Ares

Ares (/ˈɛəriːz/; Ancient Greek: Ἄρης, Áres [árɛːs]) is the Greek god of war. He is one of the Twelve Olympians, the son of Zeus and Hera.[1] In Greek literature, he often represents the physical or violent and untamed aspect of war, in contrast to his sister, the armored Athena, whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship.[2]

The Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, "overwhelming, insatiable in battle, destructive, and man-slaughtering."[3] His sons Phobos (Fear) and Deimos (Terror) and his lover, or sister, Enyo (Discord) accompanied him on his war chariot.[4] In the Iliad, his father Zeus tells him that he is the god most hateful to him.[5] An association with Ares endows places and objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality.[6] His value as a war god is placed in doubt: during the Trojan War, Ares was on the losing side, while Athena, often depicted in Greek art as holding Nike (Victory) in her hand, favoured the triumphant Greeks.[3]

Ares plays a relatively limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are often alluded to.[7] When Ares does appear in myths, he typically faces humiliation.[8] He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, who was married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship.[9] The most famous story related to Ares and Aphrodite shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband's device.[10]

The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars,[11] who as a father of the Roman people was given a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion as a guardian deity. During the Hellenization of Latin literature, the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Roman writers under the name of Mars. Greek writers under Roman rule also recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares. Thus in the classical tradition of later Western art and literature, the mythology of the two figures later became virtually indistinguishable.

Ares
God of war
Ares Canope Villa Adriana b
Statue of Ares from Hadrian's Villa
AbodeMount Olympus, Thrace, Macedonia, Thebes, Sparta & Mani
SymbolsSword, spear, shield, helmet, chariot, flaming torch, dog, boar, vulture
Personal information
ConsortAphrodite and various others
ChildrenErotes (Eros and Anteros), Phobos, Deimos, Phlegyas, Harmonia, Enyalios, Thrax, Oenomaus, Amazons and Adrestia
ParentsZeus and Hera
SiblingsAeacus, Angelos, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Dionysus, Eileithyia, Enyo, Eris, Ersa, Hebe, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Heracles, Hermes, Minos, Pandia, Persephone, Perseus, Rhadamanthus, the Graces, the Horae, the Litae, the Muses, the Moirai
Roman equivalentMars
Norse equivalentTýr
Hinduism equivalentKartikeya

Names

The etymology of the name Ares is traditionally connected with the Greek word ἀρή (arē), the Ionic form of the Doric ἀρά (ara), "bane, ruin, curse, imprecation".[12][13] There may also be a connection with the Roman god of war, Mars, via hypothetical Proto-Indo-European *M̥rēs; compare Ancient Greek μάρναμαι (marnamai), "I fight, I battle".[14] Walter Burkert notes that "Ares is apparently an ancient abstract noun meaning throng of battle, war."[15] R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name.[16]

The earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek 𐀀𐀩, a-re, written in the Linear B syllabic script.[17][18][19]

The adjectival epithet, Areios, was frequently appended to the names of other gods when they took on a warrior aspect or became involved in warfare: Zeus Areios, Athena Areia, even Aphrodite Areia. In the Iliad, the word ares is used as a common noun synonymous with "battle."[3]

Inscriptions as early as Mycenaean times, and continuing into the Classical period, attest to Enyalios as another name for the god of war.[n 1]

Character, origins, and worship

S03 06 01 020 image 2561
Vatican, Rome, Italy. Statue of Ares, Scopas's influence. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

Ares was one of the Twelve Olympians in the archaic tradition represented by the Iliad and Odyssey. Zeus expresses a recurring Greek revulsion toward the god when Ares returns wounded and complaining from the battlefield at Troy:

Then looking at him darkly Zeus who gathers the clouds spoke to him:
"Do not sit beside me and whine, you double-faced liar.
To me you are the most hateful of all gods who hold Olympus.
Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart, wars and battles.
...
And yet I will not long endure to see you in pain, since
you are my child, and it was to me that your mother bore you.
But were you born of some other god and proved so ruinous
long since you would have been dropped beneath the gods of the bright sky."[22]

This ambivalence is expressed also in the Greeks' association of Ares with the Thracians, whom they regarded as a barbarous and warlike people.[23] Thrace was Ares's birthplace, his true home, and his refuge after the affair with Aphrodite was exposed to the general mockery of the other gods.[n 2]

A late-6th-century BC funerary inscription from Attica emphasizes the consequences of coming under Ares's sway:

Stay and mourn at the tomb of dead Kroisos
Whom raging Ares destroyed one day, fighting in the foremost ranks.[24]

Ares in Sparta

In Sparta, Ares was viewed as a model soldier: his resilience, physical strength, and military intelligence were unrivaled. An ancient statue, representing the god in chains, suggests that the martial spirit and victory were to be kept in the city of Sparta. That the Spartans admired him is indicative of the cultural divisions that existed between themselves and other Greeks, especially the Athenians (see Pelopponesian War).

