Argentines

Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; Spanish: argentinos; feminine argentinas) are people identified with country of Argentina. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Argentines, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Argentine.

Argentina is a multiethnic and multilingual society, home to people of various ethnic, religious, and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. As a result, Argentines do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance to Argentina. Aside from the indigenous population, nearly all Argentines or their ancestors immigrated within the past five centuries. In fact, among countries in the world that have received the most immigrants in modern history, Argentina, with 6.6 million, ranks second to the United States (27 million), and ahead of other immigrant destinations such as Canada, Brazil and Australia.[10][11]

According to the 2010 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 40,091,359 inhabitants, of which 1,805,957 or 4.6%, were born abroad. The country has long had one of Latin America's lowest growth rates, estimated in 2008 to be 0.917% annually, with a birth rate of 16.32 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.54 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants.[12] It also enjoys a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Strikingly, though, its fertility rate is still nearly twice as high (2.3 children per woman) as that in Spain or Italy, despite comparable religiosity figures.[13][14] The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 76 years.[15]

Argentines
Argentinos
Total population
c. 44 million
Regions with significant populations
 Argentina        43 million[1]
Diaspora totalc. 800,000
 Spain72,190[2]–256,071[3][a]
 United States196,095[5]
 Chile85,724[6]
 Italy74,470[5]
 Israel48,312[7]
 Brazil42,202[8]
 Uruguay22,743[7]
 Canada19,210[7]
 Australia14,190[7]
 Mexico13,696[7]
 France11,899[7]
 United Kingdom10,200[7]
Languages
Spanish
(Rioplatense dialect, Cordobés dialect)
Religion
Related ethnic groups
Other Latin Americans
(especially Paraguayans and Uruguayans)

Ethnic groups

Overview

Argentina is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic backgrounds. Argentina is, along with other areas of new settlement like the United States, Canada, Australia, or Brazil, a melting pot of different peoples.[16]

In the mid-19th century a large wave of immigration started to arrive in Argentina due to new Constitutional policies that encouraged immigration, and issues in the countries the immigrants came from such as wars, poverty, hunger, famines, pursuit of a better life, among other reasons. The main immigration sources were from Europe, the countries from the Near and Middle East, Russia and Japan. Eventually Argentina became the second country that received the most immigrants in the world, only second to the United States.

Therefore, most Argentines are of European descent, and are either descendants of colonial-era settlers and/or of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe, with about 86% of the population being of ethnic European descent.[17]

The most common ethnic groups are Italian and Spanish (including Galicians and Basques). It is estimated that up to 25 million Argentines, up to 60% of the total population, have Italian ancestry, wholly or in part.[18] There are also Germanic, Slavic, British and French populations.[19] Smaller Jewish, Native, Arab, Asian, Gypsy and African communities contribute to the melting pot.

Recent decades immigration includes mainly Paraguayans, Bolivians and Peruvians, among other Latin Americans, Eastern Europeans, Africans and Asians.[20][21]

DNA genetics studies

  • Homburguer et al., 2015, PLOS One Genetics: 67% European, 28% Amerindian, 4% African and 1,4% Asian.[22]
  • Avena et al., 2012, PLOS One Genetics: 65% European, 31% Amerindian, and 4% African.[23]
    • Buenos Aires Province: 76% European and 24% others.
    • South Zone (Chubut Province): 54% European and 46% others.
    • Northeast Zone (Misiones, Corrientes, Chaco & Formosa provinces): 54% European and 46% others.
    • Northwest Zone (Salta Province): 33% European and 67% others.
  • Oliveira, 2008, on Universidade de Brasília: 60% European, 31% Amerindian and 9% African.[24]
  • National Geographic: 52% European, 27% Amerindian ancestry, 9% African and 9% others.[25]

Criollo Argentines

A large majority of Argentines have at least partial Criollo origin (i.e., descendants of the Spaniards who settled Argentina during colonial times). Many of these intermarried with local Amerindian populations and later waves of European migrants, primarily from Italy and Spain.

European Argentines

Argentines of European descent constitute the majority of Argentina's population. Ethnic Europeans include the Argentine descendants of colonists from Spain during the colonial period prior to 1810, and mainly of immigrants from Europe in the great immigratory wave from the mid 19th century to the mid 20th century. Although a named category "Argentines of European descent" is not officially used, and no official census data exist, some international sources claim the European component of the population to be as low as 81.9%,[26] to as high as 96%[27] of Argentina's population.

