Argos

Argos (/ˈɑːrɡɒs, -ɡəs/; Modern Greek: Άργος [ˈarɣos]; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος [árɡos]) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.[2] It is the largest city in Argolis and a major center for the area.

Since the 2011 local government reform it has been part of the municipality of Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit.[3] The municipal unit has an area of 138.138 km2.[4] It is 11 kilometres (7 miles) from Nafplion, which was its historic harbour. A settlement of great antiquity, Argos has been continuously inhabited as at least a substantial village for the past 7,000 years.[2]:121- The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.[5]

A resident of the city of Argos is known as an Argive (/ˈɑːrɡaɪv/ AR-ghyve, /-dʒaɪv/ -⁠jyve; Greek: Ἀργεῖος). However, this term is also used to refer to those ancient Greeks generally who assaulted the city of Troy during the Trojan War; the term is more widely applied by the Homeric bards.

Numerous ancient monuments can be found in the city today. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy.

Argos

Άργος
View of Argos, seen from the ancient theatre
View of Argos, seen from the ancient theatre
Official seal of Argos

Seal
Argos is located in Greece
Argos
Argos
Location within the regional unit
DE Argous
Coordinates: 37°37′N 22°43′E / 37.617°N 22.717°ECoordinates: 37°37′N 22°43′E / 37.617°N 22.717°E
CountryGreece
Administrative regionPeloponnese
Regional unitArgolis
MunicipalityArgos-Mykines
 • Municipal unit138.138 km2 (53.335 sq mi)
Elevation
42 m (138 ft)
Population
(2011)[1]
 • Municipal unit
22,209
 • Municipal unit density160/km2 (420/sq mi)
Community
 • Population24,700 (2011)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
21200
Area code(s)2751
Vehicle registrationAP
Websitewww.argos.gr

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Argos, Greece
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 58
(14)
58
(14)
61
(16)
66
(19)
72
(22)
79
(26)
83
(28)
85
(29)
81
(27)
75
(24)
67
(19)
61
(16)
70.5
(21.4)
Average low °F (°C) 45
(7)
45
(7)
47
(8)
52
(11)
58
(14)
65
(18)
70
(21)
71
(22)
66
(19)
60
(16)
54
(12)
48
(9)
56.75
(13.75)
Source: "Argos Monthly Climate Average, Greece". World Weather Online. 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.

Etymology

The name of the city is very ancient and several etymological theories have been proposed as an explanation to its meaning. The most popular one maintains that the name of the city is a remainder from the Pelasgian language, i.e. the one used by the people who first settled in the area, in which Argos meant "plain". Alternatively, the name is associated with Argos, the third king of the city in ancient times, who renamed it after himself, thus replacing its older name Phoronikon Astu (Φορωνικόν Άστυ, "city of Phoroneus"). It is also believed that "Argos" is linked to the word "αργός" (argós), which meant "white"; possibly, this had to do with the visual impression given of the argolic plain during harvest time. According to Strabo, the name could have even originated from the word "αγρός" (=field) by antimetathesis of the consonants.[6]

History

Antiquity

Argos, Triobol, c.270-250 BC, HGC 5-670
Triobol of Argos, minted between 270 and 250 BC. The obverse depicts the forepart of a wolf, alluding to Apollo Lykeios, the patron-god of the city. The A on the reverse is simply the initial of Argos.[7]

Argos is traditionally considered to be the origins of the ancient Macedonian royal Greek house of the Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai).The most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. As a strategic location on the fertile plain of Argolis, Argos was a major stronghold during the Mycenaean era. In classical times Argos was a powerful rival of Sparta for dominance over the Peloponnese, but was eventually shunned by other Greek city-states after remaining neutral during the Greco-Persian Wars.[8]

Argos Heraion Plain
The Heraion of Argos
Ancient Argos - Theatre 2
View of the ancient theatre
Ancient peloponnese
Ancient Peloponnese
Ancient Regions Peloponnese
Ancient regions of Peloponnese (southern mainland Greece).

There is evidence of continuous settlement in the area starting with a village about 7000 years ago in the late Neolithic, located on the foot of Aspida hill.[2]:124- Since that time, Argos has been continually inhabited at the same geographical location. Its creation is attributed to Phoroneus, with its first name having been Phoronicon Asty, or the city of Phoroneus. The historical presence of the Pelasgian Greeks in the area can be witnessed in the linguistic remainders that survive up to today, such as the very name of the city and "Larisa", the name of the city's castle located on the hill of the name. [9]

The city is located at a rather propitious area, among Nemea, Corinth and Arcadia. It also benefitted from its proximity to lake Lerna, which, at the time, was at a distance of one kilometre from the south end of Argos.

Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a very early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis. Argos experienced its greatest period of expansion and power under the energetic 7th century BC ruler King Pheidon. Under Pheidon, Argos regained sway over the cities of the Argolid and challenged Sparta’s dominance of the Peloponnese. Spartan dominance is thought to have been interrupted following the Battle of Hyssiae in 669-668 BC, in which Argive troops defeated the Spartans in a hoplite battle.[10] During this time of its greatest power, the city boasted a pottery and bronze sculpturing school, pottery workshops, tanneries and clothes producers. Moreover, at least 25 celebrations took place in the city, in addition to a regular local products exhibition.[11] A sanctuary dedicated to Hera was also found at the same spot where the monastery of Panagia Katekrymeni is located today. Pheidon also extended Argive influence throughout Greece, taking control of the Olympic Games away from the citizens of Elis and appointing himself organizer during his reign. Pheidon is also thought to have introduced reforms for standard weight and measures in Argos, a theory further reinforced with the unearthing of six "spits" of iron in an Argive Heraion, possibly remainders of a dedication from Pheidon.

Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens. This, however, led to its weakening and loss of power, which in turn led to the shift of commercial focus from the Ancient Agora to the eastern side of the city, delimited by Danaou and Agiou Konstadinou streets. Argos played a minor role in the Corinthian Wars against Sparta, and for a short period of time considered uniting with Corinth to form an expanded Argolid state. However, this plan never came to fruition, and Argos continued to remain a minor power in Greek affairs.

Democracy in Classical Argos

Argos was a democracy for most of the classical period, with only a brief hiatus between 418 and 416.[12] Democracy was first established after a disastrous defeat by the Spartans at the Battle of Sepeia in 494. So many Argives were killed in the battle that a revolution ensued, in which previously disenfranchised outsiders were included in the state for the first time.[13]

Argive democracy included an Assembly (called the aliaia), a Council (the bola), and another body called 'The Eighty,' whose precise responsibilities are obscure. Magistrates served six-month terms of office, with few exceptions, and were audited at the end of their terms. There is some evidence that ostracism was practiced.[14]

Roman, Byzantine, Crusader, Ottoman rule and independence

Argos09
The castle on Larissa Hill.

Under Roman rule, Argos was part of the province of Achaea. Under Byzantine rule it was part of the theme of Hellas, and later of the theme of the Peloponnese.

In the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, the Crusaders captured the castle built on Larisa Hill, the site of the ancient acropolis, and the area become part of the lordship of Argos and Nauplia. In 1388 it was sold to the Republic of Venice, but was taken by the Despot of the Morea Theodore I Palaiologos before the Venetians could take control of the city; he sold it anyway to them in 1394. The Crusaders established a Latin bishopric. Venetian rule lasted until 1463, when the Ottomans captured the city.

In 1397, the Ottomans plundered Argos, carrying off much of the population,[15] to sell as slaves.[16] The Venetians repopulated the town and region with Albanian settlers,[16] granting them long-term agrarian tax exemptions.[15] Together with the Greeks of Argos, they supplied stratioti troops to the armies of Venice.[15] Some historians consider the French military term "argoulet" to derive from the Greek "argetes", or inhabitant of Argos, as a large number of French stratioti came from the plain of Argos.[17]

Neo Ireo Kimisis Theotokou
The church of the Kimisis (Dormition) of the Virgin

During Ottoman rule, Argos was divided in four mahalas, or quarters; the Greek (Rûm) mahala, Liepur mahala, Bekir Efenti mahala and Karamoutza or Besikler mahala, respectively corresponding to what is now the northeastern, the northwestern, the southwestern and southeastern parts of the city. The Greek mahala was also called the "quarter of the unfaithful of Archos town" in Turkish documents, whereas Liepur mahala (the quarter of the rabbits) was composed mostly of Albanian emigrants and well-reputed families. Karamoutza mahala was home to the most prominent Turks and boasted a mosque (modern-day church of Agios Konstadinos), a Turkish cemetery, Ali Nakin Bei's serail, Turkish baths and a Turkish school. It is also at this period when the open market of the city is first organised on the site north to Kapodistrias' barracks, at the same spot where it is held in modern times. A mosque would have existed there, too, according to the city planning most Ottoman cities followed.

