Argentine Patriotic League

The Argentine Patriotic League (Liga Patriótica Argentina) was a Nacionalista paramilitary group, officially created in Buenos Aires on January 16, 1919, during the Tragic week events. Presided over by Manuel Carlés, a professor at the Military College and the Escuela Superior de Guerra, it also counted among its members the deputy Santiago G. O'Farrell (1861-1926). The League was merged into the Argentine Civic Legion in 1931.[1] The Argentine Patriotic League formed part of a larger movement of patriotic leagues active in Chile and Argentina during the early 20th century.

Argentine Patriotic League

Liga Patriótica Argentina
AbbreviationLPA
LeaderManuel Carlés
FoundedJanuary 16, 1919
Succeeded byArgentine Civic Legion
HeadquartersBuenos Aires, Argentina
IdeologyNacionalismo
Clerical fascism
Antisemitism
Political positionFar-right
Colors     Light blue
Liga Patriótica Argentina
Armed members of the Patriotic League roaming the streets of Buenos Aires.

History

Flag of Argentine Nacionalistas
Flag used by Nacionalista movements.[2] The colours represent the national colours of Argentina while the cross represents Christianity.[2]

Composed of wealthy youth, the League assaulted workers' neighborhoods, including the Jewish Once neighborhood of Buenos Aires. It received military training from members of the Argentine Armed Forces, was subsidized by important members of the oligarchy, and supported by the Church.[3] The League worked hand-in-hand with the Bonaerense police forces in the repression of social movements. Some of its members were also members of the Radical Party.[3]

It quickly extended itself throughout Argentina, on a nationalist, xenophobic, anti-Communist and anti-Semitic program. They attacked in particular Catalans (accused of being anarchists) and Jews (accused of being Bolsheviks).[3]

At its height in the early 1920s, the League's so-called brigades contained as many as 300,000 members throughout the country.[3]

The League counted with the official support of the admiral and Minister of Marine Manuel Domecq García.

The League participated to the events known as Patagonia rebelde or Patagonia Trágica (1921-1922), in Río Gallegos, during which 1,500 workers in strike were assassinated.

It also participated to José Félix Uriburu's 1930 military coup, which initiated the Infamous Decade.

References

  1. ^ Patrick Frank. Los Artistas del Pueblo: prints and workers' culture in Buenos Aires, 1917-1935. University of New Mexico Press, 2006. Pp. 206.
  2. ^ a b Sandra McGee Deutsch. Las Derechas: The Extreme Right in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, 1890-1939. Stanford University Press, 1999. Pp. 210.
  3. ^ a b c d Book review of Luis María Caterina. La liga patriótica Argentina: Un grupo de presión frente a las convulsiones sociales de la década del veinte. Buenos Aires: Corregidor. 1995. Pp. 333 (in the American Historical Review (in English)

Bibliography

  • Caterina, Luis María. 1995. La Liga Patriótica Argentina. Un grupo de presión frente a las convulsiones sociales de la década del '20. Buenos Aires, Editorial Corregidor. ISBN 978-950-05-0839-1 reseña

See also

1922 Argentine general election

The Argentine general election of 1922 was held on 2 April. There was a turnout of 55.2%.

1928 Argentine general election

The Argentine general election of 1928 was held on 1 April, with a turnout of 80.9%.

1930 Argentine coup d'état

The 1930 Argentine coup d'état, also known as the September Revolution by its supporters, involved the overthrow of the Argentine government of Hipólito Yrigoyen by forces loyal to General José Félix Uriburu. The coup took place on 6 September 1930 when Uriburu led a small detachment of troops into the capital, experiencing no substantial opposition and taking control of the Casa Rosada. Large crowds formed in Buenos Aires in support of the coup. Uriburu's forces took control of the capital and arrested Radical Civic Union supporters. There were no casualties in the coup.Uriburu's coup was supported by the Nacionalistas. Uriburu himself was part of the Nacionalista Argentine Patriotic League and had the support of a number of Nacionalista military officers. Nacionalista plans for such a coup had been developing since 1927, when politician Juan Carulla approached Uriburu for support of a coup to entrench an Argentine version of Fascist Italy's Charter of Labour. With the onset of the Great Depression in 1929 that impacted Argentina, Yrigoyen lost political support as he retrenched government services which resulted in acceleration of unemployment.In the aftermath of the coup, major changes to Argentinean politics and government took place, with Uriburu banning political parties, suspending elections, and suspending the 1853 Constitution. Uriburu proposed that Argentina be reorganized along corporatist and fascist lines.Future Argentinean President Juan Perón took part in the coup on the side of Uriburu.

Alfredo Rouillon

Alfredo J. Rouillon (1875-1951) was an entrepreneur, businessman and politician from Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. He served as mayor of Rosario from 1922 to 1923.He was the son of Bernardo Rouillon and Magdalena Vierci. Due to the early death of his father, he was educated in Switzerland.

In 1901 he married Maria Hortensia Echesortu, with whom he had nine children: Alfredo, Armando, Hortensia, Guillermo, Fernando, Stella, Elena, Ernesto, and Jorge .

His usual residence was in Moreno and Cordoba in downtown Rosario, Villa Hortensia was the family summer residence.