The most numerous immigrant European communities are: Italians (62.5% of the population have some degree of Italian descent),[28] Spaniards (including Basques, Asturians and Galicians), Germans, Scandinavians (mainly Danes and Swedes), Slavs (including Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Czechs, Bulgarians, Slovenes, Macedonians and Croats), Finns, the French (including francophone Basques), the Irish, Portuguese, the Dutch among others in smaller number.

Arab Argentines

Arabs and Argentines with partial Arab ancestry comprise around 4.2%[26] of Argentina's population. They represent about 3.2 million people, whose ancestry traces back to any of various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity, originating mainly from what is now Syria and Lebanon. Due to the fact that many Arab countries were under control of the Ottoman Empire by the time the large immigration wave took place, most Arabs entered the country with Turkish passports, and so they are colloquially referred to as los turcos.

Native Argentines

Contemporary Native cultures are represented in the country mainly by the Mapuche, Kolla, Wichí and Toba peoples. According to the provisional data of INDEC's Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples (ECPI) 2004 – 2005, 600,329 Natives (about 1.49% of the total population) reside in Argentina. The most numerous of these communities are the Mapuches, who live mostly in the south, the Kollas and Wichís, from the northwest, and the Tobas, who live mostly in the northeast.[19] Some Mestizo population may identify with Native ethnicity.

Mestizo Argentines

Within the population totals, there may be an imprecise amount of mixed Mestizo population. In one of the most comprehensive genetic studies involving the population of Argentina, 441 Argentines from across the North East, North West, Southern, and Central provinces (especially the urban conglomeration of Buenos Aires) of the country, it was observed that the sample population comprised on average of 65% European, followed by 31% Amerindian, and finally 4% of African ancestry; however, this study was unweighted and meant to be a representation of the diversity of Argentine DNA rather than a demonstration of the average ethnic composition of the country. It was also found there were great differences in the ancestry amongst Argentines as one traveled across the country. A study that attempted to find the average Argentine ancestry by Daniel Corach by weighing the population of various regions gave a significantly higher estimate of European ancestry at 78.5% of the average Argentine's autosomal DNA.[29]

Afro-Argentines

Genetic studies carried out in 2005 showed that the average level of African genetic contribution in the population of Buenos Aires is 2.2%, but that this component is concentrated in 10% of the population who display notably higher levels of African ancestry. Blacks, Mulattos (mixed Black and European ancestry) and Zambos (mixed Black and Native ancestry) in Argentina might be about 67,000 people; this figure includes 53,000 direct descendants from slaves, plus 12,000–15,000 Caboverdian Mulatto immigrants and their descendants, who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s. With constant wars in the 19th century, spread of diseases like the yellow fever, thousands of immigrants from Europe arriving to Argentine soil, and most black women intermarrying with them; noting that their populations were already low, the Afro-Argentine population faded into oblivion.

A new wave of Black immigration started in the 1990s, from African countries (Cape Verde, Nigeria, Senegal, Angola, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Ghana, Sierra Leone, etc.).In recent years Africa Vive, an organization that helps to keep alive Afro-Argentine heritage, calculates that there are between 1 and 2 million Afro-descendants in Argentina.

Asian Argentines

Argentines of Asian ancestry are defined as either born within Argentina, or born elsewhere and later to become a citizen or resident of Argentina. Asian Argentines settled in Argentina in large numbers during several waves of immigration in the 20th century. Primarily living in their own neighbourhoods in Buenos Aires, many currently own their own businesses of varying sizes – largely textiles, grocery stores, and buffet-style restaurants. The small Asian Argentine population has generally kept a low profile, and is accepted by greater Argentine society.

The first Argentines of Asian descent were a small group of Japanese immigrants, mainly from the Okinawa prefecture, which came in the period between the early and mid 20th century. In the 1960s, Koreans began to arrive, and in the 1980s, Taiwanese immigrants. The 1990s brought the largest so far wave of Asian immigration to Argentina, from mainland Chinese immigrants, eventually becoming the 4th largest foreigner community in 2013, after Paraguayans, Bolivians, and Peruvians.[20]

Languages

Although Spanish is dominant, being the national language spoken by virtually all Argentines, the spoken languages of Argentina number at least 40. Languages spoken by at least 100,000 Argentines include Amerindian languages such as Southern Quechua, Guaraní and Mapudungun, and immigrant languages such as German, Italian, or Levantine Arabic.

