Arecales

Arecales is an order of flowering plants. The order has been widely recognised only for the past few decades; until then, the accepted name for the order including these plants was Principes.

Arecales
Temporal range: 80–0 Ma
Late Cretaceous - Recent
Beetle palm with nut bunch
Areca catechu
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Arecales
Bromhead
Families
Diversity
206 genera

Taxonomy

The Cronquist system of 1981 assigned the order to the subclass Arecidae in the class Liliopsida (= monocotyledons).

The Thorne system (1992) and the Dahlgren system assigned the order to the superorder Areciflorae, also called Arecanae in the subclass Liliidae (= monocotyledons), with the single family Arecaceae.

The APG II system of 2003 recognised the order and placed it in the clade commelinids in the monocots and uses this circumscription:

This was unchanged from the APG system of 1998, although it used the spelling "commelinoids" instead of commelinids.

The APG IV system of 2016 places Dasypogonaceae in this order, after studies shown Dasypogonaceae as sister to Arecaceae.[1]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 181: 1–20, doi:10.1111/boj.12385

External links

APG III system

The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a further revision, the APG IV system.Along with the publication outlining the new system, there were two accompanying publications in the same issue of the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. The first, by Chase & Reveal, was a formal phylogenetic classification of all land plants (embryophytes), compatible with the APG III classification. As the APG have chosen to eschew ranks above order, this paper was meant to fit the system into the existing Linnaean hierarchy for those that prefer such a classification. The result was that all land plants were placed in the class Equisetopsida, which was then divided into 16 subclasses and a multitude of superorders. The second, by Haston et al., was a linear sequence of families following the APG III system (LAPG III).

This provided a numbered list to the 413 families of APG III. A linear sequence is of particular use to herbarium curators and those working on floristic works wishing to arrange their taxa according to APG III.

Alismatales

The Alismatales (alismatids) are an order of flowering plants including about 4500 species. Plants assigned to this order are mostly tropical or aquatic. Some grow in fresh water, some in marine habitats.

Alismatid monocots

Alismatid monocots (alismatids, basal monocots) is an informal name for a group of early branching (hence basal) monocots, consisting of two orders, the Acorales and Alismatales. The name has also been used to refer to the Alismatales alone. Monocots are frequently treated as three informal groupings based on their branching from ancestral monocots and shared characteristics: alismatid monocots, lilioid monocots (the five other non-commelinid monocots) and commelinid monocots. Research at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew is organised into two teams I: Alismatids and Lilioids and II: Commelinids. A similar approach is taken by Judd in his Plant systematics. They also organise their monocot research into two teams I: Alismatids and Lilioids, and II: Commelinids. A similar approach is taken by Judd in his Plant systematics.

Areca

Areca is a genus of about 50 species of palms in the family Arecaceae, found in humid tropical forests from the islands of the Philippines, Malaysia and India, across Southeast Asia to Melanesia. The generic name Areca is derived from a name used locally on the Malabar Coast of India.

Arecaceae

The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial plants. Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs, tree-like and stemless plants, all commonly known as palms. Those having a tree-like form are colloquially called palm trees. They are flowering plants, a family in the monocot order Arecales. Currently 181 genera with around 2600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched stem. However, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts.

Palms are among the best known and most extensively cultivated plant families. They have been important to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms. In contemporary times, palms are also widely used in landscaping, making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, because of their importance as food, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory, peace, and fertility. For inhabitants of cooler climates today, palms symbolize the tropics and vacations.

Areceae

Areceae is a palm tree tribe in the family Arecaceae.

Subtribes:

Archontophoenicinae

Arecinae

Basseliniinae

Carpoxylinae

Clinospermatinae

Dypsidinae

Linospadicinae

Oncospermatinae

Ptychospermatinae

Rhopalostylidinae

VerschaffeltiinaeGenera not assigned to subtribes:

Bentinckia

Clinostigma

Cyrtostachys

Dictyosperma

Dransfieldia

Heterospathe

Hydriastele

Iguanura

Loxococcus

Rhopaloblaste

Arecidae

Arecidae is a botanical name at the rank of subclass. Circumscription of the subclass will vary with the taxonomic system being used (there are many such systems); the only requirement being that it includes the family Arecaceae.

Borassus madagascariensis

Borassus madagascariensis is a species in the palm family Arecales endemic to Madagascar.The palm heart and newly germinated seedlings are edible, and an alcoholic drink is produced from the fruit.

Calameae

Calameae is a palm tree tribe in the subfamily Calamoideae. The type genus is Calamus and many of its members are rattans.