Argos grew exponentially during this time, with its sprawl being unregulated and without planning. As French explorer Pouqueville noted, "its houses are not aligned, without order, scattered all over the place, divided by home gardens and uncultivated areas". Liepur mahala appears to have been the most organised, having the best layout, while Bekir mahala and Karamoutza mahala were the most labyrinthine. However, all quarters shared the same type of streets; firstly, they all had main streets which were wide, busy and public roads meant to allow for communication between neighbourhoods (typical examples are, to a great extent, modern-day Korinthou, Nafpliou and Tripoleos streets). Secondary streets were also common in all four quarters since they lead to the interior of each mahala, having a semi-public character, whereas the third type of streets referred to dead-end private alleys used specifically by families to access their homes. Remnants of this city layout can be witnessed even today, as Argos still preserves several elements of this Ottoman type style, particularly with its long and complicated streets, its narrow alleys and its densely constructed houses.

Veduta d'Argos - Coronelli Vincenzo - 1688
Illustration of Argos by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688

With the exception of a period of Venetian domination in 1687–1715, Argos remained in Ottoman hands until the beginning of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, when wealthy Ottoman families moved to nearby Nafplio due to its stronger walling.

At that time, as part of the general uprising, many local governing bodies were formed in different parts of the country, and the "Consulate of Argos" was proclaimed on 28 March 1821, under the Peloponnesian Senate. It had a single head of state, Stamatellos Antonopoulos, styled "Consul", between 28 March and 26 May 1821.

Later, Argos accepted the authority of the unified Provisional Government of the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, and eventually became part of the Kingdom of Greece. With the coming of governor Ioannis Kapodistrias, the city underwent efforts of modernisation. Being an agricultural village, the need for urban planning was vital. For this reason, in 1828, Kapodistrias himself appointed mechanic Stamatis Voulgaris as the creator of a city plan which would offer Argos big streets, squares and public spaces. However, both Voulgaris and, later, French architect de Borroczun's plans were not well received by the locals, with the result that the former had to be revised by Zavos. Ultimately, none of the plans were fully implemented. Still, the structural characteristics of de Borroczun's plan can be found in the city today, despite obvious proof of pre-revolutionary layout, such as the unorganised urban sprawl testified in the area from Inachou street to the point where the railway tracks can be found today.

After talks concerning the intentions of the Greek government to move the Greek capital from Nafplio to Athens, discussions regarding the possibility of Argos also being a candidate as the potential new capital became more frequent, with supporters of the idea claiming that, unlike Athens, Argos was naturally protected by its position and benefited from a nearby port (Nafplio). Moreover, it was maintained that construction of public buildings would be difficult in Athens, given that most of the land was owned by the Greek church, meaning that a great deal of expropriation would have to take place. On the contrary, Argos did not face a similar problem, having large available areas for this purpose. In the end, the proposition of the Greek capital being moved to Argos was rejected by the father of king Otto, Ludwig, who insisted in making Athens the capital, something which eventually happened in 1834.[18]

Mythology

The mythological kings of Argos are (in order): Inachus, Phoroneus, Apis, Argus, Criasus, Phorbas, Triopas, Iasus, Agenor, Crotopus, Sthenelus, Gelanor AKA Pelasgus, Danaus, Lynceus, Abas, Proetus, Acrisius, Perseus, Megapenthes, Argeus and Anaxagoras. An alternative version supplied by Tatian of the original 17 consecutive kings of Argos includes Apis, Argios, Kriasos and Phorbas between Argus and Triopas, explaining the apparent unrelation of Triopas to Argus.[19]

The city of Argos was believed to be the birthplace of the mythological character Perseus, the son of the god Zeus and Danaë, who was the daughter of the king of Argos, Acrisius.

After the original 17 kings of Argos, there were three kings ruling Argos at the same time (see Anaxagoras), one descended from Bias, one from Melampus, and one from Anaxagoras. Melampus was succeeded by his son Mantius, then Oicles, and Amphiaraus, and his house of Melampus lasted down to the brothers Alcmaeon and Amphilochus.

Anaxagoras was succeeded by his son Alector, and then Iphis. Iphis left his kingdom to his nephew Sthenelus, the son of his brother Capaneus.

Bias was succeeded by his son Talaus, and then by his son Adrastus who, with Amphiaraus, commanded the disastrous Seven Against Thebes. Adrastus bequeathed the kingdom to his son, Aegialeus, who was subsequently killed in the war of the Epigoni. Diomedes, grandson of Adrastus through his son-in-law Tydeus and daughter Deipyle, replaced Aegialeus and was King of Argos during the Trojan war. This house lasted longer than those of Anaxagoras and Melampus, and eventually the kingdom was reunited under its last member, Cyanippus, son of Aegialeus, soon after the exile of Diomedes.