Ares in the Arabian Peninsula

Ares was also worshipped by the inhabitants of Tylos. It is not known if he was worshipped in the form of an Arabian god (or which one) or if he was worshipped in his Greek form.[25]

Ares in the Scythians

According to Herodotus' Histories, the Scythians worshipped a god he equated with the Greek Ares; unlike most other Scythian gods, he does not offer the indigenous name for this deity. While ranking beneath Tabiti, Api and Papaios in the divine hierarchy, this god was apparently worshipped differently from other Scythian gods, with statues and complex altars devoted to him. This type of worship is noted to be present among the Alans.[26]

Noting how Greek mythological Amazons are devotees of Ares and most likely based on Scythian warriors, some researchers have considered the possibility that a Scythian warrior women cult of this deity existed.[27] Others have also posited that the "Sword of Mars" alludes to the Huns having adopted this deity.[28]

Attributes

The birds of Ares (Ornithes Areioi) were a flock of feather-dart-dropping birds that guarded the Amazons' shrine of the god on a coastal island in the Black Sea.[29]

Cult and ritual

Although Ares received occasional sacrifice from armies going to war, the god had a formal temple and cult at only a few sites.[30] At Sparta, however, each company of youths sacrificed a puppy to Enyalios before engaging in ritual fighting at the Phoebaeum.[n 3] The chthonic night-time sacrifice of a dog to Enyalios became assimilated to the cult of Ares.[32]

Just east of Sparta stood an archaic statue of Ares in chains, to show that the spirit of war and victory was to be kept in the city.[n 4]

The Temple of Ares in the agora of Athens, which Pausanias saw in the second century AD, had been moved and rededicated there during the time of Augustus. Essentially, it was a Roman temple to the Augustan Mars Ultor.[30] From archaic times, the Areopagus, the "mount of Ares" at some distance from the Acropolis, was a site of trials. Paul the Apostle later preached about Christianity there. Its connection with Ares, perhaps based on a false etymology, is etiological myth. A second temple to Ares has been located at the archaeological site of Metropolis in what is now Western Turkey.[34]

Attendants

Deimos ("Terror" or "Dread"), and Phobos ("Fear"), are his companions in war.[35] According to Hesiod, they were also his children, born to him by Aphrodite.[36] Eris, the goddess of discord, or Enyo, the goddess of war, bloodshed, and violence, was considered the sister[37] and companion of the violent Ares. In at least one tradition, Enyalius, rather than another name for Ares, was his son by Enyo.[38]

Ares may also be accompanied by Kydoimos, the demon of the din of battle; the Makhai ("Battles"); the "Hysminai" ("Acts of manslaughter"); Polemos, a minor spirit of war, or only an epithet of Ares, since it has no specific dominion; and Polemos's daughter, Alala, the goddess or personification of the Greek war-cry, whose name Ares uses as his own war-cry. Ares's sister Hebe ("Youth") also draws baths for him.

According to Pausanias, local inhabitants of Therapne, Sparta, recognized Thero, "feral, savage," as a nurse of Ares.[39]

Consorts and children

Areopagus from the Acropolis
The Areopagus as viewed from the Acropolis.

The union of Ares and Aphrodite created the gods Eros, Anteros, Phobos, Deimos, Harmonia, and Adrestia. While Eros's and Anteros's godly stations favored their mother, Adrestia preferred to emulate her father, often accompanying him to war.[40] Other versions include Alcippe as one of his daughters.

Upon one occasion, Ares incurred the anger of Poseidon by slaying his son, Halirrhothius, because he had raped Alcippe, a daughter of the war-god. For this deed, Poseidon summoned Ares to appear before the tribunal of the Olympic gods, which was held upon a hill in Athens. Ares was acquitted. This event is supposed to have given rise to the name Areopagus (or Hill of Ares), which afterward became famous as the site of a court of justice.[41]

Accounts tell of Cycnus (Κύκνος) of Macedonia, a son of Ares who was so murderous that he tried to build a temple with the skulls and the bones of travellers. Heracles slaughtered this abominable monstrosity, engendering the wrath of Ares, whom the hero wounded in conflict.[42]

List of Ares's consorts and children

Comparative table of Ares' family
Divine Consorts Children Mortal Consorts Children
Aphrodite Phobos Aerope • Aeropus
Deimos Aglauros Alcippe
Harmonia[43] Althaea Meleager (possibly)
Adrestia Anchiroe Sithon (possibly)
Eros (part of the Erotes) Astynome Diocles
Anteros (part of the Erotes) Astyoche, daughter of Actor Ascalaphus
Himeros (part of the Erotes) Ialmenus
Pothos (part of the Erotes) Atalanta• Parthenopaeus (possibly)
Calliope (Muse) Edonus (possibly) Caldene, daughter of Pisidus Solymus (possibly)
Mygdon Chryse or Phlegyas
• Odomantus (possibly) Dotis
Biston (possibly) Critobule • Pangaeus[44]
Terpsichore (Muse) Demonice Euenus
Eos *no offspring mentioned Molus
Enyo Enyalius Pylus
Erinys of Telphusa (unnamed) • Dragon of Thebes Thestius
Persephone *wooed her unsuccessfully Pisidice
Unknown Nike Dormothea • Stymphelus[45]
Eurythoe the Danaid • Oenomaus
Semi-divine Consorts Children Helice • Strymon
Aegina Sinope (possibly)[46] Leodoce (?)[47] no known offspring
Callirrhoe, daughter of Nestus • Biston (possibly) Otrera Antiope
• Edonus (possibly) Hippolyta
• Odomantus (possibly) Melanippe
Cleobula • Cycnus[48] Penthesilea
Cyrene[49] • Crestone[50] Parnassa • Sinope (possibly)[46]
Diomedes of Thrace Pelopia or • Cycnus
Harmonia • The Amazons Pyrene Lycaon (possibly)
Harpinna, daughter of Asopus Oenomaus Phylonome Lycastus
Sterope (Pleiad) • Parrhasius
Evenus Protogeneia Oxylus
Tanagra, daughter of Asopus *competed with Hermes over her Reate • Medrus[48]
Tereine, daughter of Strymon Thrassa, mother of Polyphonte Sete, sister of Rhesus • Bithys, eponym of the Thracian tribe of Bithyae[51]
Thebe *no offspring mentioned Theogone • Tmolus[52]
Triteia Melanippus Thracia Ismarus[48]
Unknown woman • Alcon of Thrace[53]
Unknown woman • Calydon[48]
Unknown woman • Chalyps, eponym of the Chalybes[54]
Unknown woman • Cheimarrhoos[55]
Unknown woman Dryas
Unknown woman Evadne[48]
Unknown woman Hyperbius
Unknown woman Lycus of Libya[56]
Unknown woman Nisos (possibly)
Unknown woman Oeagrus[57]
Unknown woman Paeon
Unknown woman • Portheus (Porthaon)
Unknown woman Tereus

