Argolis or the Argolid (Greek: Αργολίδα Argolída, [arɣoˈliða]; Ἀργολίς Argolís in ancient Greek and Katharevousa) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese, situated in the eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula and part of the tripoint area of Argolis, Arcadia and Corinthia. Much of the territory of this region is situated in the Argolid Peninsula.
Municipalities of Argolis
Argolis within Greece
|• Total||2,154 km2 (832 sq mi)|
|• Density||45/km2 (120/sq mi)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||GR-11|
Most arable land lies in the central part of Argolis. Its primary agricultural resources are oranges and olives. Argolis has a coastline on the Saronic Gulf in the northeast and on the Argolic Gulf in the south and southeast. Notable mountains ranges are the Oligyrtos in the northwest, Lyrkeio and Ktenia in the west, and Arachnaio and Didymo in the east.
From 1833 to 1899, Argolis was part of Argolidocorinthia, which included present Corinthia, Hydra, Spetses and Kythira. It joined Corinthia to form Argolidocorinthia again in 1909. Forty years later, in 1949, Argolis was finally separated from Corinthia.
The regional unit Argolis is subdivided into 4 municipalities. These are (number as in the map in the infobox):
As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Argolis was created out of the former prefecture Argolis (Greek: Νομός Αργολίδας). The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below.
|New municipality||Old municipalities||Seat|
The provinces of Argolis were:
The area is connected by highways:
Amphitryon (; Ancient Greek: Ἀμφιτρύων, gen.: Ἀμφιτρύωνος; usually interpreted as "harassing either side", Latin: Amphitruo), in Greek mythology, was a son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns in Argolis. His mother was named either Astydameia, the daughter of Pelops and Hippodamia, or Laonome, daughter of Guneus, or else Hipponome, daughter of Menoeceus. Amphitryon was the brother of Anaxo, wife of Electryon and Perimede, wife of Licymnius.Argolis and Corinthia Prefecture
Argolis and Corinthia Prefecture (Greek: Νομός Ἀργολίδος καὶ Κορινθίας), commonly known as Argolidocorinthia (Ἀργολιδοκορινθία), was one of the prefectures of Greece. Its capital was Nafplio. It was one of the first prefectures established, first in 1833–1836 and again from 1845 until 1899, when it was split into Argolis Prefecture and Corinthia Prefecture. The split was reversed in the 1909 administrative reform, and the prefecture existed until split again in 1947.
The northern half became Corinthia with its capital at the city of Corinth, the southern half became Argolis with its capital at Nafplio. The islands Hydra, Spetses, and Kythira in the south became part of the Piraeus Prefecture.Argos
Argos (; Modern Greek: Άργος [ˈarɣos]; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος [árɡos]) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is the largest city in Argolis and a major center for the area.
Since the 2011 local government reform it has been part of the municipality of Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 138.138 km2. It is 11 kilometres (7 miles) from Nafplion, which was its historic harbour. A settlement of great antiquity, Argos has been continuously inhabited as at least a substantial village for the past 7,000 years. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.A resident of the city of Argos is known as an Argive ( AR-ghyve, -jyve; Greek: Ἀργεῖος). However, this term is also used to refer to those ancient Greeks generally who assaulted the city of Troy during the Trojan War; the term is more widely applied by the Homeric bards.
Numerous ancient monuments can be found in the city today. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy.Argos-Mykines
Argos-Mykines (Greek: Άργος-Μυκήνες) is a municipality in the Argolis regional unit, Peloponnese, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Argos. The municipality has an area of 1002.508 km2.Corinthia
Corinthia (Greek: Κορινθία Korinthía) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese. It is situated around the city of Corinth, in the north-eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.Enosi Lerna F.C.
Enosi Lerna Football Club is a Greek football club, based in Lerna, Argolis, Greece.Epidaurus
Epidaurus was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf. Two modern towns bear the name Epidavros:Palaia Epidavros and Nea Epidavros. Since 2010 they belong to the new municipality of Epidaurus, part of the regional unit of Argolis. The seat of the municipality is the town Lygourio.Ermioni
Ermioni (Greek Ερμιόνη, Ancient Greek Hermione Ἑρμιόνη, Ἑρμιών) is a small port town and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece on the Argolid Peninsula. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Ermionida, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 168.180 km2. It is a popular tourist resort.Ermionida
Ermionida (Greek: Ερμιονίδα) is a municipality in the Argolis regional unit, Peloponnese, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Kranidi. The municipality has an area of 421.118 km2.Franchthi Cave
Franchthi cave or Frankhthi cave (Greek: Σπήλαιον Φράγχθη) is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf opposite the village of Koilada in southeastern Argolis, Greece.
The cave was occupied from the Upper Paleolithic circa 38,000 BCE (and possibly earlier) through the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, with occasional short episodes of apparent abandonment. Last occupied around 3,000 BCE (Final Neolithic), it is one of the very few settlements in the world that shows nearly continuous human occupation for such an extended period of time, and is one of the most thoroughly studied sites from the stone age in southeastern Europe.Greek National Road 70
Greek National Road 70 (Greek: Εθνική Οδός 70, abbreviated as EO70) is a single carriageway road in southern Greece. It connects Corinth with Argos, via Epidavros and Nafplio. It is situated in the regional units Corinthia and Argolis, in the Peloponnese peninsula. The total length is 96 kilometres (60 mi).Lerna
In classical Greece, Lerna (Greek: Λέρνη) was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos. Even though much of the area is marshy, Lerna is located on a geographically narrow point between mountains and the ocean, along an ancient route from the Argolid to the southern Peloponnese; this location could have potentially resulted in the importance of the settlement.Its site near the village Mili at the Argolic Gulf is most famous as the lair of the Lernaean Hydra, the chthonic many-headed water snake, a creature of great antiquity when Heracles killed it, as the second of his labors. The strong Karstic springs remained; the lake, diminished to a silt lagoon by the 19th century, has vanished.
