Arieh Warshel

Arieh Warshel (Hebrew: אריה ורשל‎; born November 20, 1940) is an Israeli-American biochemist and biophysicist. He is a pioneer in computational studies on functional properties of biological molecules. Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry and holds the Dana and David Dornsife Chair in Chemistry at the University of Southern California. He received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Arieh Warshel
Warshel near Geneva, Switzerland, May 2009
BornNovember 20, 1940 (age 78)
NationalityIsraeli, American[1]
Alma mater
Known forComputer simulation, Computational enzymology, electrostatics, enzyme catalysis
AwardsNobel Prize in Chemistry (2013)[1]
Scientific career
FieldsChemistry, Biochemistry, Biophysics
Arieh Warshel 6 2013
Warshel at press conference at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, December 2013


Born in 1940 in kibbutz Sde Nahum, Mandatory Palestine. Served in the Israeli Armored Corps. After serving the Israeli Army (final rank Captain), Warshel attended the Technion, Haifa, where he received his BSc degree in chemistry, Summa Cum Laude, in 1966. Subsequently, he earned both MSc and PhD degrees in Chemical Physics (in 1967 and 1969, respectively), with Shneior Lifson at Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel. After his PhD, he did postdoctoral work at Harvard University until 1972, and from 1972 to 1976 he returned to the Weizmann Institute and worked for the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England. After being denied tenure by Weizmann Institute in 1976 [7], he joined the faculty of the Department of Chemistry at USC. He was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

As a soldier, he fought in both the 1967 Six-Day War and the 1973 Yom Kippur War, attaining the rank of captain in the IDF.[8]


Warshel is known for his work on computational biochemistry and biophysics, in particular for pioneering computer simulations of the functions of biological systems, and for developing what is known today as Computational Enzymology.[9] He is a member of many scientific organisations, most importantly:


  • Annual Award of the International Society of Quantum Biology and Pharmacology (1993)[16]
  • Tolman Medal (2003)[17]
  • President’s award for computational biology from the ISQBP (2006)[18]
  • RSC Soft Matter and Biophysical Chemistry Award (2012)[9]
  • Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2013) together with Martin Karplus and Michael Levitt for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".[19]
  • The Founders Award of the Biophysical Society (2014)[20]
  • The 2013 Israel Chemical Society Gold Medal (2014)[21]