Hymns to Ares

Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic 7th to 4th centuries BC)
"Ares, exceeding in strength, chariot-rider, golden-helmed, doughty in heart, shield-bearer, Saviour of cities, harnessed in bronze, strong of arm, unwearying, mighty with the spear, O defence of Olympus, father of warlike Victory, ally of Themis, stern governor of the rebellious, leader of righteous men, sceptred King of manliness, who whirl your fiery sphere among the planets in their sevenfold courses through the aether wherein your blazing steeds ever bear you above the third firmament of heaven; hear me, helper of men, giver of dauntless youth! Shed down a kindly ray from above upon my life, and strength of war, that I may be able to drive away bitter cowardice from my head and crush down the deceitful impulses of my soul. Restrain also the keen fury of my heart which provokes me to tread the ways of blood-curdling strife. Rather, O blessed one, give you me boldness to abide within the harmless laws of peace, avoiding strife and hatred and the violent fiends of death."[58]
Orphic Hymn 65 to Ares (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns 3rd century BC to 2nd century AD)
"To Ares, Fumigation from Frankincense. Magnanimous, unconquered, boisterous Ares, in darts rejoicing, and in bloody wars; fierce and untamed, whose mighty power can make the strongest walls from their foundations shake: mortal-destroying king, defiled with gore, pleased with war's dreadful and tumultuous roar. Thee human blood, and swords, and spears delight, and the dire ruin of mad savage fight. Stay furious contests, and avenging strife, whose works with woe embitter human life; to lovely Kyrpis [Aphrodite] and to Lyaios [Dionysos] yield, for arms exchange the labours of the field; encourage peace, to gentle works inclined, and give abundance, with benignant mind."

Mythology

Founding of Thebes

One of the roles of Ares was expressed in mainland Greece as the founding myth of Thebes: Ares was the progenitor of the water-dragon slain by Cadmus, for the dragon's teeth were sown into the ground as if a crop and sprang up as the fully armored autochthonic Spartoi. To propitiate Ares, Cadmus took as a bride Harmonia, a daughter of Ares's union with Aphrodite. In this way, Cadmus harmonized all strife and founded the city of Thebes.[59]

Ares Ludovisi Altemps Inv8602 n2
The Ludovisi Ares, Roman version of a Greek original c. 320 BC, with 17th-century restorations by Bernini

Ares and Aphrodite

In the tale sung by the bard in the hall of Alcinous,[60] the Sun-god Helios once spied Ares and Aphrodite enjoying each other secretly in the hall of Hephaestus, her husband. He reported the incident to Hephaestus. Contriving to catch the illicit couple in the act, Hephaestus fashioned a finely-knitted and nearly invisible net with which to snare them. At the appropriate time, this net was sprung, and trapped Ares and Aphrodite locked in very private embrace.[n 5]

But Hephaestus was not satisfied with his revenge, so he invited the Olympian gods and goddesses to view the unfortunate pair. For the sake of modesty, the goddesses demurred, but the male gods went to witness the sight. Some commented on the beauty of Aphrodite, others remarked that they would eagerly trade places with Ares, but all who were present mocked the two. Once the couple was released, the embarrassed Ares returned to his homeland, Thrace, and Aphrodite went to Paphos.[n 5]

In a much later interpolated detail, Ares put the young soldier Alectryon by his door to warn them of Helios's arrival as Helios would tell Hephaestus of Aphrodite's infidelity if the two were discovered, but Alectryon fell asleep on guard duty. Helios discovered the two and alerted Hephaestus. The furious Ares turned the sleepy Alectryon into a rooster which now always announces the arrival of the sun in the morning.