Lerna is notable for several archaeological sites, including an Early Bronze Age structure known as House of the Tiles, dating to the Early Helladic period II (2500–2300 BC).Melia (consort of Inachus)
In Greek mythology, according to the mythographer Apollodorus, the Oceanid nymph Melia was the mother of culture hero Phoroneus, and Aegialeus, by her brother Inachus, the river-god of Argos. According to the Latin mythographer Hyginus however, Inachus fathered Phoroneus by an Oceanid nymph named Argia. According to Argive tradition, Phoroneus was the first man, or first inhabitant of Argos, who lived during the time of the Great Flood, associated with Deucalion.Melia was also said to have been the mother, by Inachus, of Mycene, the wife of Arestor, and eponym of Mycenae. Melia was also perhaps considered to be the mother, by Inachus, of Io, the ancestress, by Zeus, of the Greek dynasties of Argos, Thebes, and Crete.The consort of Apollo, who was an important cult figure at Thebes, was also said to be a daughter of Oceanus named Melia.Nafplia
Nafplia was one of the provinces of the Argolis Prefecture, Greece. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Nafplio and Epidaurus. It was abolished in 2006.Regions of ancient Greece
The regions of ancient Greece were areas identified by the ancient Greeks as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world. These regions are described in the works of ancient historians and geographers, and in the legends and myths of the ancient Greeks.
Conceptually, there is no clear theme to the structure of these regions. Some, particularly in the Peloponnese, can be seen primarily as distinct geo-physical units, defined by physical boundaries such as mountain ranges and rivers. These regions retained their identity, even when the identity of the people living there changed during the Greek Dark Ages (or at least, was conceived by the Greeks to have changed). Conversely, the division of central Greece between Boeotia, Phocis, Doris and the three parts of Locris, cannot be understood as a logical division by physical boundaries, and instead seems to follow ancient tribal divisions. Nevertheless, these regions also survived the upheaval of the Greek Dark Ages, showing that they had acquired less political connotations. Outside the Peloponnese and central Greece, geographical divisions and identities did change over time suggesting a closer connection with tribal identity. Over time however, all the regions also acquired geo-political meanings, and political bodies uniting the cities of a region (such as the Arcadian League) became common in the Classical period.
These traditional sub-divisions of Greece form the basis for the modern system of regional units of Greece. However, there are important differences, with many of the smaller ancient regions not represented in the current system. To fully understand the ancient history of Greece therefore requires more detailed description of the ancient regions.Saronic Gulf
The Saronic Gulf (Greek: Σαρωνικός κόλπος, Saronikós kólpos) or Gulf of Aegina in Greece is formed between the peninsulas of Attica and Argolis and forms part of the Aegean Sea. It defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth, being the eastern terminus of the Corinth Canal, which cuts across the isthmus.Tiryns
Tiryns or (Ancient Greek: Τίρυνς; Modern Greek: Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archaeological site in Argolis in the Peloponnese, and the location from which mythical hero Heracles performed his 12 labors.
Tiryns was a hill fort with occupation ranging back seven thousand years, from before the beginning of the Bronze Age. It reached its height between 1400 and 1200 BC, when it was one of the most important centers of the Mycenaean world, and in particular in Argolis. Its most notable features were its palace, its cyclopean tunnels and especially its walls, which gave the city its Homeric epithet of "mighty walled Tiryns". Tiryns is linked with the myths surrounding Heracles, as the city was the residence of the hero during his labors, and some sources even cite it as his birthplace.The famous megaron of the palace of Tiryns has a large reception hall, the main room of which had a throne placed against the right wall and a central hearth bordered by four Minoan-style wooden columns that served as supports for the roof. Two of the three walls of the megaron were incorporated into an archaic temple of Hera.
The site went into decline at the end of the Mycenaean period, and was completely deserted by the time Pausanias visited in the 2nd century AD. This site was excavated by Heinrich Schliemann in 1884–1885, and is the subject of ongoing excavations by the German Archaeological Institute at Athens and the University of Heidelberg. In 1300 BC the citadel and lower town had a population of 10,000 people covering 20–25 hectares. Despite the destruction of the palace in 1200 BC the city population continued the increase and by 1150 BC it had a population of 15,000 people.Tiryns was recognized as a World Heritage Site in 1999.Troezen
Troezen (, homophone of treason; ancient Greek: Τροιζήν, modern Greek: Τροιζήνα [tri'zina]) is a small town and a former municipality in the northeastern Peloponnese, Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Troizinia-Methana, of which it is a municipal unit. It is part of the Islands regional unit.Troezen is located southwest of Athens, across the Saronic Gulf, and a few miles south of Methana. The seat of the former municipality (pop. 6,507) was in Galatas. Before 2011, Troizina was part of the former Piraeus Prefecture (in antiquity it was part of Argolis). The municipality had a land area of 190.697 km². Its largest towns and villages are Galatás (pop. 2,195 in 2011), Kalloní (pop. 669), Troizína (pop. 673), Taktikoúpoli (250), Karatzás (287), Dryópi (239), Ágios Geórgios (228), and Agía Eléni (159). There are numerous smaller settlements.