Ecclesiastical history

After Christianity became established in Argos, the first bishop documented in extant written records is Genethlius, who in 448 AD took part in the synod called by Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople that deposed Eutyches from his priestly office and excommunicated him. The next bishop of Argos, Onesimus, was at the 451 Council of Chalcedon. His successor, Thales, was a signatory of the letter that the bishops of the Roman province of Hellas sent in 458 to Byzantine Emperor Leo I the Thracian to protest about the killing of Proterius of Alexandria. Bishop Ioannes was at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680, and Theotimus at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).[20] The local see is today the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Argolis.

Under 'Frankish' Crusader rule, Argos became a Latin Church bishopric in 1212, which lasted as a residential see until Argos was taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1463 [21] but would be revived under the second Venetian rule in 1686. Today the diocese is a Catholic titular see.

Characteristics

Orientation

The city of Argos is delimited to the north by dry river Xerias, to the east by Inachos river and Panitsa stream (which emanates from the latter), to the west by the Larissa hill (site of homonymous castle and of a monastery called Panagia Katakekrymeni-Portokalousa) and the Aspidos Hill (unofficially Prophetes Elias hill), and to the south by the Notios Periferiakos road.

The Agios Petros (Saint Peter) square, along with the eponymous cathedral (dedicated to saint Peter the Wonderworker), make up the town centre, whereas some other characteristic town squares are the Laiki Agora (Open Market) square, officially Dimokratias (Republic) square, where, as implied by its name, an open market takes place twice a week, Staragora (Wheat Market), officially Dervenakia square, and Dikastirion (Court) square. Bonis Park is an essential green space of the city.

Currently, the most commercially active streets of the city are those surrounding the Agios Petros square (Kapodistriou, Danaou, Vassileos Konstantinou streets) as well as Korinthou street. The Pezodromi (Pedestrian Streets), i.e. the paved Michael Stamou, Tsaldari and Venizelou streets, are the most popular meeting point, encompassing a wide variety of shops and cafeterias.

Population

In 700 BC there were at least 5,000 people living in the city.[22] In the fourth century BC, the city was home to as many as 30,000 people.[23] Today, according to the 2011 Greek census, the city has a population of 22,209. It is the largest city in Argolis, larger than the capital Nafplio.

Economy

Δημοτική αγορά Άργους 2
Municipal market
Demarxeioargou
The old Dimarcheio (City Hall) in 2002; built in 1830, it served as the headquarters of municipal government until 2012

The primary economic activity in the area is agriculture. Citrus fruits are the predominant crop, followed by olives and apricots. The area is also famous for its local melon variety, Argos melons (or Argetiko). There is also important local production of dairy products, factories for fruits processing.

Considerable remains of the ancient and medieval city survive and are a popular tourist attraction.

Monuments

Most of Argos' historical and archaeological monuments are currently unused, abandoned, or only partially renovated:

