry Graf Kessler in 1926–27. He also illustrated Daphnis and Chloe by Longus (1937) and Chansons pour elle by Paul Verlaine (1939).[7]

He died in Banyuls at the age of eighty-three, in an automobile accident. While driving home during a thunderstorm, the car in which he was a passenger skidded off the road and rolled over. A large collection of Maillol's work is maintained at the Musée Maillol in Paris, which was established by Dina Vierny, Maillol's model and platonic companion during the last 10 years of his life. His home a few kilometers outside Banyuls, also the site of his final resting place, has been turned into a museum where a number of his works and sketches are displayed.

Three of his bronzes grace the grand staircase of the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City: Summer (1910–11), Venus Without Arms (1920), and Kneeling Woman: Monument to Debussy (1950–55). The third is the artist's only reference to music, created for a monument at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Claude Debussy's birthplace.

Aristide Maillol la nuit 1902-1
Aristide Maillol, The Night, (1920), Stuttgart



  1. ^ a b c d Le Normand-Romain, Antoinette . "Maillol, Aristide". Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web.
  2. ^ Cowling, Elizabeth; Mundy, Jennifer (1990). On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism 1910–1930. London: Tate Gallery. p. 148. ISBN 1-854-37043-X
  3. ^ Himino, Ryozo (2001). Maillol. Japan: Graph, Inc. ISBN 4-7662-0645-2.
  4. ^ "MoMA, The Collections, Aristide Maillol (French, 1861–1944)".
  5. ^ "Arístides Maillol, escultor", Homenots, 3a sèrie. OC XXI, 19. "Dues mirades a Maillol. Josep Pla i Torres Monsó", Fundació Josep Pla, retrieved May 31, 2013.
  6. ^ "Florence Meyer Blumenthal". Jewish Women's Archive, Michele Siegel.
  7. ^ "Aristide Maillol", Oxford Art Online


  • Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, "Aristide Maillol, 1861-1944", New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1975.
  • Frèches-Thory, Claire, & Perucchi-Petry, Ursula, ed.: Die Nabis: Propheten der Moderne, Kunsthaus Zürich & Grand Palais, Paris & Prestel, Munich 1993 ISBN 3-7913-1969-8 (German), (French)

Further reading

  • Lorquin, Bertrand (1995). Maillol. Skira. ISBN 9780500974179.
  • Rewald, John (1951). The Woodcuts of Aristide Maillol. New York: Pantheon Books.

External links

Air (Maillol)

Air is a lead or bronze sculpture, by Aristide Maillol.

He modeled Dina Vierny in plaster in 1938, and casts were made after his death.

It is an edition of six.

Examples are located at the Kröller-Müller Museum, Yale University Art Gallery, Jardin des Tuileries, J. Paul Getty Museum, Norton Simon Museum, and Kimbell Art Museum.

Aleksandr Matveyev (sculptor)

Alexander Matveev (1878–1960) was one of the leading Russian sculptors of his generation, working in a simple, vigorous, modern classical style similar to Aristide Maillol of France.

As an artist of international reputation, he was made a leader of the Soviet sculptor's union until the 1950s when the younger practitioners of socialist realism finally replaced him. He was also a teacher for many years at the Academy of Arts of the USSR and the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture where he had studied as a young man. One of his students was the Latvian Kārlis Zāle.

Charles Malfray

Charles Malfray (19 July 1887, Orléans – 28 May 1940, Dijon) was a French sculptor.

Born the son of an Orléans stonemason he was a student of the École des Beaux-Arts d'Orléans. At seventeen, he attended the School of Decorative Arts in Paris and the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts. He however rejected the academic teaching of the college and became attracted by the art of the Montmartre-based Auguste Rodin and Antoine Bourdelle.

Malfray survived the First World War after being gassed and taking part in the Battle of Verdun, but was deeply affected by his experiences. Together with his brother, he created war memorials to the dead of Pithiviers (1920) and Orleans (1924), whose modernism was highly debated. In 1920 he was awarded the Prix Blumenthal, but ruined by the work and ill as a result of the war, he almost gave up sculpture.