Two native languages are extinct (Abipón and Chané), while some others are endangered, spoken by elderly people whose descendants do not speak the languages[30] (such as Vilela, Puelche, Tehuelche and Selknam).

There are also other communities of immigrants that speak their native languages, such as the Chinese language spoken by at least half of the over 60,000 Chinese immigrants (mostly in Buenos Aires) and an Occitan-speaking community in Pigüé, Buenos Aires Province. Welsh is also spoken by over 35,000 people in the Chubut Province. This includes a dialect called Patagonian Welsh, which has developed since the start of the Welsh settlement in Argentina in 1865.

Religion

A majority of the population of Argentina is Christian. According to CONICET survey on creeds, about 76.5% of Argentines are Roman Catholic, 11.3% religiously indifferent, 9% Protestant (with 7.9% in Pentecostal denominations), 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, and 0.9% Mormons.[31]

Although Jews account for less than 1% of Argentina's population, Buenos Aires has the second largest population of Jews in the Americas, second only to New York City. Argentina also has the largest Muslim minority in Latin America (see Islam in Argentina).

Emigration

Most Argentines outside Argentina are people who have migrated from the middle and upper middle classes. According to official estimates there are 600,000 worldwide Argentine, according to estimates by the International Organization for Migration are about 806,369 since 2001. It is estimated that their descendants would be around 1,900,000. The first wave of emigration occurred during the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983, with principally to Spain, USA, Mexico and Venezuela. During the 1990s, due to the abolition of visas between Argentina and the United States, thousands of Argentines emigrated to the North American country. The last major wave of emigration occurred during the 2001 crisis, mainly to Europe, especially Spain, although there was also an increase in emigration to neighboring countries, particularly Brazil, Chile and Paraguay.

Europe

The rate of Argentine emigration to Europe (especially to Spain and Italy[32]) peaked in the late 1970s and early 1980s and is noteworthy.[33] Spain and Italy have the largest Argentine communities in Europe, however, there are also important communities in France, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Americas

The most popular immigration destinations in the Americas are: the United States, Mexico and Canada, and to a lesser degree, South America (mostly to Uruguay and Brazil): Chile, Paraguay and Bolivia, while other communities settled in Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Costa Rica.

Middle East

Israel is home to the largest Argentine diaspora group in Asia.

Oceania

In Oceania, Australia has the largest Argentine community, followed by New Zealand.