  • The Larisa castle, built during prehistoric time, which has undergone several repairs and expansions since antiquity and played a significant historical role during the Venetian domination of Greece and the Greek War of Independence.[9] It is located on top of the homonymous Larisa Hill, which also constitutes the highest spot of the city (289 m.). In ancient times, a castle was also found in neighbouring Aspida Hill. When connected with walls, these two castles fortified the city from enemy invasions.
  • The Ancient theatre, built in the 3rd century B.C with a capacity of 20,000 spectators, replaced an older neighbouring theatre of the 5th century BC and communicated with the Ancient Agora. It was visible from any part of the ancient city and the Argolic gulf. In 1829, it was used by Ioannis Kapodistrias for the Fourth National Assembly of the new Hellenic State. Today, cultural events are held at its premises during the summer months.[24]
  • The Ancient Agora, adjacent to the Ancient theatre, which developed in the 6th century B.C., was located at the junction of the ancient roads coming from Corinth, Heraion and Tegea. Excavations in the area have uncovered a bouleuterion, built in 460 B.C. when Argos adopted the democratic regime, a Sanctuary of Apollo Lyceus and a palaestra.[25]
  • The "Criterion" of Argos, an ancient monument located on the southwest side of the town, on the foot of Larissa hill, which came to have its current structure during the 6th-3rd century BC period. Initially, it served as a court of ancient Argos, similar to Areopagus of Athens. According to mythology, it was at this area where Hypermnestra, one of the 50 daughters of Danaus, the first king of Argos, was tried. Later, under the reigns of Hadrian, a fountain was created to collect and circulate water coming from the Hadrianean aqueduct located in northern Argos. The site is connected via a paved path with the ancient theatre.[26]
  • The Barracks of Kapodistrias, a preservable building with a long history. Built in the 1690s during the Venetian domination of Greece, they initially served as a hospital run by the Sisters of Mercy. During the Tourkokratia, they served as a market and a post office. Later, in 1829, significant damage caused during the Greek revolution was repaired by Kapodistrias who turned the building into a cavalry barrack, a school (1893-1894), an exhibition space (1899), a shelter for Greek refugees displaced during the population exchange between Greece and Turkey (since 1920) and an interrogation and torture space (during the German occupation of Greece). In 1955-68, it was used by the army for the last time; it now accommodates the Byzantine Museum of Argos, local corporations and also serves as an exhibition space.[27]
  • The Municipal Neoclassical Market building (unofficially the "Kamares", i.e. arches, from the arches that it boasts), built in 1889, which is located next to Dimokratias square, is one of the finest samples of modern Argos' masterly architecture, in Ernst Ziller style. The elongated, two corridor, preservable building accommodates small shops.[28]
  • The Kapodistrian school, in central Argos. Built by architect Labros Zavos in 1830, as part of Kapodistrias' efforts to provide places of education to the Greek people, it could accommodate up to 300 students. However, technical difficulties led to its decay, until it was restored several times, the last of which being in 1932. Today, its neoclassical character is evident, with the building housing the 1st elementary school of the town.[29]
  • The old Town Hall, built during the time of Kapodistrias in 1830, which originally served as a Justice of the peace, the Dimogerontia of Argos, an Arm of Carabineers and a prison. From 1987 to 2012, it housed the Town Hall which is now located in Kapodistriou street.
  • The House of philhellene Thomas Gordon, built in 1829 that served as an all-girls school, a dance school and was home to the 4th Greek artillery regiment. Today it accommodates the French Institute of Athens (Institut Français d' Athènes).[30]
  • The House of Spyridon Trikoupis (built in 1900), where the politician was born and spent his childhood. Also located in the estate, which is not open to public, is the Saint Charalambos chapel where Trikoupis was baptized.[31]
  • The House of general Tsokris, important military fighter in the Greek revolution of 1821 and later assemblyman of Argos.
  • The temple of Agios Konstadinos, one of the very few remaining buildings in Argos dating from the Ottoman Greece era. It is estimated to have been built in the 1570-1600 period, with a minaret also having existed in its premises. It served as a mosque and an Ottoman cemetery up to 1871, when it was declared a Christian temple.[32]
  • The chambered tombs of the Aspidos hill.
  • The Hellinikon Pyramid. Dating back to late 4th B.C., there exist many theories as to the purpose it served (tumulus, fortress). Together with the widely accepted scientific chronology, there are some people who claim it was built shortly after the Pharaoh tomb, i.e. the Great Pyramid of Giza, thus a symbol of the excellent relationship the citizens of Argos had with Egypt.

A great number of archaeological findings, dating from the prehistoric ages, can be found at the Argos museum, housed at the old building of Dimitrios Kallergis at Saint Peter's square. The Argos airport, located in an homonymous area (Aerodromio) in the outskirts of the city is also worth mentioning. The area it covers was created in 1916-1917 and was greatly used during the Greco-Italian War and for the training of new Kaberos school aviators for the Hellenic Air Force Academy. It also constituted an important benchmark in the organization of the Greek air forces in southern Greece. Furthermore, the airport was used by the Germans for the release of their aerial troops during the Battle of Crete. It was last used as a landing/take off point for spray planes (for agricultural purposes in the olive tree cultivations) up until 1985.[33]

Transportation

Argos railway station
The railway station

Argos is connected via regular bus services with neighbouring areas as well as Athens. In addition, taxi stands can be found at the Agios Petros as well as the Laiki Agora square. The city also has a railway station which, at the moment, remains closed due to an indefinite halt to all railway services in the Peloponnese area by the Hellenic Railways Organisation. However, in late 2014, it was announced that the station would open up again, as part of an expansion of the Athens suburban railway in Argos, Nafplio and Korinthos.[34][35]

Education

Argos has a wide range of educational institutes that also serve neighbouring sparsely populated areas and villages. In particular, the city has seven dimotika (primary schools), four gymnasia (junior high), three lyceums (senior high), one vocational school, one music school as well as a Touristical Business and Cooking department and a post-graduate ASPETE department. The city also has two public libraries.[36]

Sports

Argos hosts two sport clubs with presence in higher national divisions and several achievements, Panargiakos F.C. football club, founded in 1926 and AC Diomidis Argous handball club founded in 1976. Diomidis Argos is the unique provincial Greek sport club with European cup.