However, in 1931, his friend Aristide Maillol appointed him his successor as professor at the Académie Ranson in Paris. During the following years, Malfray had many students in his workshop, including Étienne Martin, François Stahly, Nessa Cohen, and Jean Le Moal.

He died in 1940. A street in Orléans was named Rue Charles Malfray.

Churyo Sato

Churyo Sato (Japanese: 佐藤 忠良, Hepburn: Satō Chūryō, 1912 – 2011) was a Japanese sculptor born in Miyagi Prefecture and grew up in Hokkaido. In 1932 he moved to Tokyo to become a painter. Becoming influenced by Aristide Maillol and Charles Despiau, Sato decided to specialize in sculpture.

From 1934 on, Sato spent the next seventy years making art works primarily from bronze to much acclaim. He was a dedicated artist working from 8am until 8pm every day and died on 30 March 2011 at the age of 98.

Flora, Nude

Flora, Nude (French: La Flore, nue) is an outdoor 1910 bronze sculpture by French artist Aristide Maillol, installed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston's Lillie and Hugh Roy Cullen Sculpture Garden, in the U.S. state of Texas.The work was cast during 1960–1965 and gifted to the museum by Isaac Arnold, Jr. in honor of his wife, Antonette Tilly Arnold.

Georg Kolbe

Georg Kolbe (15 April 1877 – 20 November 1947) was the leading German figure sculptor of his generation, in a vigorous, modern, simplified classical style similar to Aristide Maillol of France.

George Grard

George Grard (1901–1984) was a Belgian sculptor, known above all for his representations of the female, in the manner of Pierre Renoir and Aristide Maillol, modelled in clay or plaster, and cast in bronze.

Grard was born in Tournai to a family of modest means and entered the Académie de Tournai in 1915, but his real calling as a sculptor became apparent when he followed a course in sculpture in 1922 with Maurice De Korte (1889–1971). In his native city he met Pierre Caille, and later, in a Brussels foundry, Charles Leplae. Having won the Prix Rubens (1930), he left for Paris, where he encountered the sculpture of Charles Despiau, Aristide Maillol and Pierre Renoir, which influenced his mature style. In 1931, he set up his studio at Saint-Idesbald on the coast, where his house became a rendez-vous of artists including Pierre Caille, the Haesaerts brothers, Edgard Tytgat and Paul Delvaux.

In 1935, he was commissioned to create a sculpture for the rose garden at the Exposition universelle et internationale. Two years later Henry Van de Velde asked him for a work for the Belgian pavilion of the Exposition internationale, 1937. In the nineteen-fifties Grard, still in full possession of his mature powers, received repeated public commissions: the Seated Figure at the Banque Nationale, Brussels (1950), La Mer, fronting the post office at Ostend (1955, illustration), the Naïade at Tournai (1950), and Earth and Water, near the Albert Bridge at Liège (1964).

George Grard died in Saint-Idesbald in 1984.

L'Été sans bras

L’Été sans bras is a sculpture made by Aristide Maillol in 1911.

La Rivière (Maillol)

La Rivière (The River) is a lead or bronze sculpture by Aristide Maillol.

Marcel Gimond

Marcel Gimond (1894–1961) was a French sculptor born in the Ardèche region of France.Gimond first studied at the Beaux-Arts Academy in Lyon and was the student in turn of both Aristide Maillol and Auguste Rodin. Gimond was an influential Professor at the Paris École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts until 1960. He was uniquely invited to exhibit his modelled busts at both the salon and with the surrealists.Garlanded with the Grand Prix National des Arts in 1957, Gimond, who was the son of a metal-worker, is considered to be France's last great portraitist or sculptor of the bust. The possessor of a vast sculptural knowledge, Gimond was famed for his purified style which sought the permanence of forms beneath his subjects' individuality .