Ares and the giants

In one archaic myth, related only in the Iliad by the goddess Dione to her daughter Aphrodite, two chthonic giants, the Aloadae, named Otus and Ephialtes, threw Ares into chains and put him in a bronze urn, where he remained for thirteen months, a lunar year. "And that would have been the end of Ares and his appetite for war, if the beautiful Eriboea, the young giants' stepmother, had not told Hermes what they had done," she related.[61] "In this one suspects a festival of licence which is unleashed in the thirteenth month."[62]

Ares was held screaming and howling in the urn until Hermes rescued him, and Artemis tricked the Aloadae into slaying each other. In Nonnus's Dionysiaca[63] Ares also killed Ekhidnades, the giant son of Echidna, and a great enemy of the gods. Scholars have not concluded whether the nameless Ekhidnades ("of Echidna's lineage") was entirely Nonnus's invention or not.

Iliad

In the Iliad,[64] Homer represented Ares as having no fixed allegiances, rewarding courage on both sides: he promised Athena and Hera that he would fight on the side of the Achaeans (Iliad V.830–834, XXI.410–414), but Aphrodite persuaded Ares to side with the Trojans. During the war, Diomedes fought with Hector and saw Ares fighting on the Trojans' side. Diomedes called for his soldiers to fall back slowly (V.590–605).

Athene or Athena, Ares's sister, saw his interference and asked Zeus, his father, for permission to drive Ares away from the battlefield, which Zeus granted (V.711–769). Hera and Athena encouraged Diomedes to attack Ares (V.780–834). Diomedes thrust with his spear at Ares, with Athena driving it home, and Ares's cries made Achaeans and Trojans alike tremble (V.855–864). Ares fled to Mt. Olympus, forcing the Trojans to fall back.

When Hera mentioned to Zeus that Ares's son, Ascalaphus, was killed, Ares overheard and wanted to join the fight on the side of the Achaeans, disregarding Zeus's order that no Olympic god should enter the battle, but Athena stopped him (XV.110–128). Later, when Zeus allowed the gods to fight in the war again (XX.20–29), Ares was the first to act, attacking Athena to avenge himself for his previous injury. Athena overpowered him by striking Ares with a boulder (XXI.391–408).

Renaissance

In Renaissance and Neoclassical works of art, Ares's symbols are a spear and helmet, his animal is a dog, and his bird is the vulture. In literary works of these eras, Ares is replaced by the Roman Mars, a romantic emblem of manly valor rather than the cruel and blood-thirsty god of Greek mythology.

See also

Friends and counselors

Attendants

Similar deities in non-Greek cultures

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Enyalios is thought to be attested on the KN V 52 tablet as 𐀁𐀝𐀷𐀪𐀍, e-nu-wa-ri-jo.[20][21]
  2. ^ Homer Odyssey viii. 361; for Ares/Mars and Thrace, see Ovid, Ars Amatoria, book ii.part xi.585, which tells the same tale: "Their captive bodies are, with difficulty, freed, at your plea, Neptune: Venus runs to Paphos: Mars heads for Thrace."; for Ares/Mars and Thrace, see also Statius, Thebaid vii. 42; Herodotus, iv. 59, 62.
  3. ^ "Here each company of youths sacrifices a puppy to Enyalius, holding that the most valiant of tame animals is an acceptable victim to the most valiant of the gods. I know of no other Greeks who are accustomed to sacrifice puppies except the people of Colophon; these too sacrifice a puppy, a black bitch, to the Wayside Goddess".[31]
  4. ^ "Opposite this temple [the temple of Hipposthenes] is an old image of Enyalius in fetters. The idea the Lacedaemonians express by this image is the same as the Athenians express by their Wingless Victory; the former think that Enyalius will never run away from them, being bound in the fetters, while the Athenians think that Victory, having no wings, will always remain where she is".[33]
  5. ^ a b "Odyssey, 8.295". [In Robert Fagles's translation]: ... and the two lovers, free of the bonds that overwhelmed them so, sprang up and away at once, and the Wargod sped Thrace, while Love with her telltale laughter sped to Paphos ...

