Arieh Warshel (Hebrew: אריה ורשל; born November 20, 1940) is an Israeli-American biochemist and biophysicist. He is a pioneer in computational studies on functional properties of biological molecules. Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry and holds the Dana and David Dornsife Chair in Chemistry at the University of Southern California. He received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".
Warshel near Geneva, Switzerland, May 2009
|Born||November 20, 1940|
|Known for||Computer simulation, Computational enzymology, electrostatics, enzyme catalysis|
|Awards||Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2013)|
|Fields||Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biophysics|
Born in 1940 in kibbutz Sde Nahum, Mandatory Palestine. Served in the Israeli Armored Corps. After serving the Israeli Army (final rank Captain), Warshel attended the Technion, Haifa, where he received his BSc degree in chemistry, Summa Cum Laude, in 1966. Subsequently, he earned both MSc and PhD degrees in Chemical Physics (in 1967 and 1969, respectively), with Shneior Lifson at Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. After his PhD, he did postdoctoral work at Harvard University until 1972, and from 1972 to 1976 he returned to the Weizmann Institute and worked for the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England. After being denied tenure by Weizmann Institute in 1976 , he joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry at USC. He was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Warshel is known for his work on computational biochemistry and biophysics, in particular for pioneering computer simulations of the functions of biological systems, and for developing what is known today as Computational Enzymology. He is a member of many scientific organisations, most importantly:
Arieh Warshel made major contributions in introducing computational methods for structure–function correlation of biological molecules, pioneering and co-pioneering programs, methods and key concepts for detailed computational studies of functional properties of biological molecules using Cartesian-based force field programs, the combined Quantum Chemistry/Molecular mechanics (i.e., QM/MM) method for simulating enzymatic reactions, the first molecular dynamics simulation of a biological process, microscopic electrostatic models for proteins, free energy perturbation in proteins and other key advances. It was for the development of these methods that Warshel shared the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
| Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate
With: Martin Karplus
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, abbreviated as CUHK-Shenzhen, is an institution of higher learning located in Shenzhen, China. It is a joint venture between Shenzhen University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong. CUHK-Shenzhen was officially founded on 11 October 2012 and approved by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (MoE) on 16 April 2014.Up to now, more than 4,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students are studying at The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen. Its long-term goal is to recruit 11,000 domestic and international students, 7,500 of whom will be undergraduate students and 3,500 Masters or PhD students.Empirical valence bond
The Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) approach (Warshel and Weiss 1980, 1981) is an approximation developed by Arieh Warshel to determine reaction free energies of enzymatic reactions by making the assumption that Rudy Marcus precise electron transfer theory of metals can be applied to electron transfers responsible for chemical catalysis in solution via a calibrated Hamiltonian.International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science
The International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science (IAQMS) is an international scientific learned society covering all applications of quantum theory to chemistry and chemical physics. It was created in Menton in 1967. The founding members were Raymond Daudel, Per-Olov Löwdin, Robert G. Parr, John Pople and Bernard Pullman. Its foundation was supported by Louis de Broglie.Originally the Academy had 25 regular members under 65 years of age. This was later raised to 30, and then to 35. There is no limit on the number of members over 65 years of age. The members are "chosen among the scientists of all countries who have distinguished themselves by the value of their scientific work, their role of pioneer or leader of a school in the broad field of quantum chemistry, i.e. the application of quantum mechanics to the study of molecules and macromolecules". The Academy presently consists of 90 members (as of 2006). The Academy organizes the International Congress of Quantum Chemistry every three years.
The academy awards a medal to a young member of the scientific community who has distinguished himself or herself by a pioneering and important contribution. The award has been made every year since 1967.Laboratory of Molecular Biology
The Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) is a research institute in Cambridge, England, involved in the revolution in molecular biology which occurred in the 1950–60s. Since then it has remained a major medical research laboratory with a much broader focus. A new £212m replacement building constructed close by to the original site on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus was opened in May 2013. The road outside the new building is named Francis Crick Avenue after the 1962 joint Nobel Prize winner, who co-discovered the helical structure of DNA in 1953.List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2000
This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2000.List of Israeli Nobel laureates
Since 1966, there have been twelve Israelis who were awarded Nobel Prize, the most honorable award in various fields including chemistry, economics, literature and peace.List of computational chemists
This is a list of persons known for work in computational chemistry.