Marcel Gimond maintained a concise critique of sculpture, and taught that monumentality in sculpture was universal throughout the civilizations of the world, in recognition of the varied sculptural achievements of Egyptian, Khmer, Sumerian or pre-Columbian art; holding that "Art is a language, the sole which has the privilege to be universal, and which, across frontiers, can unite all that which is not alien to humanity."

Gimond is known for his many Heads and Portraits of Political and Artistic figures and his distinctive bronze busts are to be seen in numerous museums in France, Luxembourg and in the National Portrait Gallery, London.Gimond's students include William McVey.

Marco Tobón Mejía

Marco Tobón Mejía (1876-1933) was a Colombian sculptor, draughtsman, and painter. He lived in France for almost all his career, where he met and formed relationships with several prominent artists, including Auguste Rodin, Aristide Maillol, and Antoine Bourdelle. He worked mostly within neoclassic and art nouveau styles, and is known especially for his sculptures in bronze, electroplate, and pewter. Several of his pieces can be found in the Colombian National Museum.

His marble statues Poetry and The Silence are dedicated to the Colombian poet José Asunción Silva.

Musée Maillol

The Musée Maillol is an art museum located in the 7th arrondissement at 59-61, rue de Grenelle, Paris, France.

The museum was established in 1995 by Dina Vierny, a model for sculptor Aristide Maillol, and is operated by the Fondation Dina Vierny. It presents the works of Maillol (drawings, engravings, paintings, sculptures, decorative art, original plaster and terracotta work) along with other works from Vierny's private collection:

Masters of French naïve art including a painting by Henri Rousseau

Drawings by Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Suzanne Valadon, and Tsuguharu Foujita

Drawings and watercolours by Raoul Dufy

Paintings by Pierre Bonnard and Serge Poliakoff

Lithographic work by Odilon Redon

Woodcuts and watercolours by Paul Gauguin

Sculptures by Auguste Rodin

Works by Wassily Kandinsky, Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Robert Couturier, and Jacques Villon

Works of Russian artists including Eric Bulatov, Oscar Rabine, and Vladimir YankilevskyThe museum is open daily, including Tuesdays; an admission fee is charged.

Nymph (Central Figure for "The Three Graces")

Nymph (Central Figure for "The Three Graces") is a bronze sculpture, by Aristide Maillol.

It was modeled in 1930, and cast in 1953, it is at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.In the tradition of the Three Graces in Ancient Roman sculpture, and The Three Graces (sculpture), by Antonio Canova, it shows serenity, in contrast to his contemporary, Auguste Rodin.

Rudier Foundry

The Rudier Foundry (Fonderie Rudier) was a foundry run by Alexis Rudier (died 1897) and his son Eugène Rudier (1875-1952). It worked with some of the most notable sculptors of the 19th and 20th centuries, including Auguste Rodin, Antoine Bourdelle, Gustave Miklos, Aristide Maillol and Daumier. Their casts were signed "Alexis RUDIER Fondeur PARIS".

The Mountain (Maillol)

The Mountain (La Montagne) is a monumental sculpture by the French artist Aristide Maillol. Dina Vierny, the artist's longtime collaborator, served as a model for the sculpture.The sculpture, carved in stone, was commissioned by the Musée National d'Art Moderne in 1936 and now can be found at the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon. La Montagne was also cast in lead by the Rudier Foundry and the Emile Godard Foundry in an edition of six numbered casts, as four artist's proofs, and as two estate casts. In addition to gracing a number of private collections, casts of La Montagne can be viewed at these locations:

Jardin des Tuileries, Paris

Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena

National Gallery of Australia, Canberra

St. Louis Art Museum, Missouri

Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio

Musée Maillol, Paris

Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Israel

The Sladmore Gallery

The Sladmore Gallery is a London art dealership with two premises, one at 32 Bruton Place off Berkeley Square (held since its foundation in 1965) and the other established at 57 Jermyn Street in 2007. Its speciality is animalier sculptors (with the Bruton Place premises specialising in contemporary sculptors and Jermyn Street specialising in 19th- and early 20th-century sculptors).