See also

References

  1. ^ There are two different groupings for Spanish citizens with Argentine origin. 256,071 is the size of the population in Spain who were born in Argentina (including those with dual Spanish citizenship). 72,041 is the size of the foreign population in Spain with Argentine citizenship (thus, no Spanish citizenship).[3][4]
  1. ^ "United Nations population prospects"(PDF) 2015 revision
  2. ^ "TablaPx". www.ine.es.
  3. ^ a b "Población (españoles/extranjeros) por País de Nacimiento, sexo y año". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  4. ^ "Población extranjera por Nacionalidad, comunidades, Sexo y Año". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Emigrantes de Argentina según país de destino (2017)". 2017.
  6. ^ "Gobierno cifra en más de un millón el número de inmigrantes que están en Chile" [Government figures are in, more than one million immigrants are in Chile]. La Tercera (in Spanish). 4 April 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Perfil migratorio de Argentina 2012 [Migratory profile of Argentina 2012] (PDF). Buenos Aires: International Organization for Migration. 2012. p. 184. ISBN 978-92-9068-657-6. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  8. ^ "EXCLUSIVO: OS NÚMEROS EXATOS E ATUALIZADOS DE ESTRANGEIROS NO BRASIL". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  9. ^ Religion in Latin America: Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region (PDF). Pew Research Center. 13 November 2014. pp. 14, 162, 164. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  10. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 10 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2007.
  11. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 14 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2011.
  12. ^ "Proyecciones provinciales de población por sexo y grupos de edad 2001–2015" (pdf). Gustavo Pérez (in Spanish). INDEC. p. 16. Retrieved 2008-06-24.
  13. ^ "PRB" (PDF).
  14. ^ UN Demographic Yearbook, 2007
  15. ^ "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) | Data | Table". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
  16. ^ "Enrique Oteiza and Susana Novick maintain that "Argentina since the 19th century has become, as have Australia, Canada and USA, a 'land of immigrants', meaning a society formed by massive immigration from a minute native population". (Oteiza, Enrique; Novick, Susana. Inmigración y derechos humanos. Política y discursos en el tramo final del menemismo Archived 31 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. [en línea]. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 2000 [Citado FECHA]. (IIGG Documentos de Trabajo, Nº 14). Available on: http://www.iigg.fsoc.uba.ar/docs/dt/dt14.pdf)]; "The Brazilian anthropologist Darcy Ribeiro places Argentina in a group of 'transplanted countries' with Uruguay, Canada, and United States. (Ribeiro, Darcy. Las Américas y la Civilización (1985). Buenos Aires: EUDEBA, pp. 449 ss.); The Argentine historian José Luis Romero defines Argentina as a 'flood country'". (Romero, José Luis. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», en La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos, Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64). (in Spanish)
  17. ^ "Argentina, at worldstatesmen.org". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  18. ^ "Travelocity Travel: Vacations, Cheap Flights, Airline Tickets & Airfares". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  19. ^ a b "INDEC".
  20. ^ a b "En la última década se radicaron en el país 800.000 extranjeros". La Nación (in Spanish). 16 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  21. ^ Comisión de apoyo a refugiados y migrantes (CAREF): Los migrantes de Europa del Este y Central en el Área Metropolitana 1999-2002 Archived 3 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  22. ^ Homburger; et al. (2015). "Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America". PLOS Genetics. 11: e1005602. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005602.
  23. ^ Avena; et al. (2012). "Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina". PLOS One. 7: e34695. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034695.
  24. ^ "O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas" (PDF). Repositorio.unb.br. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  25. ^ "Reference Populations - Geno 2.0 Next Generation". Genographic.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  26. ^ a b "Argentina". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  27. ^ "Argentina. The World Factbook. 2008". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  28. ^ Departamento de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas de la Universidad Nacional de La Matanza (14 November 2011). "Historias de inmigrantes italianos en Argentina" (in Spanish). infouniversidades.siu.edu.ar. Se estima que en la actualidad, el 90% de la población argentina tiene alguna ascendencia europea y que al menos 25 millones están relacionados con algún inmigrante de Italia.
  29. ^ "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74: 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x.
  30. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Languages of Argentina, Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  31. ^ "Encuesta CONICET sobre creencias" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  32. ^ ISRAELY/Feltre, JEFF (12 January 2003). "Argentine's reclaim Italian roots - TIME". TIME.com. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  33. ^ "Version 1". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2015.

External links

Afro-Argentines

Afro-Argentines are Argentine people of Sub-Saharan African descent. At the Argentine national census of 2010 the total population was 40,117,096, of whom 149,493 (0.37%) identified as Afro-Argentine.

The Afro-Argentine population resulting from the slave trade during the centuries of Spanish domination of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata had a major role in Argentine history. During the 18th and 19th centuries they comprised up to fifty percent of the population in some provinces, and had a deep impact on national culture. Some theories hold it that in the 19th century the Afro-Argentine population declined sharply due to several factors, such as the Argentine War of Independence(c. 1810–1818), high infant mortality rates, low numbers of married couples in this ethnic group, the Paraguayan War, cholera epidemics in 1861 and 1864, and a yellow fever epidemic in 1871. By the late 19th century the Afro-Argentine population consisted mainly of women, who mixed with the large numbers of European immigrants.Despite the fact that in the 1960s it was calculeted that Argentina owed two thirds of the volume of its population to European immigration, over 5% of Argentines state they have at least one black ancestor, and a further 20% state they do not know whether or not they have any black ancestors. Genetic studies carried out in 2005 showed that the average level of African genetic contribution in the population of Buenos Aires is 2.2%, but that this component is concentrated in 10% of the population who display notably higher levels of African ancestry. Today there is still a notable Afro-Argentine community in the Buenos Aires districts of San Telmo and La Boca. There are also quite a few African-descended Argentines in Merlo and Ciudad Evita cities, in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area.

Since 2013, November 8th has been celebrated as the National Day of Afro-Argentines and African Culture. The date was chosen to commemorate the recorded date for the death of María Remedios del Valle, a rabona and guerrilla fighter, who served with the Army of the North in the Argentine War of Independence.