Major research achievements

Arieh Warshel made major contributions in introducing computational methods for structure–function correlation of biological molecules, pioneering and co-pioneering programs, methods and key concepts for detailed computational studies of functional properties of biological molecules using Cartesian-based force field programs,[22][23] the combined Quantum Chemistry/Molecular mechanics (i.e., QM/MM) method for simulating enzymatic reactions,[24] the first molecular dynamics simulation of a biological process,[25][26] microscopic electrostatic models for proteins,[27] free energy perturbation in proteins[28] and other key advances. It was for the development of these methods that Warshel shared the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013" (Press release). Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. October 9, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  2. ^ Van Noorden, Richard (2013). "Modellers react to chemistry award: Nobel Prize proves that theorists can measure up to experimenters". Nature. 502 (7471): 280. doi:10.1038/502280a.
  3. ^ Van Noorden, R. (2013). "Computer modellers secure chemistry Nobels". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.13903.
  4. ^ Hodak, Hélène (2014). "The Nobel Prize in chemistry 2013 for the development of multiscale models of complex chemical systems: A tribute to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel". Journal of Molecular Biology. 426 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2013.10.037. PMID 24184197.
  5. ^ Fersht, A. R. (2013). "Profile of Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel, 2013 nobel laureates in chemistry". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (49): 19656–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1320569110. PMC 3856823. PMID 24277833.
  6. ^ Chang, Kenneth (October 9, 2013). "3 Researchers Win Nobel Prize in Chemistry". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  7. ^ Nobel laureate: We left because Warshel didn't get tenure in Israel by Yitzhak Benhorin, October 9, 2013, YNET
  8. ^ 3 Jewish professors — two of them Israeli — share 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry By Gavriel Fiske, October 9, 2013, Times of Israel
  9. ^ a b "Soft Matter and Biophysical Chemistry Award 2012 Winner". Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  10. ^ "Arieh Warshel Elected to the National Academy of Sciences > News > USC Dornsife". Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  11. ^ "Arieh Warshel Elected to Royal Society of Chemistry > News > USC Dornsife". Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  12. ^ "Fellow of the Biophysical Society Award". Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  13. ^ "AAAS Members Elected as Fellows". November 30, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  14. ^ "Members". Retrieved August 8, 2014.
  15. ^ "Three new honorary doctors in Science and Technology - Uppsala University, Sweden". Retrieved 2016-02-02.
  16. ^ "ISQBP People". Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  17. ^ "Tolman Award". Scalacs. September 5, 1948. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ "2014 Society Awardees".
  21. ^ "Gold Medal for Levitt and Warshel". ChemViews. January 27, 2014.
  22. ^ Lifson S, Warshel A. (1968). "A Consistent Force Field for Calculation on Conformations, Vibrational Spectra and Enthalpies of Cycloalkanes and n-Alkane Molecules". J. Phys. Chem. 49 (11): 5116. doi:10.1063/1.1670007.
  23. ^ Warshel A, Lifson S. (1970). "Consistent Force Field Calculations. II. Crystal Structure, Sublimation Energies, Molecular and Lattice Vibrations, Molecular Conformations and Enthalpies of Alkanes". J. Chem. Phys. 53 (2): 582. doi:10.1063/1.1674031.
  24. ^ Warshel A, Levitt M (1976). "Theoretical Studies of Enzymatic Reactions: Dielectric Electrostatic and Steric Stabilization of the Carbonium Ion in the Reaction of Lysozyme". J. Mol. Biol. 103 (2): 227–249. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(76)90311-9. PMID 985660.
  25. ^ Warshel A. (1976). "Bicycle-pedal Model for the First Step in the Vision Process". Nature. 260 (5553): 679–683. doi:10.1038/260679a0. PMID 1264239.
  26. ^ Warshel A. (2002). "Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Biological Reactions". Acc. Chem. Res. 35 (6): 385–395. doi:10.1021/ar010033z. PMID 12069623.
  27. ^ Warshel A., Russel T. (1984). "Calculations of electrostatic interactions in biological systems and in solutions". Q.Rev.Biophys. 17: 283–421. doi:10.1017/s0033583500005333.
  28. ^ Warshel A (1984). "Simulating the Energetics and Dynamics of Enzymatic Reactions". Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarum Scripta Varia. 55: 60.

External links

Preceded by
Brian Kobilka
Robert Lefkowitz
Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate
With: Martin Karplus
Michael Levitt
Most recent
Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, abbreviated as CUHK-Shenzhen, is an institution of higher learning located in Shenzhen, China. It is a joint venture between Shenzhen University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong. CUHK-Shenzhen was officially founded on 11 October 2012 and approved by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (MoE) on 16 April 2014.Up to now, more than 4,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students are studying at The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen. Its long-term goal is to recruit 11,000 domestic and international students, 7,500 of whom will be undergraduate students and 3,500 Masters or PhD students.

Empirical valence bond

The Empirical Valence Bond (EVB) approach (Warshel and Weiss 1980, 1981) is an approximation developed by Arieh Warshel to determine reaction free energies of enzymatic reactions by making the assumption that Rudy Marcus precise electron transfer theory of metals can be applied to electron transfers responsible for chemical catalysis in solution via a calibrated Hamiltonian.

International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science

The International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science (IAQMS) is an international scientific learned society covering all applications of quantum theory to chemistry and chemical physics. It was created in Menton in 1967. The founding members were Raymond Daudel, Per-Olov Löwdin, Robert G. Parr, John Pople and Bernard Pullman. Its foundation was supported by Louis de Broglie.Originally the Academy had 25 regular members under 65 years of age. This was later raised to 30, and then to 35. There is no limit on the number of members over 65 years of age. The members are "chosen among the scientists of all countries who have distinguished themselves by the value of their scientific work, their role of pioneer or leader of a school in the broad field of quantum chemistry, i.e. the application of quantum mechanics to the study of molecules and macromolecules". The Academy presently consists of 90 members (as of 2006). The Academy organizes the International Congress of Quantum Chemistry every three years.