References

  1. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 921 (Loeb Classical Library numbering); Iliad, 5.890–896. By contrast, Ares's Roman counterpart Mars was born from Juno alone, according to Ovid (Fasti 5.229–260).
  2. ^ Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Blackwell, 1985, 2004 reprint, originally published 1977 in German), pp. 141; William Hansen, Classical Mythology: A Guide to the Mythical World of the Greeks and Romans (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 113.
  3. ^ a b c Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 169.
  4. ^ Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
  5. ^ Iliad 5.890–891.
  6. ^ Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 114–115.
  7. ^ Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114; Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 169.
  8. ^ Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114. See for instance Ares and the giants below.
  9. ^ In the Iliad, however, the wife of Hephaestus is Charis, "Grace," as noted by Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 168.
  10. ^ Odyssey 8.266–366; Hansen, Classical Mythology, pp. 113–114.
  11. ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215.
  12. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Ares". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  13. ^ ἀρή, Georg Autenrieth, A Homeric Dictionary. ἀρή. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  14. ^ μάρναμαι in Liddell and Scott.
  15. ^ Walter Burkert, Greek Religion (Harvard) 1985:pt III.2.12 p. 169.
  16. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, pp. 129–130.
  17. ^ Gulizio, Joannn. "A-re in the Linear B Tablets and the Continuity of the Cult of Ares in the Historical Period" (PDF). Journal of Prehistoric Religion. 15: 32–38.
  18. ^ Raymoure, K.A. (2012). "a-re". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean.
  19. ^ "The Linear B word a-re". Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages.
  20. ^ Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-521-29037-6. At Google Books.
  21. ^ Raymoure, K.A. "e-nu-wa-ri-jo". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean. "KN 52 V + 52 bis + 8285 (unknown)". DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo. University of Oslo. Archived from the original on 2014-03-19.
  22. ^ Iliad, Book 5, lines 798–891, 895–898 in the translation of Richmond Lattimore.
  23. ^ Iliad 13.301; Ovid, Ars Amatoria, II.10.
  24. ^ Athens, NM 3851 quoted in Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works, Introduction: I. "The Sources"
  25. ^ الاحتلال المقدوني للبحرين ص ١٢٨
  26. ^ Sulimirski, T. (1985). "The Scyths" in: Fisher, W. B. (Ed.) The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 2: The Median and Achaemenian Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20091-1. pp. 158–159.
  27. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Amazons". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  28. ^ Geary, Patrick J. (1994). "Chapter 3. Germanic Tradition and Royal Ideology in the Ninth Century: The Visio Karoli Magni". Living with the Dead in the Middle Ages. Cornell University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8014-8098-0.
  29. ^ Argonautica (ii.382ff and 1031ff; Hyginus, Fabulae 30.
  30. ^ a b Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 170.
  31. ^ Pausanias, 3.14.9.
  32. ^ "Ares". academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/9344. Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  33. ^ Pausanias, 3.15.7.
  34. ^ "City of mother goddess opens to tourism". Hurriyet Daily News. August 21, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
  35. ^ Iliad 4.436f, and 13.299f' Hesiod's Shield of Heracles 191, 460; Quintus Smyrnaeus, 10.51, etc.
  36. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 934f.
  37. ^ Wolfe, Jessica (2005). "Spenser, Homer, and the mythography of strife". Renaissance Quarterly. 58: 1220+ – via Gale General Reference Center.
  38. ^ Eustathius on Homer, 944
  39. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3. 19. 7 – 8
  40. ^ Magazine, Sabat (2018-10-15). "She Walks At Night". SABAT Magazine. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
  41. ^ Berens, E.M.: Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome, page 113. Project Gutenberg, 2007.
  42. ^ Bibliotheca 2. 5. 11 & 2. 7. 7
  43. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad B, 494, p. 80, 43 ed. Bekk. as cited in Hellanicus' Boeotica
  44. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 3. 2
  45. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 19. 1
  46. ^ a b Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 2. 946
  47. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 159
  48. ^ a b c d e Murray, John (1833). A Classical Manual, being a Mythological, Historical and Geographical Commentary on Pope's Homer, and Dryden's Aeneid of Virgil with a Copious Index. Albemarle Street, London. p. 70.
  49. ^ Bibliotheca 2. 5. 8
  50. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 499: Thrace was said to have been called Crestone after her.
  51. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Bithyai
  52. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 7. 5
  53. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 173
  54. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 2. 373
  55. ^ Scholia on Hesiod, Works and Days, 1, p. 28
  56. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, Greek and Roman Parallel Stories, 23
  57. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca XIII.428
  58. ^ Homeric Hymn to Ares.
  59. ^ Burkert, Greek Religion, p.169.
  60. ^ Odyssey 8.300
  61. ^ Iliad 5.385–391.
  62. ^ Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. p. 169.
  63. ^ Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18. 274 ff; Theoi.com, "Ekhidnades".
  64. ^ References to Ares's appearance in the Iliad are collected and quoted at www.theoi.com: Ares Myths 2
Areopagus

The Areopagus () is a prominent rock outcropping located northwest of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Its English name is the Late Latin composite form of the Greek name Areios Pagos, translated "Ares Rock" (Ancient Greek: Ἄρειος Πάγος). In classical times, it functioned as the court for trying deliberate homicide, wounding and religious matters, as well as cases involving arson or olive trees.

Ares was supposed to have been tried here by the gods for the murder of Poseidon's son Halirrhothius (a typical example of an aetiological myth).

Ares (DC Comics)

Ares (also known as Mars) is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. Based on the Greek mythological figure of the same name, he is the Greek god of war and serves as the nemesis of the superhero Wonder Woman within the DC Universe.

The character has appeared in various forms of media. Alfred Molina voiced him in the 2009 direct-to-video animated movie Wonder Woman. Ares later made his live-action debut in the 2017 film Wonder Woman, where he was portrayed by English actor David Thewlis. Thewlis make a small cameo as Ares in a flashback scene in the film Justice League.

Ares (Marvel Comics)

Ares is a fictional character, a deity appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is based on the Greek god of the same name. He first appeared in Thor (vol. 1) #129 (June 1966) and was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Ares has commonly appeared as an enemy of Thor and Hercules and starred in his own self-titled series in 2006. In 2012, Ares was ranked 39th in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers".Ares, the Greek God of War, was initially depicted as a villain in the Marvel Universe, opposing Thor, Hercules and the Avengers. Early on his influence on Earth was less direct as he created an organization known as the "Warhawks" and used them to create war on Earth.

In 2006 the character was recast to not be a villain but instead more of an antihero who simply lived for battle, any battle. He was added to the Avengers roster as one of their "heavy hitters" and showed himself to have his own "Warriors Honor" codex and not the one-dimensional villain he had been portrayed as in the past. He would later join Norman Osborn's Dark Avengers, believing that he could put his powers to good use. During the Siege storyline Ares is killed by Sentry who literally tears him apart. He is later brought back from the dead.