Its Directors are Edward Horswell, Nona Horswell and Gerry Farrell.The Gallery has posthumously held exhibitions for Auguste Rodin, Aristide Maillol, Edgar Degas, Rembrandt Bugatti, Prince Paul Troubetzkoy and Antoine-Louis Barye. Living exhibitors at the London premises have included Mark Coreth, Geoffrey Dashwood

, Sophie Dickens and Nic Fiddian-Green

.The Sladmore Gallery also puts on shows and fairs in New York, Maastricht, Paris and London.

The Sladmore Gallery is a member of the British Antique Dealers' Association and the Society of London Art Dealers.

The Three Graces

The term The Three Graces may refer to:

Charites, known in Greek mythology as The Three Graces, goddesses of such things as charm, beauty, and creativity. In Roman mythology they were known as the Gratiae.

A subject in art, depicted in dozens of paintings and sculptures, including:

Primavera (Botticelli), a 15th-century painting by Botticelli

The Three Graces (Raphael), a 16th-century painting by Raphael

The Three Graces (Rubens), a 17th-century painting by Rubens

The Three Graces (sculpture), a 19th-century neoclassical sculpture by Antonio Canova

The Three Graces (Indianapolis), a 19th- or 20th-century neoclassical sculpture by an unknown artist, located at the Indianapolis Museum of Art

Three Graces (Mack), an abstract sculpture by Heinz Mack, located at the Lynden Sculpture Garden

The Three Graces, painting by Michael Parkes referred to in Dan Brown's 2009 novel The Lost Symbol

The Three Graces (Cranach), a 16th-century painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder

The Three Graces (d'Antoine) (Trois Graces), an 18th-century fountain by Étienne d'Antoine in the Place de la Comédie, Montpellier, France

Nymph (Central Figure for "The Three Graces"), a 20th-century sculpture by Aristide Maillol

Les Trois Grâces, a 20th-century sculpture by Niki de Saint Phalle

Theological virtues, specifically faith, hope and charity

The Three Graces, a 1908 opera that opened at the Chicago Opera House and starred such performers as Trixie Friganza

The Three Graces (Три грации), a 1988 Russian opera parody composed by Vladimir Tarnopolsky

The Three Graces, a set of three historic buildings on the waterfront in the UNESCO World Heritage site of Pier Head, Liverpool, England

The Three Graces of Admin, three minor characters in the British situation comedy Campus.

"The Bachelor and Three Graces", a set of four sequoia trees growing with intertwined roots growing in Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park. Three of these trees ("The Three Graces") grow adjacent to one another and the fourth ("The Bachelor") at a small distance away.

Venus Victorious

Not to be confused with Venus Victrix by Antonio Canova.Venus Victorious (French - Venus victorieuse; French - Venus victoriosa) is a c.1914 plaster sculpture of Venus by the French artist Pierre-Auguste Renoir, based on his image of the goddess in his painting The Judgement of Paris. It shows her holding the golden apple she has just won by being judged the most beautiful of three goddesses by Paris. It is now in the Museo Soumaya in Mexico City.Renoir had advanced arthritis by the time he produced the work and so was assisted by the Catalan artist Richard Guino, recommended to him by Aristide Maillol. On Renoir's death, his family and Guino's family argued over who owned the sculpture, with the former winning out. When Paul Renoir moved to Canada he took the sculpture with him - on his death his widow sold it and the last painting ever painted by Renoir at auction. On 19 September 2013 it was auctioned again, this time by the Ukrainian Institute of America to the Carlos Slim Foundation, which passed it its current owners.A bronze cast from the sculpture is now in Tate Britain.

War memorial of Céret

The War memorial of Céret is a World War I memorial in France, located in Céret (Pyrénées-Orientales). The sculpture for the memorial was made from 1919 to 1920 by Aristide Maillol and the memorial itself was inaugurated in 1922. It was declared a national monument in 1994.

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