Ariobarzanes of Persis

Ariobarzanes (Ancient Greek: Ἀριοβαρζάνης; Old Persian: *Āriya-bṛdāna-, meaning "exalting the Aryans"), also spelled as Ario Barzan or Aryo Barzan (Persian: آریوبرزن‎; died 330 BC)[1] and commonly known as Ariobarzanes the Brave, was an Achaemenid prince, satrap and a Persian military commander who led a last stand of the Persian army at the Battle of the Persian Gate against Macedonian King Alexander the Great in the winter of 330 BC.

Ariobarzanes of Persis
Ariobarzan statue تندیس آریوبرزن - panoramio
Native name
*Āriya-bṛdāna-
Born368 BC
Died20 January 330 BC
Persian Gates, near Persepolis
Known forCommanding the Battle of the Persian Gates
TitleSatrap of Persis
Parent(s)
  • Artabazus (father)
RelativesYoutab (sister)

Life

Though the exact birth-date of Ariobarzanes is unknown, it is speculated that he was born around 368 BC. His sister was the ancient Persian noblewoman and warrior Youtab. Ariobarzanes was made satrap of Persis (the southern province of Fars in present-day Iran) in 335 BC by Darius III Codomannus. Historians are surprised that Darius III appointed a satrap for Persepolis and Persis; apparently that office did not previously exist. Ariobarzanes commanded part of the Persian Army fighting against the Macedonians at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC.

Death

Following the Persian defeat at Gaugamela, Darius III realized he could not defend his capital Persepolis and travelled east to rebuild his armies, leaving Ariobarzanes in command. Meanwhile, Alexander the Great split his army and led his 14,000-strong force towards the Persian capital via the Persian Gates. There Ariobarzanes successfully ambushed Alexander the Great's army, inflicting heavy casualties. The Persian success at the Battle of the Persian Gate was short lived though; after being held off for 30 days, Alexander the Great outflanked and destroyed the defenders. Some sources indicate that the Persians were betrayed by a captured tribal chief who showed the Macedonians an alternate path that allowed them to outflank Ariobarzanes in a reversal of Thermopylae. Ariobarzanes himself was killed either during the battle or during the retreat to Persepolis. Afterwards, Alexander continued towards Persepolis, seizing the city and its treasury, and eventually looting the city months after its fall.

Alexander the Great replaced him with Phrasaortes as Hellenistic satrap of Persis.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Shahbazi, A. Sh. "ARIOBARZANES". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
  2. ^ Roisman, Joseph (2002). Brill's Companion to Alexander the Great. BRILL. p. 189. ISBN 9789004217553.

External links

Armin

Armin is a given name or surname, and is:

An ancient Indo-European name:

a Germanic given name,

a modern form of the name Arminius (18/17 BC–AD 21), a German prince who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (the name Arminius being itself a latinized form of a Germanic name which may have been derived from the element ermen meaning "whole, universal").

a Persian given name.

Son of Kai Kobad, a legendary character in Shahnameh, belonging to the mythical Kianian Dynasty in Persian literature and mythology;

The title and short name of Ariobarzanes of Persis (or Ariobarzan), a Persian general who fought against Alexander the Great;

The modern form of Ariobarzanes, meaning "exalting the Aryans" in ancient Greek.

Persepolis

Persepolis (/pɝˈsepəlɪs/, Old Persian: 𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿, Pārsa) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550–330 BCE). It is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars Province, Iran. The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BCE. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.

Rulers of the Achaemenid Empire
Kings of Kings
of the Achaemenid Empire
Satraps of Lydia
Satraps of Hellespontine Phrygia
Satraps of Cappadocia
Greek Governors of Asia Minor cities
Dynasts of Lycia
Dynasts of Caria
Kings of Macedonia
Kings of Tyre
Kings of Sidon
Satraps of Armenia
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Satraps of Bactria
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Satraps of Cilicia
Other known satraps

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