Ares Galaxy

Ares Galaxy is an open source peer-to-peer file sharing application that uses its own decentralized supernode/leaf network. It was spun off from the gnutella network in 2002, and is hosted on SourceForge.net. Ares Galaxy has a simple, quick access interface with a built in audio/video viewer. The latest versions also support the BitTorrent protocol and Shoutcast radio stations.

Ares I

Ares I was the crew launch vehicle that was being developed by NASA as part of the Constellation program. The name "Ares" refers to the Greek deity Ares, who is identified with the Roman god Mars. Ares I was originally known as the "Crew Launch Vehicle" (CLV).NASA planned to use Ares I to launch Orion, the spacecraft intended for NASA human spaceflight missions after the Space Shuttle was retired in 2011. Ares I was to complement the larger, unmanned Ares V, which was the cargo launch vehicle for Constellation. NASA selected the Ares designs for their anticipated overall safety, reliability and cost-effectiveness. However, the Constellation program, including Ares I was cancelled by U.S. president Barack Obama in October 2010 with the passage of his 2010 NASA authorization bill. In September 2011, NASA detailed the Space Launch System as its new vehicle for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit.

Ares V

The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) was the planned cargo launch component of the cancelled NASA Constellation program, which was to have replaced the Space Shuttle after its retirement in 2011. Ares V was also planned to carry supplies for a human presence on Mars. Ares V and the smaller Ares I were named after Ares, the Greek god of war.

The Ares V was to launch the Earth Departure Stage and Altair lunar lander for NASA's return to the Moon, which was planned for 2019. It would also have served as the principal launcher for missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, including the program's ultimate goal, a manned mission to Mars. The unmanned Ares V would complement the smaller, and human-rated Ares I rocket for the launching of the 4–6 person Orion spacecraft. Both rockets, deemed safer than the then-current Space Shuttle, would have employed technologies developed for the Apollo program, the Shuttle program, and the Delta IV EELV program. However, the Constellation program, including Ares V and Ares I was canceled in October 2010 by the NASA Authorization Act of 2010. In September 2011, NASA detailed the Space Launch System as its new vehicle for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit, while commercial space companies would provide low earth orbit access for both cargo and astronauts.

Ares Vallis

Ares Vallis is an outflow channel on Mars, named after the Greek name for Mars: Ares, the god of war; it appears to have been carved by fluids, perhaps water. The valley 'flows' northwest out of the hilly Margaritifer Terra, where the Iani Chaos depression (180 km long and 200 km wide) is connected to the beginning of Ares Vallis by a 100 km wide transition zone centered on 342.5° East (17.5 West) and 3° North. It then continues through the ancient Xanthe Terra highlands, and ends in a delta-like region of Chryse Planitia. Ares Vallis was the landing site of NASA's Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which studied a region of the valley near the border with Chryse in 1997.

Ares Vallis is in the Oxia Palus quadrangle of Mars.

It has been argued that Uzboi, Ladon, Margaritifer and Ares valles, although now separated by large craters, once comprised a single outflow channel flowing north into Chryse Planitia. The source of this outflow has been suggested as overflow from the Argyre Crater, formerly filled to the brim as a lake by channels (Surius, Dzigai, and Palacopus Valles) draining down from the south pole. If real, the full length of this drainage system would be over 8000 km, the longest known drainage path in the solar system. Under this suggestion, the extant form of the outflow channel Ares Vallis would thus be a remolding of a pre-existing structure. This long path for water flow has been named the * Uzboi-Landon-Morava (ULM) system. Water from this system may have helped to form Ares Vallis.

Research, published in January 2010, suggests that Mars had lakes, each around 20 km wide, along parts of the equator. Although earlier research showed that Mars had a warm and wet early history that has long since dried up, these lakes existed in the Hesperian Epoch, a much earlier period. Using detailed images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the researchers speculate that there may have been increased volcanic activity, meteorite impacts or shifts in Mars' orbit during this period to warm Mars' atmosphere enough to melt the abundant ice present in the ground. Volcanoes would have released gases that thickened the atmosphere for a temporary period, trapping more sunlight and making it warm enough for liquid water to exist. In this new study, channels were discovered that connected lake basins near Ares Vallis. When one lake filled up, its waters overflowed the banks and carved the channels to a lower area where another lake would form. These lakes would be another place to look for evidence of present or past life.

Arès

Arès is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France.

Children of Ares

The Children of Ares are fictional DC Comics characters who are the progeny of the DC deity character Ares/Mars, who is in turn based on the eponymous Greek/Roman deity and who has indeed sired many children in Greek mythological tales. Because Ares was historically depicted as one of the archenemies of the DC superheroine character Wonder Woman, most of his issue are frequently portrayed as her opponents, although a few would play a more benevolent supporting role in her self-titled comic book series.

Although their DC comics counterparts were never depicted as such in published comic books, Antiope and Hippolyta (the mother of Diana Prince a.k.a. Wonder Woman) are daughters of Ares in classical Greek mythology.