Sport clubs based in Tripoli
Club Founded Sports Achievements
Panargiakos F.C. 1926 Football Earlier presence in Beta Ethniki
AC Diomidis Argous 1976 Handball Panhellenic and European titles in Greek handball

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns & sister cities

Argos is twinned with:

Other relations

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. ^ a b c Bolender, Douglas J. (2010-09-17). Eventful Archaeologies: New Approaches to Social Transformation in the Archaeological Record. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-3423-0. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  3. ^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  4. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  5. ^ MAETN (1999). "diktyo". classic-web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 22, 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  6. ^ Athanasios Vercetis; Stavroula Petraki (2010). "Σεπτεμβρίου ΑΡΓΟΛΙΚΗ ΑΡΧΕΙΑΚΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΘΗΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΣΜΟΥ". argolikivivliothiki.gr (in Greek). Argolikos Archival Library of History and Culture. Archived from the original on February 5, 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  7. ^ Oliver D. Hoover, Handbook of Coins of the Peloponnesos: Achaia, Phleiasia, Sikyonia, Elis, Triphylia, Messenia, Lakonia, Argolis, and Arkadia, Sixth to First Centuries BC [The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Volume 5], Lancaster/London, Classical Numismatic Group, 2011, pp. 157, 161.
  8. ^ Roberts, John (2005). Dictionary of the Classical World. Oxford University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-19-280146-3.
  9. ^ a b http://www.kastra.eu/castlegr.php?kastro=argos
  10. ^ Mackil, Emily, Tyrants in Seventh Century Greece, Lecture, September 20, 2018
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2015-03-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ E. Robinson, Democracy Beyond Athens, Cambridge, 2011, 6-21.
  13. ^ Hdt. 6.83; Arist. Pol. 13036-8
  14. ^ E. Robinson, Democracy Beyond Athens, Cambridge, 2011, 10-18.
  15. ^ a b c Contingent countryside: settlement, economy, and land use in the southern Argolid since 1700 Authors Susan Buck Sutton, Keith W. Adams, Argolid Exploration Project Editors Susan Buck Sutton, Keith W. Adams Contributor Keith W. Adams Edition illustrated Publisher Stanford University Press, 2000 ISBN 0-8047-3315-5, ISBN 978-0-8047-3315-1 page 28
  16. ^ Pappas, Nicholas C. J. "Stradioti: Balkan Mercenaries in Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century Italy". Sam Houston State University.
  17. ^ https://argolikivivliothiki.gr/2009/02/20/%CF%84%CE%BF-%CE%AC%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%BF%CF%82-%CF%80%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%84%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%BD%CE%B5%CF%84%CE%B1%CE%B9-%CF%89%CF%82-%CF%80%CF%81%CF%89%CF%84%CE%B5%CF%8D%CE%BF%CF%85%CF%83%CE%B1-%CF%84%CE%B7/
  18. ^ James Cowles Prichard : An Analysis of the Egyptian Mythology. 1819. p. 85
  19. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 183-186
  20. ^ Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, p. 105-106; vol. 2, pp. XIV e 94; vol. 3, p. 117; vol. 4, p. 94; vol. 5, p. 98
  21. ^ Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-Cultural Approaches, p. 37, at Google Books
  22. ^ Geology and Settlement: Greco-Roman Patterns, p. 124, at Google Books
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2015-02-21.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2015-02-21.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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Sources and external links

Amphiaraus

In Greek mythology, Amphiaraus (; Ancient Greek: Ἀμφιάραος Amphiaraos, "doubly cursed" or "twice Ares-like") was the king of Argos along with Adrastus and Iphis.

Argead dynasty

The Argead dynasty (Greek: Ἀργεάδαι, Argeádai) was an ancient Macedonian royal house of Dorian Greek provenance. They were the founders and the ruling dynasty of the kingdom of Macedon from about 700 to 310 BC.Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in Peloponnese, hence the name Argeads or Argives. Initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedonia all Upper Macedonian states. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership the kingdom of Macedonia gradually gained predominance throughout Greece, defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India. The mythical founder of the Argead dynasty is King Caranus.

Argolis

Argolis or the Argolid (Greek: Αργολίδα Argolída, [arɣoˈliða]; Ἀργολίς Argolís in ancient Greek and Katharevousa) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese, situated in the eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula and part of the tripoint area of Argolis, Arcadia and Corinthia. Much of the territory of this region is situated in the Argolid Peninsula.

Argos-Mykines

Argos-Mykines (Greek: Άργος-Μυκήνες) is a municipality in the Argolis regional unit, Peloponnese, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Argos. The municipality has an area of 1002.508 km2.