The academy awards a medal to a young member of the scientific community who has distinguished himself or herself by a pioneering and important contribution. The award has been made every year since 1967.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology

The Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) is a research institute in Cambridge, England, involved in the revolution in molecular biology which occurred in the 1950–60s. Since then it has remained a major medical research laboratory with a much broader focus. A new £212m replacement building constructed close by to the original site on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus was opened in May 2013. The road outside the new building is named Francis Crick Avenue after the 1962 joint Nobel Prize winner, who co-discovered the helical structure of DNA in 1953.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2000

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2000.

List of Israeli Nobel laureates

Since 1966, there have been twelve Israelis who were awarded Nobel Prize, the most honorable award in various fields including chemistry, economics, literature and peace.

List of computational chemists

This is a list of persons known for work in computational chemistry.

Reinhart Ahlrichs (1940–2016), developer of TURBOMOLE

Norman Allinger (c. 1928–), developer of force fields for molecular dynamics

Evert Jan Baerends (1945–), developer of Amsterdam Density Functional

F. Matthias Bickelhaupt (1965–), quantum chemical models of chemical bonding, reactivity, and catalysis

Michael Buehl (1962–), known for his work on modelling of homogeneous catalysis and molecular dynamics of transition metal complexes

Roberto Car (1947–), developer of Car–Parrinello method

Emily A. Carter, known for orbital free DFT

James R. Chelikowsky, developer of PARSEC

G Marius Clore (1955-), known for development of simulated annealing methods for solving three-dimensional structures of proteins and nucleic acids by NMR. Co-developer of XPLOR-NIH and CNS

David P. Craig (1919–2015), known for Ab initio quantum chemistry methods

Michael J. S. Dewar (1918–1997), developer of MOPAC

Robert Dirks (1978–2015), known for work in nucleic acid structure prediction and design

Vladimir Fock (1898–1974), developer of Hartree–Fock method

Richard A. Friesner (1952–), developer of Jaguar

Jürgen Gauß, developer of CFOUR and ACES III

William Andrew Goddard III, developer of Jaguar and ReaxFF

Mark S Gordon (1942–), developer of GAMESS (US)

Corwin Hansch (1918–2011), known for the Hansch equation and for QSAR

Douglas Hartree (1897–1958), developer of Hartree–Fock method

Martin Head-Gordon (1962–), developer of Q-Chem

Trygve Helgaker (1953–), developer of Dalton

Poul Jørgensen (1944–), developer of Dalton

William L. Jorgensen (1949–), developer of BOSS and OPLS

Martin Karplus (1930–), winner of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Walter Kohn (1923–2016), winner of 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his development of the density-functional theory", developer of Kohn–Sham equations

Peter Kollman (1944–2001), developer of AMBER force field

Włodzimierz Kołos (1928 – 1996), pioneer of accurate calculations on the electronic structure of molecules

Cyrus Levinthal (1922–1990), father of computer display of protein structure

Michael Levitt (1947–), winner of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Hans Lischka (1943-), developer of COLUMBUS

Frank Neese (1967–), lead author of the ORCA quantum chemistry program package

Anthony Nicholls, developer of DelPhi and CEO of OpenEye Scientific Software

Rudolph Pariser (1923–), developer of Pariser–Parr–Pople method

Robert Parr (1921–2017), developer of Pariser–Parr–Pople method

Michele Parrinello (1945–), developer of Car–Parrinello method

John Pople (1925–2004), winner of 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry", developer of Pariser–Parr–Pople method

Kenneth Ruud (1969–), developer of Dalton

Yousef Saad, developer of PARSEC

Chris Sander, developer of WHAT IF

Joachim Sauer (1949–), codeveloper of QMPOT

Henry F. Schaefer, III (1944-), director of the Center for Computational Chemistry and developer of PSI (computational chemistry)

Lu Jeu Sham (1938–), developer of Kohn–Sham equations

Carlos Simmerling, developer of AMBER force field

Donald Truhlar (1944–), developer of Minnesota functionals

Giovanni Vignale (1957–), known for density functional theory

Arieh Warshel (1940–), winner of the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Weitao Yang (1961–), known for density functional theory

List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Biophysics and computational biology)

This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.