Reinhart Ahlrichs (1940–2016), developer of TURBOMOLE
Norman Allinger (c. 1928–), developer of force fields for molecular dynamics
Evert Jan Baerends (1945–), developer of Amsterdam Density Functional
F. Matthias Bickelhaupt (1965–), quantum chemical models of chemical bonding, reactivity, and catalysis
Michael Buehl (1962–), known for his work on modelling of homogeneous catalysis and molecular dynamics of transition metal complexes
Roberto Car (1947–), developer of Car–Parrinello method
Emily A. Carter, known for orbital free DFT
James R. Chelikowsky, developer of PARSEC
G Marius Clore (1955-), known for development of simulated annealing methods for solving three-dimensional structures of proteins and nucleic acids by NMR. Co-developer of XPLOR-NIH and CNS
David P. Craig (1919–2015), known for Ab initio quantum chemistry methods
Michael J. S. Dewar (1918–1997), developer of MOPAC
Robert Dirks (1978–2015), known for work in nucleic acid structure prediction and design
Vladimir Fock (1898–1974), developer of Hartree–Fock method
Richard A. Friesner (1952–), developer of Jaguar
Jürgen Gauß, developer of CFOUR and ACES III
William Andrew Goddard III, developer of Jaguar and ReaxFF
Mark S Gordon (1942–), developer of GAMESS (US)
Corwin Hansch (1918–2011), known for the Hansch equation and for QSAR
Douglas Hartree (1897–1958), developer of Hartree–Fock method
Martin Head-Gordon (1962–), developer of Q-Chem
Trygve Helgaker (1953–), developer of Dalton
Poul Jørgensen (1944–), developer of Dalton
William L. Jorgensen (1949–), developer of BOSS and OPLS
Martin Karplus (1930–), winner of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
Walter Kohn (1923–2016), winner of 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his development of the density-functional theory", developer of Kohn–Sham equations
Peter Kollman (1944–2001), developer of AMBER force field
Włodzimierz Kołos (1928 – 1996), pioneer of accurate calculations on the electronic structure of molecules
Cyrus Levinthal (1922–1990), father of computer display of protein structure
Michael Levitt (1947–), winner of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
Hans Lischka (1943-), developer of COLUMBUS
Frank Neese (1967–), lead author of the ORCA quantum chemistry program package
Anthony Nicholls, developer of DelPhi and CEO of OpenEye Scientific Software
Rudolph Pariser (1923–), developer of Pariser–Parr–Pople method
Robert Parr (1921–2017), developer of Pariser–Parr–Pople method
Michele Parrinello (1945–), developer of Car–Parrinello method
John Pople (1925–2004), winner of 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry", developer of Pariser–Parr–Pople method
Kenneth Ruud (1969–), developer of Dalton
Yousef Saad, developer of PARSEC
Chris Sander, developer of WHAT IF
Joachim Sauer (1949–), codeveloper of QMPOT
Henry F. Schaefer, III (1944-), director of the Center for Computational Chemistry and developer of PSI (computational chemistry)
Lu Jeu Sham (1938–), developer of Kohn–Sham equations
Carlos Simmerling, developer of AMBER force field
Donald Truhlar (1944–), developer of Minnesota functionals
Giovanni Vignale (1957–), known for density functional theory
Arieh Warshel (1940–), winner of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
Weitao Yang (1961–), known for density functional theoryList of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Biophysics and computational biology)
This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.Martin Karplus
Martin Karplus (born March 15, 1930) is an Austrian-born American theoretical chemist. He is the Theodore William Richards Professor of Chemistry, emeritus at Harvard University. He is also Director of the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, a joint laboratory between the French National Center for Scientific Research and the University of Strasbourg, France. Karplus received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel, for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".Michael Levitt
Michael Levitt, (Hebrew: מיכאל לויט; born 9 May 1947) is an American-British-Israeli biophysicist and a professor of structural biology at Stanford University, a position he has held since 1987. Levitt received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Martin Karplus and Arieh Warshel, for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".Rappaport Faculty of Medicine
The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine is a medical school that operates in Bat Galim, Haifa and is part of the Technion's Faculty of Medicine.
The faculty was established in the late 1960s by a group of physicians who found the need for an academic school specialized in medical education and research.
The medical school merged with the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in 1973.Sde Nahum
Sde Nahum (Hebrew: שְׂדֵה נַחוּם, lit. Nahum Field) is a kibbutz in the Beit She'an Valley in northern Israel. Located around 4 km northwest of Beit She'an, it falls under the jurisdiction of Valley of Springs Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 681.Shneior Lifson
Shneior Lifson (Hebrew: שניאור ליפסון; born 18 March 1914 in Tel Aviv – died 22 January 2001 in Rehovot), was
an Israeli chemical physicist, scientific director of the Weizmann Institute of Science, a founder of the Open University of Israel, laureate of the 1969 Israel Prize in the life sciences. Lifson is best known for his consistent force field method, one of the major theories behind 3-D computer modeling of large molecules.
In 2013, two scientists who early in their career had worked under his guidance at the Weizmann Institute – Arieh Warshel, who was his Ph.D. student, and Michael Levitt – won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. That research focused on the development and applications of the consistent force field method to molecular dynamics of proteins.Technion Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
The Technion Faculty of Aerospace Engineering is a division of the Technion that conduct research and teaches a wide range of aerospace disciplines. The faculty was founded in 1954.Technion Faculty of Electrical Engineering
The Technion Faculty of Electrical Engineering is an academic faculty of the Technion founded in 1947 before the State of Israel which focuses on the training of electrical engineers and computer engineers in various disciplines including CAD, VLSI, Image processing, Signal processing, Solid-state electronics, communication systems, integrated circuits, Parallel computing and systems, and embedded systems. The current Dean of Faculty is Professor Nahum Shimkin.Tolman Award
The Tolman Medal is awarded each year by the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society (SCALACS) for outstanding contributions to chemistry which include contributions in areas of fundamental studies, chemical technology, and significant contributions to chemical education or outstanding leadership in science on a national level. To be eligible for the Medal, the recipient must have accomplished the majority of his or her work while resident in Southern California.The Medal is named for physicist and chemist Richard C. Tolman.Weizmann Institute of Science
The Weizmann Institute of Science (Hebrew: מכון ויצמן למדע Machon Weizmann LeMada) is a public research university in Rehovot, Israel, established in 1934, 14 years before the State of Israel. It differs from other Israeli universities in that it offers only graduate and postgraduate degrees in the natural and exact sciences.
It is a multidisciplinary research center, with around 3,800 scientists, postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D. and M.Sc. students, and scientific, technical, and administrative staff working at the Institute.As of 2019, 6 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been associated with the Weizmann Institute of Science.
2013 Nobel Prize laureates
|Physiology or Medicine|
Italics indicate a Nobel Memorial Prize, i.e. not one of the original Prizes bequested by Alfred Nobel.