Arab Argentines

Arab Argentines refers to Argentine citizens or residents whose ancestry traces back to various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity originating mainly from what is now Lebanon and Syria, but also some individuals from the twenty-two countries which comprise the Arab world such as Palestine, Egypt, and Morocco. Arab Argentines are one of the largest Arab diaspora groups in the world.

Although a highly diverse group of Argentines — in ancestral origins, religion and historic identities — Arab Argentines hold a heritage that shares common linguistic, cultural, and political traditions.

The majority of the Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background with a smaller amount of Palestinian, Egyptian and Moroccan background. The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Argentina shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language.

Asian Argentines

Asian Argentine or Asian Argentinian, refers to Argentines of Asian ancestry who are citizens or residents of Argentina. Asian-Argentines settled in Argentina in large numbers during several waves of immigration in the twentieth century. Primarily living in their own neighbourhoods in Buenos Aires, many currently own their own businesses of varying sizes – largely textiles, grocery retailing and buffet-style restaurants. The small Asian-Argentine population has generally kept a low profile, and is accepted by greater Argentine society.

Chinese Argentines

Chinese Argentines are Argentine citizens of Chinese ancestry or Chinese-born immigrants. The Chinese Argentine community is one of the fastest growing communities in Argentina. As of 2018, the community was made up of 200,000 people.

Croatian Argentines

Croatian Argentines are Argentine citizens of Croatian descent or Croatian-born people who reside in Argentina. Croats and their descendants settled in Buenos Aires, the homonymous province, Chaco, and Patagonia. Argentines of Croatian descent number over 250.000.

Dutch Argentines

Dutch Argentines are Argentine citizens of full or partial Dutch ancestry or people who emigrated from the Netherlands and reside in Argentina. Dutch immigration to Argentina has been one of many migration flows from Europe in that country, although it has not been as numerous as in other cases (they failed to account for 1% of total migration received). However, Argentina received a large contingent of Dutch since 1825. The largest community is in the city of Tres Arroyos in the south of the province of Buenos Aires.

English Argentines

English Argentines (also known as Anglo-Argentines) are citizens of Argentina, or the children of Argentine citizens brought up in Argentina, who can claim ancestry originating in England. The English settlement in Argentina (the arrival of English emigrants), took place in the period after Argentina's independence from Spain through the 19th century. Unlike many other waves of immigration to Argentina, English immigrants were not usually leaving England because of poverty or persecution, but went to Argentina as industrialists and major landowners. The United Kingdom had a strong economic influence in Argentina during the Victorian period.

However the position of English Argentines was complicated when their economic influence was finally eroded by Juan Perón's nationalisation of many British-owned companies in the 1940s and, more recently, by the Falklands War in 1982. Notable Argentines such as Presidents of Argentina Raúl Alfonsín and Carlos Pellegrini, adventurer Lucas Bridges, Huracan football club former player and president Carlos Babington and writer Jorge Luis Borges are partially of English descent.

French Argentines

French Argentines (French: Franco-Argentins; Spanish: franco-argentinos) refers to Argentine citizens of full or partial French ancestry or persons born in France who reside in Argentina. French Argentines form one of the largest ancestry groups after Italian Argentines and Spanish Argentines. Between 1857 and 1946; 261,020 French people immigrated to Argentina. Besides immigration from continental France, Argentina also received, as early as in the 1840s, immigrants with French background from neighboring countries, notably Uruguay, thus expanding the French Argentine community. In 2006, it was estimated that around 6 million Argentines had some degree of French ancestry (up to 17% of the total population back then).While Argentines of French descent make up a substantial percent of the Argentine population, they are less visible than other similarly-sized ethnic groups. This is due to the high degree of assimilation and the lack of substantial French colonies throughout the country.

German Argentine

German Argentines (German: Deutschargentinier, Spanish: germano-argentinos) are Argentine citizens of German ancestry. They are descendants of Germans who immigrated to Argentina from Germany and elsewhere in Europe. Some German Argentines originally settled in Brazil, then later immigrated to Argentina. Germany as a political entity was founded only in 1871, but immigrants from earlier dates are also considered German Argentines due to their shared ethnic heritage, language and culture. German Argentines today make up the fourth-largest ethnic group in Argentina, with over two million Volga Germans alone.German Argentines have founded German schools such as the Hölters Schule and German-language newspapers such as the Argentinisches Tageblatt ("Argentine Daily"). The five provinces with the largest numbers of inhabitants of German descent are, in order of largest German population: Córdoba, Entre Ríos, Buenos Aires, Misiones and La Pampa.