Constellation program

The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009. The major goals of the program were "completion of the International Space Station" and a "return to the Moon no later than 2020" with a crewed flight to the planet Mars as the ultimate goal. The program's logo reflected the three stages of the program: the Earth (ISS), the Moon, and finally Mars—while the Mars goal also found expression in the name given to the program's booster rockets: Ares (the Greek equivalent of the Roman god Mars). The technological aims of the program included the regaining of significant astronaut experience beyond low Earth orbit and the development of technologies necessary to enable sustained human presence on other planetary bodies.Constellation began in response to the goals laid out in the Vision for Space Exploration under NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. O'Keefe's successor, Michael D. Griffin, ordered a complete review, termed the Exploration Systems Architecture Study, which reshaped how NASA would pursue the goals laid out in the Vision for Space Exploration, and its findings were formalized by the NASA Authorization Act of 2005. The Act directed NASA to "develop a sustained human presence on the Moon, including a robust precursor program to promote exploration, science, commerce and US preeminence in space, and as a stepping stone to future exploration of Mars and other destinations." Work began on this revised Constellation Program, to send astronauts first to the International Space Station, then to the Moon, and then to Mars and beyond.Subsequent to the findings of the Augustine Committee in 2009 that the Constellation Program could not be executed without substantial increases in funding, on February 1, 2010, President Barack Obama announced a proposal to cancel the program, effective with the passage of the U.S. 2011 fiscal year budget. He later announced changes to the proposal in a major space policy speech at Kennedy Space Center on April 15, 2010. Obama signed the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 on October 11, which shelved the program, with Constellation contracts remaining in place until Congress would act to overturn the previous mandate. In 2011, NASA announced that it had adopted the design of its new Space Launch System.

Deimos (deity)

Deimos (Ancient Greek: Δεῖμος, pronounced [dêːmos], meaning “dread”) is the god of terror in Greek mythology. He was a son of Ares and Aphrodite, and the twin brother of Phobos; Deimos served to represent the feelings of dread that befell those in the midst of battle, while Phobos personified feelings of fear and panic. Like Phobos, Deimos served as one of Ares’ attendants, and the two of them would often accompany their father as he rode into battle in his chariot, alongside Enyo, goddess of war and bloodshed, and Eris, goddess of strife. Deimos, the smaller of Mars’ two moons, is named after this mythological figure. The god’s Roman equivalent was Formido or Metus.

Enyalius

Enyalius or Enyalios (Greek: Ἐνυάλιος) in Greek mythology is generally a son of Ares by Enyo and also a byname of Ares the god of war. Though Enyalius being a by-name of Ares is the most accepted version, in Mycenaean times Ares and Enyalius were differentiated as separate deities. Enyalius is often seen as the God of soldiers and warriors from Ares cult. On the Mycenaean Greek Linear B KN V 52 tablet, the name 𐀁𐀝𐀷𐀪𐀍, e-nu-wa-ri-jo, has been interpreted to refer to this same Enyalios.Enyalios is mentioned nine times in Homer's Iliad and in four of them it is in the same formula describing Meriones who is one of the leaders of warriors from Crete. Homer calls Ares by the epithet Enyalios in Iliad, book xx.

A scholiast on Homer declares that the poet Alcman sometimes identified Ares with Enyalius and sometimes differentiated him, and that Enyalius was sometimes made the son of Ares by Enyo and sometimes the son of Cronus and Rhea.Aristophanes (in Peace), envisages Ares and Enyalios as separate gods of war.

In Argonautica book III, lines 363-367, Jason sets the chthonic earthborn warriors fighting among themselves by hurling a boulder in their midst:

But Jason called to mind the counsels of Medea full of craft, and seized from the plain a huge round boulder, a terrible quoit of Ares Enyalius; four stalwart youths could not have raised it from the ground even a little.

The urbane Alexandrian author gives his old tale a touch of appropriate Homeric antiquity by using such an ancient epithet.

Plutarch, in Moralia (2nd century), tells of the bravery of the women of Argos, in the 5th century BC, who repulsed the attacks of kings of Sparta. The survivors erected a temple to Ares Enyalius by the road where they fell:

After the city was saved, they buried the women who had fallen in battle by the Argive road, and as a memorial to the achievements of the women who were spared they dedicated a temple to Ares Enyalius... Up to the present day they celebrate the Festival of Impudence (Hybristika) on the anniversary [of the battle], putting the women into men's tunics and cloaks and the men in women's dresses and head-coverings.

According to Pausanias (3.15.7) the Lacedaemonians believed that by chaining up Enyalius they would prevent the god from deserting Sparta. Pausanias also mentions at 3.14.9 and 3.20.2 that puppies were sacrificed to Enyalius in Sparta.

Polybius' history renders the Roman god Mars by Greek Ares but the Roman god Quirinus by Enyalius, and the same identifications are made by later writers such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus, perhaps only because it made sense that a Roman god who was sometimes confounded with Mars and sometimes differentiated should be represented in Greek by a name that was similarly sometimes equated with Ares (who definitely corresponded with Mars) and was sometimes differentiated.

Josephus in his Antiquities 4, (3)[115] states after telling the story of the Tower of Babel:

But as to the plan of Shinar, in the country of Babylonia, Hestiaeus mentions it, when he says thus: "Such of the priests as were saved, took the sacred vessels of Zeus Enyalius, and came to Shinar of Babylonia."