Martin Karplus

Martin Karplus (born March 15, 1930) is an Austrian-born American theoretical chemist. He is the Theodore William Richards Professor of Chemistry, emeritus at Harvard University. He is also Director of the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, a joint laboratory between the French National Center for Scientific Research and the University of Strasbourg, France. Karplus received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel, for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".

Michael Levitt

Michael Levitt, (Hebrew: מיכאל לויט‎; born 9 May 1947) is an American-British-Israeli biophysicist and a professor of structural biology at Stanford University, a position he has held since 1987. Levitt received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, together with Martin Karplus and Arieh Warshel, for "the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems".

Rappaport Faculty of Medicine

The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine is a medical school that operates in Bat Galim, Haifa and is part of the Technion's Faculty of Medicine.

The faculty was established in the late 1960s by a group of physicians who found the need for an academic school specialized in medical education and research.

The medical school merged with the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in 1973.

Sde Nahum

Sde Nahum (Hebrew: שְׂדֵה נַחוּם, lit. Nahum Field) is a kibbutz in the Beit She'an Valley in northern Israel. Located around 4 km northwest of Beit She'an, it falls under the jurisdiction of Valley of Springs Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 681.

Shneior Lifson

Shneior Lifson (Hebrew: שניאור ליפסון‎; born 18 March 1914 in Tel Aviv – died 22 January 2001 in Rehovot), was

an Israeli chemical physicist, scientific director of the Weizmann Institute of Science, a founder of the Open University of Israel, laureate of the 1969 Israel Prize in the life sciences. Lifson is best known for his consistent force field method, one of the major theories behind 3-D computer modeling of large molecules.

In 2013, two scientists who early in their career had worked under his guidance at the Weizmann Institute – Arieh Warshel, who was his Ph.D. student, and Michael Levitt – won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. That research focused on the development and applications of the consistent force field method to molecular dynamics of proteins.

Technion Faculty of Aerospace Engineering

The Technion Faculty of Aerospace Engineering is a division of the Technion that conduct research and teaches a wide range of aerospace disciplines. The faculty was founded in 1954.

Technion Faculty of Electrical Engineering

The Technion Faculty of Electrical Engineering is an academic faculty of the Technion founded in 1947 before the State of Israel which focuses on the training of electrical engineers and computer engineers in various disciplines including CAD, VLSI, Image processing, Signal processing, Solid-state electronics, communication systems, integrated circuits, Parallel computing and systems, and embedded systems. The current Dean of Faculty is Professor Nahum Shimkin.

Tolman Award

The Tolman Medal is awarded each year by the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society (SCALACS) for outstanding contributions to chemistry which include contributions in areas of fundamental studies, chemical technology, and significant contributions to chemical education or outstanding leadership in science on a national level. To be eligible for the Medal, the recipient must have accomplished the majority of his or her work while resident in Southern California.The Medal is named for physicist and chemist Richard C. Tolman.

Weizmann Institute of Science

The Weizmann Institute of Science (Hebrew: מכון ויצמן למדע‎ Machon Weizmann LeMada) is a public research university in Rehovot, Israel, established in 1934, 14 years before the State of Israel. It differs from other Israeli universities in that it offers only graduate and postgraduate degrees in the natural and exact sciences.

It is a multidisciplinary research center, with around 3,800 scientists, postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D. and M.Sc. students, and scientific, technical, and administrative staff working at the Institute.As of 2019, 6 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been associated with the Weizmann Institute of Science.

2013 Nobel Prize laureates
Physiology or Medicine
Economic Sciences

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.