Hungarian Argentines

The presence of Hungarians in Argentina dates back to the 18th century, when a number of Hungarian Jesuit priests came to North Argentina and Paraguay and settled in Jesuit Reductions. After the fall of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 a number of Hungarian officers fled to Argentina. Among them were János Czetz, founder of the Colegio Militar de la Nación (the Argentine National Military Academy) and Alexander Asboth, who served as United States Ambassador to Argentina. Another well-known Hungarian emigrant to Argentina is László Bíró, who perfected and patented his invention, the ballpoint pen – also known as biro – after his emigration to Argentina.

Today, there are between 40,000 and 50,000 people of Hungarian descent living in Argentina, mostly in Buenos Aires. Most of them arrived in the three main emigration waves: during and after World War I, during and after World War II, and after the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was crushed by the Soviet Union. They maintain 19 associations and four registered religious communities throughout the country, the Hungarian community carries musical instruments such as Violin, which have long been used in Argentina.

Indigenous peoples in Argentina

Argentina has 35 indigenous groups or Argentine Amerindians or Native Argentines, according to the Complementary Survey of the Indigenous Peoples of 2004, in the first attempt by the government in more than 100 years to recognize and classify the population according to ethnicity. In the survey, based on self-identification or self-ascription, around 600,000 Argentines declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 1.49% of the population. The most populous of these were the Aonikenk, Kolla, Qom, Wichí, Diaguita, Mocoví, Huarpe peoples, Mapuche and Guarani In the 2010 census [INDEC], 955,032 Argentines declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 2.38% of the population. Many Argentines also claim at least one indigenous ancestor: in a recent genetic study conducted by the University of Buenos Aires, more than 56% of the 320 Argentines sampled were shown to have at least one indigenous ancestor in one parental lineage and about 11% had indigenous ancestors in both parental lineages.Jujuy Province, in the Argentine Northwest, is home to the highest percentage of households (15%) with at least one indigenous person or a direct descendant of an indigenous people; Chubut and Neuquén Provinces, in Patagonia, have upwards of 12%.

Italian Argentines

Italian Argentines (Italian: italo-argentini, Spanish: ítalo-argentinos) are Argentine-born citizens of Italian descent or Italian-born people who reside in Argentina. Italian immigration is one of the largest and central ethnic origins of modern Argentinians, together with Spanish immigration as well as the colonial population that settled previously to the major migratory movements into Argentina. It is estimated up to 25 million Argentines have some degree of Italian descent (up to 62.5% of the total population).Italians began arriving in Argentina in great numbers from 1857 to 1940, totaling 44.9% of the entire post-colonial immigrant population; more than from any other country (including Spain at 31.5%). In 1996, the population of Argentines with partial or full Italian descent numbered 15.8 million when Argentina’s population was approximately 34.5 million, meaning they consisted of 45.5% of the population. Today, the country has 25 million Italian Argentines in a total population of 40 million.Italian settlement in Argentina, along with Spanish settlement, formed the backbone of today's Argentine society. Argentine culture has significant connections to Italian culture in terms of language, customs and traditions.

Japanese Argentines

Japanese Argentines or Japanese Argentinians (Spanish: nipo-argentinos; Japanese: 日系アルゼンチン人 Nikkei Aruzenchin-jin), are Argentine citizens of Japanese ancestry, comprising Japanese immigrants and their descendants born in Argentina. Japanese migration to Argentina began in 1908 with the arrival of immigrants from Okinawa and Kagoshima. The first Japanese entered the country via Brazil, and succeeding groups of immigrants tended to reach Argentina through the neighboring nations. In the pre-war years, Japanese Argentines were concentrated in urban small businesses, especially dry cleaning and cafes in Buenos Aires ( see es: Café El Japonés) , while some worked as domestic servants, factory workers, and longshoremen. A minority of Japanese Argentines also engaged in horticulture, floriculture, and fishery. There is an important Japanese community in the city of Belén de Escobar where they settled and specialised in floriculture.

Between the 1960s and 1970s, more Japanese immigrants arrived in the country. Many were attracted by the economic opportunities in agriculture. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs there are 23,000 nikkei and 11,711 Japanese nationals in Argentina for a total of 34,711 people.