Argos (dog)

In Homer's Odyssey, Argos (; Greek: Ἄργος) is Odysseus' faithful dog. After ten years fighting in Troy, followed by ten more years struggling to get home to Ithaca, Odysseus finally arrives at his homeland. In his absence, reckless suitors have taken over his house in hopes of marrying his wife Penelope. In order to secretly re-enter his house to ultimately spring a surprise attack on the suitors, Odysseus disguises himself as a beggar, and only his son Telemachos is told of his true identity. As Odysseus approaches his home, he finds Argos lying neglected on a pile of cow manure, infested with fleas, old and very tired. This is a sharp contrast to the dog Odysseus left behind; Argos used to be known for his speed and strength and his superior tracking skills. Unlike everyone else, including Eumaios, a lifelong friend, Argos recognizes Odysseus at once and he has just enough strength to drop his ears and wag his tail but cannot get up to greet his master. Unable to greet his beloved dog, as this would betray who he really was, Odysseus passes by (but not without shedding a tear) and enters his hall, and Argos dies. The simplicity of the relationship between Argos and Odysseus allows their reunion to be immediate and sincere.

Argos (retailer)

Argos Ltd, trading as Argos, is a British catalogue retailer operating in the United Kingdom and Ireland, and a subsidiary of Sainsbury's. The company trades both through physical shops and online, with over 845 retail shops (each shop is prefixed individually using a number consisting of up to four digits), 29 million yearly shop customers, and nearly a billion online visitors per annum, making it one of the largest high street retailers in the United Kingdom. It has also franchised overseas to countries such as China.

Argos was established on 13 November 1972, by Richard Tompkins, the founder of the Green Shield Stamps scheme, who rebranded the existing Green Shield Stamps catalogue shops as Argos, before opening new Argos-branded shops later in the year. BAT Industries purchased the company in 1979, and in 1990, it was listed on the London Stock Exchange, where it became a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

In April 1998, GUS plc bought the company, and it became part of Home Retail Group when GUS split in October 2006. In August 2013, it was estimated that 96% of the population of the United Kingdom was within 10 miles of an Argos branch.In April 2016, Argos' parent Home Retail Group agreed to a £1.4 billion takeover by the UK supermarket chain Sainsbury's. Sainsbury's intend to close most if not all separate Argos shops and integrate them into its large Sainsbury's supermarkets. The acquisition was completed on 2 September 2016, and the business became part of a division named Sainsbury's Argos led by its own chief executive.

Argos Corner, Delaware

Argos Corner (also referred to as Argo Corners) is an unincorporated community in Sussex County, Delaware, United States.

Argos Corner is located along Delaware Route 1 (DE 1) southeast of Milford. It is a neighborhood consisting of one main road (Argos Corner Road), which used to be old DE 14. Argos Corner Road is perpendicular to Slaughter Beach Road.

There are two businesses on Argos Corner Road: Taylor Marine Center (a boating store and repair center), and War Relics (a store specializing in the sale of military relics and paraphernalia). Former Delaware Governor Ruth Ann Minner once resided in Argos Corner.

Argos Hill Mill, Mayfield

Argos Hill Mill is a grade II* listed post mill at Argos Hill, Mayfield, East Sussex, England

As of 2017 it is in the process of restoration by the Argos Hill Windmill Trust.

BMO Field

BMO Field is an outdoor stadium located at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada which is home to Toronto FC of Major League Soccer and the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League. Constructed on the site of the former Exhibition Stadium and first opened in 2007, it is owned by the City of Toronto, and managed by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment. The stadium's naming rights are held by the Bank of Montreal, which is commonly branded as "BMO" ().

BMO Field was originally constructed as a soccer-specific stadium to serve as the home field of the expansion Toronto FC, and hosted matches during the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup. In 2010, it hosted the MLS Cup final (then a neutral-site game), and the 2016 final and 2017 final featuring Toronto FC (who hosted because they were the highest remaining seed). The venue has also hosted rugby union, including matches of Canada's national team, and rugby sevens during the 2015 Pan-American Games.

From 2014 to 2016, the stadium underwent a series of major renovations, which added an upper deck to the east grandstand, a roof over the seating areas and lengthened the field to make it suitable for hosting Canadian football. The latter allowed for the Toronto Argonauts to move to BMO Field beginning with the 2016 CFL season, which also saw the 104th Grey Cup played at the stadium.

Chav

"Chav" ( CHAV) ("charver" in parts of Northern England) is a pejorative epithet used in the United Kingdom to describe a particular stereotype of anti-social youth dressed in sportswear. The word was popularised in the 2000s by the British mass media to refer to an anti-social youth subculture in the UK. The Oxford English Dictionary defines "chav" as an informal British derogatory, meaning "a young lower-class person who displays brash and loutish behaviour and wears real or imitation designer clothes". The derivative chavette has been used to refer to females, and the adjectives chavvy, chavvish and chavtastic have been used in relation to items designed for or suitable for use by chavs.

Chazé-sur-Argos

Chazé-sur-Argos is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department of western France.