Enyo

Enyo (; Ancient Greek: Ἐνυώ) was a goddess of war in Classical Greek mythology. She frequently is associated with the war god Ares, as a companion, sister, wife, or perhaps, mother.

She is called the "sister of War" by Quintus Smyrnaeus, in a role closely resembling that of Eris, the embodiment of strife and discord, with Homer, in particular, representing the two as the same goddess. In some myths she is identified as the mother of the war god Enyalius as well, and in these myths, Ares is indicated as the father, however, the masculine name Enyalius or Enyalios also may be used as a title for Ares.As goddess of war, Enyo is responsible for orchestrating the destruction of cities, often accompanying Ares into battle. She is depicted as "supreme in war". During the fall of Troy, Enyo inflicted terror and bloodshed in the war, along with Eris ("Strife"), Phobos ("Fear"), and Deimos ("Dread"), the latter two being sons of Ares. She, Eris, and the two sons of Ares are depicted on the shield of Achilles.Enyo was involved in the war of the Seven Against Thebes and in Dionysus's war with the Indians as well. Enyo so delighted in warfare that she even refused to take sides in the battle between Zeus and the monster Typhon:

Eris (Strife) was Typhon's escort in the mellee, Nike (Victory) led Zeus into battle… impartial Enyo held equal balance between the two sides, between Zeus and Typhon, while the thunderbolts with booming shots revel like dancers in the sky.

The Romans identified Enyo with Bellona. She also has similarities with the Anatolian goddess Ma.

At Thebes and Orchomenos, a festival entitled Homolôïa, which was celebrated in honour of Zeus, Demeter, Athena, and Enyo, was said to have received the surname of Homoloïus from Homoloïs, a priestess of Enyo. A statue of Enyo, made by the sons of Praxiteles, stood in the temple of Ares at Athens.In Hesiod's Theogony (270–273), Enyo also was the name of one of the Graeae, three sisters who shared one eye and one tooth among them; the other sisters were Deino ("Dread") and Pemphredo ("Alarm").

Eros

In Greek mythology, Eros (UK: , US: ; Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire") is the Greek god of love. His Roman counterpart was Cupid ("desire"). Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares, and with most of his siblings, was a part of group, consisting of winged love gods. However, sometimes he is also described as one of the primordial gods, but then, he is most often identified with Phanes.

Iani Chaos

Iani Chaos is a region of chaos terrain at the south end of the outflow channel Ares Vallis, of the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars, centered at approximately ~342°E, 2°S. This is the source region of Ares Vallis. The chaotic terrain is widely believed to have formed via the removal of subsurface water or ice, resulting in flooding at the surface, and the formation of Ares Vallis. Within Iani Chaos, deposited stratigraphically above the chaotic terrain, are smooth, low-slope, intermediate-to-light-toned deposits that are rich in a hydrated mineral that is most likely gypsum as well as hematite.

List of Constellation missions

The Constellation Program was NASA's planned future human spaceflight program between 2005 and 2009, which aimed to develop a new crewed spacecraft (Orion) and a pair of launchers (Ares I and Ares V) to continue servicing the International Space Station and return to the Moon.

As of 2009, a single unmanned suborbital launch test (Ares I-X) had been flown, with crewed missions anticipated to begin between 2014 (when an unmanned mission was indeed launched) and 2017-19 (according to the independent Augustine Commission). On February 1, 2010, President Obama announced that he intended to cancel the program with the U.S. 2011 fiscal year budget. A revised proposal in April confirmed that the Orion spacecraft would be retained for future mission beyond low earth orbit, with the Ares launchers redeveloped into the Space Launch System. However, the Constellation Program itself was cancelled, with low-Earth-orbit operations transferred to the Commercial Crew Development program, which itself would not begin launches until 2018 at the earliest.

Nike (mythology)

In ancient Greek religion, Nike (; Ancient Greek: Νίκη, "Victory" [nǐːkɛː]) was a goddess who personified victory. Her Roman equivalent was Victoria.

Phobos (mythology)

Phobos (Ancient Greek: Φόβος, pronounced [pʰóbos], meaning "fear") is the personification of fear in Greek mythology. He is the offspring of Aphrodite and Ares. He was known for accompanying Ares into battle along with the ancient war goddess Enyo, the goddess of discord Eris (both sisters of Ares), and Phobos' twin brother Deimos (terror).

In Classical Greek mythology, Phobos is more of a personification of the fear brought by war and does not appear as a character in any myths. Timor or Timorus is his Roman equivalent. In Roman mythology, he has also been referred to as Pavor.

Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle

Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV), is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space launch vehicles from the components, technology and infrastructure of the Space Shuttle program. SDVs have also been part of NASA's plans several times in the past. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, NASA formally studied a cargo-only vehicle, Shuttle-C, that would have supplemented the crewed Space Shuttle in orbiting payloads.

In 2005, NASA decided to develop the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles, based in part on highly modified Shuttle components to replace the Space Shuttle, and enable exploration of the Moon and Mars. The agency also studied a third such vehicle, the Ares IV. As of April 2011, NASA's replacement vehicle for the Space Shuttle is an SDV, the Space Launch System and multiple commercial vehicles. Over the course of the 2010 two different commercial vehicles were developed that use man-rated heavy lift launcher. In the meantime NASA has continued to use the Russian Soyuz, which it also used during the Shuttle program as part of the International Space Station program.

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