Lebanese Argentines

Lebanese Argentines refers to Argentine citizens of Lebanese descent or Lebanon-born people who reside in Argentina. Many of the Lebanese Argentines are descendants of immigrants, largely of Levantine cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity, originating from what is now Lebanon.

Although a highly diverse group of Argentines — in ancestral origins, religion and historic identities — Lebanese Argentines hold a heritage that shares common linguistic, cultural, and political traditions.

The majority of the 1,500,000 million Lebanese Argentines are Christians, with Muslims and Jews being a small minority in comparison to them. The interethnic marriage in the Lebanese community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Lebanese community in Argentina shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic, and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language.

Polish Argentine

Polish Argentines (Spanish: polaco-argentinos) are Argentine citizens of full or partial Polish ancestry or Poland-born people who reside in Argentina. Poland was the fourth largest net migrants contributor after Italy, Spain and Germany. Although it is hard to give an exact number of Polish immigrants to Argentina, as those who immigrated before 1919 carried German, Austrian or Russian passport, it is estimated that between 1921 and 1976, 169,335 Poles permanently settled in the country. Today there are 500,000 Argentines of Polish descent. The Polish minority in Argentina is both one of the most significant minorities in Argentina and one of the largest groups of Polish minority.

Scottish Argentine

Scottish Argentines are Argentine citizens of Scottish descent or Scottish-born people who reside in Argentina. A Scottish Argentine population has existed at least since 1825. There are an estimated 100,000 Argentines of Scottish ancestry, the most of any country outside the English-speaking world. Frequently, Scottish Argentines are wrongly referred to as English.

Slovene Argentines

Argentines of Slovene descent, also Slovene Argentines or Argentine Slovenes (Slovene: argentinski Slovenci) are the Slovenes residing in Argentina. According to Jernej Zupančič of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, they number around 30,000.

Spanish Argentines

Spanish settlement in Argentina, that is the arrival of Spanish emigrants in Argentina, took place first in the period before Argentina's independence from Spain, and again in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the Spanish Empire was the sole colonial power in the territories that became Argentina after the 1816 Argentine declaration of independence. Thus, before 1850, the vast majority of European settlers in Argentina were from Spain and they carried the Spanish colonial administration, including religious affairs, government, and commercial business. A substantial Spanish descended Criollo population gradually built up in the new cities, while some mixed with the indigenous populations (Mestizos), with the black slave population (Mulattoes) or with other European immigrants.

Since a great portion of the immigrants to Argentina before the mid-19th century were of Spanish descent, and a significant part of the late-19th century/early-20th century immigrants to Argentina were Spaniards, the large majority of Argentines are at least partly of Spanish ancestry. Indeed, the 20 most common surnames in Argentina are Spanish. However this prevalence and the numerous shared cultural aspects between Argentina and Spain (the Spanish language, Roman Catholicism, Criollo/Hispanic traditions) has been mitigated by massive Immigration to Argentina at the turn of the 20th century involving an overall majority of non-Spanish peoples from all over Europe. This has led to a hybrid Argentine culture which is among the most distinct from traditional Spanish culture in Latin America. Furthermore, a large proportion of Spanish immigration to Argentina during the 20th century was from the North Western region of Galicia, which has a separate language and distinct culture from other parts of Spain.

Y Wladfa

Y Wladfa (Welsh pronunciation: [ə ˈwladva], 'The Colony'); also occasionally Y Wladychfa Gymreig (Welsh pronunciation: [ə wlaˈdəχva ɡəmˈreiɡ], 'The Welsh Settlement') is a Welsh settlement in Argentina, which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia.

In the 19th and early 20th century the Argentine government encouraged emigration from Europe to populate the country outside the Buenos Aires region; between 1856 and 1875, 34 settlements of immigrants of various nationalities were established in Santa Fe and Entre Ríos. In addition to the main colony in Chubut, a smaller colony was set up in Santa Fe by 44 Welsh people who left Chubut, and another group settled at Coronel Suárez in southern Buenos Aires Province. In the early 21st century around 50,000 Patagonians could claim to be of Welsh descent.The Welsh-Argentine community is centred on Gaiman, Trelew and Trevelin. Chubut estimates the number of Patagonian Welsh speakers to be about 1,500, while other estimates put the number at 5,000.

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