Fourth National Assembly at Argos

The Fourth National Assembly at Argos (Greek: Δʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση Άργους) was a Greek convention which sat at Argos from 11 July to 6 August 1829, during the Greek War of Independence.

The Fourth National Assembly followed on from the Third National Assembly at Troezen (1827), which had adopted a new constitution selected Ioannis Kapodistrias as Governor of Greece with extensive powers for a seven-year term. The Assembly counted 236 representatives from all over Greece (including territories, such as Crete or Macedonia, that were still under Ottoman control), for the first time elected via suffrage.

The Assembly adopted a series of reforms suggested by Kapodistrias, most notably:

the replacement of the Panellinion advisory council with a 27-member Senate

the adoption of the phoenix as the country's currency

List of kings of Argos

Before the establishment of a democracy, the Ancient Greek city-state of Argos was ruled by kings. Most of them are probably mythical or only semi-historical. This list is based on that given by Eusebius of Caesarea.

An alternative version supplied by Tatian of the original 17 consecutive kings of Argos includes Apis and Argios between Argos and Triopas.

Perseus

In Greek mythology, Perseus (; Greek: Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles. He beheaded the Gorgon Medusa for Polydectes and saved Andromeda from the sea monster Cetus. He was the son of Zeus and the mortal Danaë, as well as the half-brother and great-grandfather of Heracles.

SARAL

SARAL or Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa is a cooperative altimetry technology mission of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and CNES (Space Agency of France). SARAL will perform altimetric measurements designed to study ocean circulation and sea surface elevation. The payloads of SARAL are The ISRO built satellite with payloads modules (ALTIKA altimeter), DORIS, Laser Retro-reflector Array (LRA) and ARGOS-3 (Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite) data collection system provided by CNES was launched by Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle rocket into the Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). ISRO is responsible for the platform, launch, and operations of the spacecraft. A CNES/ISRO MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) on the SARAL mission was signed on Feb. 23, 2007.SARAL was successfully launched on 25 February 2013, 12:31 UTC.

Team Sunweb (men's team)

Team Sunweb (UCI team code: SUN) is a professional German cycling team at UCI WorldTeam level. The team is managed by Iwan Spekenbrink and uses Cervélo bicycles.

Team Sunweb (women's team)

Team Sunweb is a professional cycling team based in the Netherlands, which competes in elite road bicycle racing events such as the UCI Women's Road World Cup.

Theoclymenus

In Greek mythology, Theoclymenus (Θεοκλύμενος) was a prophet from Argos.

Toronto Argonauts

The Toronto Argonauts (officially the Toronto Argonaut Football Club, commonly referred to as the "Argos") are a professional Canadian football team competing in the East Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL). Based in Toronto, Ontario, the team was founded in 1873, and is the oldest existing professional sports team in North America still using its original name, and they are the oldest-surviving team in both the modern-day CFL and East Division. The team's origins date back to a modified version of rugby football that emerged in North America in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The Argonauts played their home games at Rogers Centre from 1989 until 2016 when the team moved to BMO Field, the fifth stadium site to host the team.

The Argonauts have won the Grey Cup a record 17 times and have appeared in the final 23 times. Most recently they defeated the Calgary Stampeders 27–24 in the 105th Grey Cup in 2017. The Argonauts hold the best winning percentage in the championship game (73.9%) and have the longest active winning streak in games in which they have appeared, at six. The Argonauts have faced every current western CFL team at least once in the Grey Cup, while their most celebrated divisional rivalry has been with the Hamilton Tiger-Cats.

The team was owned by the Argonaut Rowing Club for its first 83 years, and has been owned by a series of business interests since 1956. The Argonauts were a fixture on the Toronto sports scene for decades, with attendance peaking in the 1970s. In May 2015 it was announced that a consortium of Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment's Larry Tanenbaum (via the Kilmer Group) and Bell Canada would acquire the team. The sale included a scheduled move to MLSE run BMO Field for the 2016 season, which has long been proposed given attendance under-utilization at Rogers Centre and announced plans to install natural grass at the domed stadium, rendering it unfit for football. (While the move has since been done, it is unlikely that the artificial turf will be replaced at all now at Rogers Centre.) More recently, MLSE announced in December 2017 that it had agreed to purchase the team outright, with the deal finalized on January 19, 2018. The previous owners will continue to indirectly own stakes in the Argos, as Bell Canada and the Kilmer Group respectively hold 37.5% and 25% stakes in MLSE.Given the length of franchise history, dozens of players, coaches, and management have been honoured in some form over the years. The team recognizes a select group of players with retired numbers: early greats Joe Krol and Dick Shatto, stalwart offensive lineman Danny Nykoluk, and Michael "Pinball" Clemons who has been the most recent face of the team.

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