Commelinids

In plant taxonomy, commelinids (originally commelinoids) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots, which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms. The commelinids are the only clade that the APG has informally named within the monocots. The remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Also known as the commelinid monocots it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, and the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots.

Coryphoideae

The Coryphoideae is one of five subfamilies in the palm family, Arecaceae. It contains all of the genera with palmate leaves, excepting Mauritia, Mauritiella and Lepidocaryum, all of subfamily Calamoideae, tribe Lepidocaryeae, subtribe Mauritiinae. However, all Coryphoid palm leaves have induplicate (V-shaped) leaf folds (excepting Guihaia), while Calamoid palms have reduplicate (inverted V-shaped) leaf folds. Pinnate leaves do occur in Coryphoideae, in Phoenix, Arenga, Wallichia and bipinnate in Caryota.

Cronquist system

The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography).

Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida.

Dasypogonaceae

Dasypogonaceae is a family of flowering plants. Such a family has not been commonly recognized by taxonomists: the plants involved were usually included in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae. Dasypogonaceae includes four genera with 16 species.The APG IV system, of 2016 places the family in order Arecales, after some studies revealed the family as sister to Arecaceae.The earlier APG III of 2009, APG II of 2003, and APG system of 1998, accepted the family and assigns the family to the clade commelinids, unplaced as to order. In turn, the commelinids belong to the monocots.

The family is endemic to Australia, and comprises 16 species in four genera. The best known representative is Kingia australis.

Hyophorbe amaricaulis

Hyophorbe amaricaulis (also known as the "loneliest palm") is a species of palm tree of the order Arecales, family Arecaceae, subfamily Arecoideae, tribe Chamaedoreeae. It is found exclusively on the island of Mauritius, and only a single surviving specimen has been documented in the Curepipe Botanic Gardens in Curepipe. Thus, it is the most gravely threatened species of any kingdom.

IUCN Red List conservation dependent species

As of July 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 238 conservation dependent species. 0.29% of all evaluated species are listed as conservation dependent.

The IUCN also lists seven subspecies and five varieties as conservation dependent.

Of the animal subpopulations evaluated by the IUCN, one species subpopulation and one subspecies subpopulation has been assessed as conservation dependent.

The conservation dependent category is part of the IUCN 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3), which is no longer used in evaluation of taxa, but persists in the IUCN Red List for taxa evaluated prior to 2001, when version 3.1 was first used. Using the 2001 (v3.1) system these taxa are classed as near threatened, but those that have not been re-evaluated remain with the "conservation dependent" category.

This is a complete list of conservation dependent species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN. Species and subspecies which have conservation dependent subpopulations are also indicated.

List of flora of North Carolina

This list includes plant species found in the state of North Carolina. Varieties and subspecies link to their parent species.

Introduced species are designated (I).

Mauritia

Mauritia is a genus of fan palms which is native to northern South America and to the Island of Trinidad in the Caribbean. Only two species are currently accepted.

Monocotyledon

Monocotyledons (), commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally been divided, the rest of the flowering plants having two cotyledons and therefore classified as dicotyledons, or dicots. However, molecular phylogenetic research has shown that while the monocots form a monophyletic group or clade (comprising all the descendants of a common ancestor), the dicotyledons do not. Monocotyledons have almost always been recognized as a group, but with various taxonomic ranks and under several different names. The APG III system of 2009 recognises a clade called "monocots" but does not assign it to a taxonomic rank.

The monocotyledons include about 60,000 species. The largest family in this group (and in the flowering plants as a whole) by number of species are the orchids (family Orchidaceae), with more than 20,000 species. About half as many species belong to the true grasses (Poaceae), which are economically the most important family of monocotyledons. In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced comes from monocotyledons. These include not only major grains (rice, wheat, maize, etc.), but also forage grasses, sugar cane, and the bamboos. Other economically important monocotyledon crops include various palms (Arecaceae), bananas and plantains (Musaceae), gingers and their relatives, turmeric and cardamom (Zingiberaceae), asparagus (Asparagaceae), pineapple (Bromeliaceae), water chestnut (Cyperaceae), and leeks, onion and garlic (Amaryllidaceae). Many houseplants are monocotyledon epiphytes. Additionally most of the horticultural bulbs, plants cultivated for their blooms, such as lilies, daffodils, irises, amaryllis, cannas, bluebells and tulips, are monocotyledons.

Ptychospermatinae

Ptychospermatinae is a palm tree subtribe in the tribe Areceae.

Genera:

Adonidia

Balaka

Brassiophoenix

Carpentaria

Drymophloeus

Normanbya

Ponapea

Ptychococcus

Ptychosperma

Solfia

Veitchia

Wodyetia

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.