He served as mayor of Rosario, councilor, president of numerous commercial companies, founder of several clubs in the city of Rosario like the Jockey Club, the Club Rosarino de pelota, pioneer of aviation and communications in Argentina. He was also president of the Argentine Patriotic League, Rosario section.

During his tenure as Mayor of Rosario his friend Santos Dumont landed his airplane in the city.

Anarchism in Argentina

The Argentinian anarchist movement was the strongest such movement in South America. It was strongest between 1890 and the start of a series of military governments in 1930. During this period, it was dominated by anarchist communists and anarcho-syndicalists. The movement's theories were a hybrid of European anarchist thought and local elements, just as it consisted demographically of both European immigrant workers and native Argentinians.

Argentine Regional Workers' Federation

The Argentine Regional Workers' Federation (Spanish: Federación Obrera Regional Argentina; abbreviated FORA), founded in 1901, was Argentina's first national labor confederation. It split into two wings in 1915, the larger of which merged into the Argentine Syndicates' Union (USA) in 1922, while the smaller slowly disappeared in the 1930s.

History of Argentina

The history of Argentina can be divided into four main parts: the pre-Columbian time or early history (up to the sixteenth century), the colonial period (1530–1810), the period of nation-building (1810-1880), and the history of modern Argentina (from around 1880).

Prehistory in the present territory of Argentina began with the first human settlements on the southern tip of Patagonia around 13,000 years ago. Written history began with the arrival of Spanish chroniclers in the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516 to the Río de la Plata, which marks the beginning of Spanish occupation of this region.

In 1776 the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, an umbrella of territories from which, with the Revolution of May 1810, began a process of gradual formation of several independent states, including one called the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. With the declaration of independence on July 9, 1816 and the military defeat of the Spanish Empire in 1824, a federal state was formed in 1853-1861, known today as the Republic of Argentina.

History of Argentina (1916–30)

The period spanning from 1916 to 1930 in Argentina is known as the Radical Phase (Etapa Radical), as it began with the election of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) candidate Hipólito Yrigoyen, ending the conservative Generation of '80's domination on politics. Yrigoyen's second term, which started in 1928, was interrupted by Argentina's first military coup, which established José Félix Uriburu in power and initiated the Infamous Decade.

José Félix Uriburu

Lieutenant General José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu (July 20, 1868 – April 29, 1932) was the first de facto President of Argentina. He achieved the position through a military coup, and his tenure lasted from September 6, 1930, to February 20, 1932.

Julieta Lanteri

Julieta Lanteri (March 22, 1873 — February 25, 1932) was an Italian Argentine physician, leading freethinker, and activist for women's rights in Argentina as well as for social reform generally.

List of fascist movements by country A–F

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

Nationalist Liberation Alliance

The Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista, ALN), originally known as the Argentine Civic Legion (Legión Cívica Argentina, LCA) from 1931 to 1937, the Alliance of Nationalist Youth (Alianza de la Juventud Nacionalista, AJN) from 1937 to 1943, and then using its final name from 1943 to 1955, was a Nacionalista and fascist movement.The movement was heavily influenced by fascism, with its members utilizing the Roman salute, wearing fascist-style uniforms, and marching in military formation. The movement's declaration of principles in 1931 attacked Marxism and democracy and declared support for the creation of a corporatist state like that of Fascist Italy. It cooperated with the Argentine Fascist Party, particularly in the Córdoba region of Argentina. In Córdoba in 1935, the local militia allied with the Argentine Fascist Party and Argentine Nationalist Action to form the Frente de Fuerzas Fascistas de Córdoba, which was replaced by the National Fascist Union in 1936. In 1936, its leader General Juan Bautista Molina reorganized the militia to be based upon the organization of the Nazi Party. General Molina wanted an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.The movement called for "hierarchy and order" in society, various xenophobic and anti-Semitic themes, and the demand for "social justice" and "revolutionary" land reform to destroy the "oligarchy" in Argentina. Juan Bautista Molina wanted the creation of an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.It was violently anti-Semitic, with its journal Combate issuing a "commandment" to its members: "War against the Jew. Hatred towards the Jew. Death to the Jew."

Nicolás Repetto

Nicolás Repetto (21 October 1871 - 29 November 1965) was an Argentine physician and leader of the Socialist Party of Argentina.

Patriotic League

Patriotic League may refer to:

Patriotic League (Bosnia and Herzegovina), a Bosnian paramilitary unit of the Yugoslav Wars

Patriotic League (Estonia), a political movement during the mid-1930s

Patriotic Leagues (Southern Cone) nationalistic paramilitary groups active in Argentina and Chile in early 20th centuryArgentine Patriotic League

Patriotic Leagues (Southern Cone)

The Patriotic Leagues (Spanish: Ligas patrióticas) were nationalistic political groups in Argentina and Chile active from the 1910s to the 1930s. The Patriotic Leagues were characterized by actions against foreigners and opposition towards labour movements. They were often constituted as paramilitary groups or secret societies.

Teatro Independencia

The Teatro Independencia ("Independence Theatre") is the premier performing arts venue in Mendoza, Argentina.

Vicente Gallo

Vicente Gallo (October 3, 1873 – June 3, 1942) was an Argentine lawyer, academic and politician of the Radical Civic Union.

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