Ardotalia

Ardotalia (also known as Melandra, or Melandra Castle) is a Roman fort in Gamesley, near Glossop in Derbyshire, England.[1]

Ardotalia 5574
The western ramparts

Ardotalia was constructed by Cohors Primae Frisiavonum—The First Cohort of Frisiavones.[2] Evidence for the existence of this unit exists not only from the building stone found at the site but also from various diplomas and other Roman writings.[2] This unit would have had around a thousand men, including the specialist craftsmen needed to perform the skilled work of building the fort.[3]

This unit was assisted in constructing the fort by the 3rd Cohort of Bracara Augustani. These men were probably Iberian Celts from the colony of Braga in Portugal, who seem to have been attached to the XX Legion Valeria Victrix in Chester. Whilst it is unknown which of these Cohorts manned the fort, it seems more likely that the 3rd Cohort of Bracara Augustani performed this duty, as they were from a hilly region and so were more experienced in holding terrain such as that found around Glossop. The Frisiavones were from low-lying lands beyond the Rhine and so may have been divided between the lower terrain of Manchester and Northwich.[3]

The First Cohort of Frisiavones were also present at Brocolitia, one of Hadrian's wall forts and settlements, at Carrawburgh, Northumberland. Evidence for this relies on an inscription on an altar stone, which tells us that Optio Maus (an NCO within the Cohort) had repaid a vow to the goddess Coventina.[2] Whether this altar was the repayment of the vow is unknown.

The name Melandra is of unknown origin but may have been originated by the John Watson, Rector of Stockport, who visited the site c. 1771 when substantial stone remains existed.[4] The name Ardotalia is a hypothetical emendation of Zerdotalia written in the Ravenna Cosmography.[5] The site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument.[6]

Ardotalia (Melandra Castle)
Across the overgrown site of the fort where no walls remain with the hills of Tintwistle and Peak Naze behind
The fort today looking towards Longdendale
Ardotalia is located in Derbyshire
Ardotalia
Map showing the location of Ardotalia within Derbyshire.
LocationHigh Peak, Derbyshire
RegionEast Midlands
Coordinates53°27′09″N 1°59′17″W / 53.45250°N 1.98806°WCoordinates: 53°27′09″N 1°59′17″W / 53.45250°N 1.98806°W
TypeRoman fort
History
FoundedCohors Primae Frisiavonum—The First Cohort of Frisiavones
Associated with3rd Cohort of Bracara Augustani
Official nameMelandra Castle Roman fort
Reference no.1004595

References

Notes
  1. ^ Historic England. "Ardotalia (Melandra Castle) (306340)". PastScape. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
  2. ^ a b c Roman Britain.org Archived 3 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Ward, A M; Brown, M H (1986). Melandra Castle Roman Fort (booklet). Retrieved 17 October 2016 – via Glossop Heritage Trust.
  4. ^ Hanmer 1993, p. 20
  5. ^ Rivet & Smith 1979, pp. 256–257
  6. ^ Historic England. "Melandra Castle Roman fort (1004595)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
Bibliography
  • Hanmer, J.; Winterbottom, D. (1993), The Book of Glossop (2nd ed.), Baron Birch, ISBN 0-86023-484-3
  • Rivet, Albert Lionel Frederick; Smith, C. (1979), The Place-Names of Roman Britain, London: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-2077-4
Barrow Hill Engine Shed

Barrow Hill Roundhouse & Railway Centre, until 1948 known as Staveley Roundhouse & Train Centre, is a former Midland Railway roundhouse in Barrow Hill, near Staveley and Chesterfield, Derbyshire (grid reference SK413754).

Bredbury

Bredbury is a suburban town in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England, 7.9 miles (12.7 km) south-east of Manchester, 1.8 miles (2.9 km) east of Stockport and 3.2 miles (5.1 km) south-west of Hyde. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 13,593.The town reaches to the lower southern slopes of Werneth Low, an outlier of the Peak District between the valleys of the River Tame and River Goyt, head-waters of the River Mersey.

Carrawburgh

Carrawburgh is a settlement in Northumberland. In Roman times, it was the site of a 3½ acre (1.5 ha) auxiliary fort on Hadrian's Wall called Brocolitia, Procolita, or Brocolita This name is probably based on the Celtic name for the place, and one possible translation put forward is 'badger holes'. The fort there was a mile or so west of the Wall's northernmost point at Limestone Corner, and just over a mile west of the nearest milecastle, Milecastle 30. The fort either used the Wall (narrow gauge on a broad base at this point) itself as its northern rampart, or was built parallel to it but detached. It certainly postdates both the Wall and the vallum (which it is built across).

Only the fort's earthworks are now visible, the Wall at this point and the fort's north ramparts having been demolished for the construction of General Wade's early 18th-century military road (now the B6318). The late 19th-century archaeologist John Clayton carried out a partial excavation of the site, revealing a military bath-house outside the fort's west gate (in 1873) and the fort's south-west corner-tower (in 1876).

The Roman Inscriptions of Britain lists 48 inscriptions for the site. They show its garrisoning units to have been as follows:

RIB 1550 – Hadrianic? c. AD133 – First Cohort of Aquitani

RIB 1563b – AD122-138 – Cohors I Tungrorum

End 2nd century – Cohors I Cugernorum

RIB 1544, RIB 1553, and Notitia Dignitarum – AD213-222, AD237, and AD400 respectively – First Cohort of BataviansThe First Cohort of Frisiavones are also attested at Brocolitia at some stage, as shown by an inscription on an altar stone, which tells us that Optio Maus had repaid a vow to the goddess Coventina. (This unit is also recorded as present at Ardotalia.) Whether this altar was the repayment of the vow is unknown.

Gamesley

Gamesley is a residential area within the Borough of High Peak

in Derbyshire, England, west of Glossop and close to the River Etherow which forms the boundary with Tameside in Greater Manchester. Gamesley is a ward of the High Peak Borough Council. It had a population of 2,531 at the 2011 Census.

Glossop

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Historically, the name Glossop refers to the small hamlet that gave its name to an ancient parish recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, and then the manor given by William I of England to William Peverel. A municipal borough was created in 1866, and the unparished urban area within two local government wards. The area now known as Glossop approximates to the villages that used to be called Glossopdale, on the lands of the Duke of Norfolk. Originally a centre of wool processing, Glossop rapidly expanded in the late 18th century when it specialised in the production and printing of calico, a coarse cotton, and became a mill town with many chapels and churches, its fortunes tied to the cotton industry.

Architecturally, the area is dominated by buildings constructed of the local sandstone. There remain two significant former cotton mills and the Dinting railway viaduct. Glossop has transport links to Manchester, making the area popular for commuters.

Greenfield, Greater Manchester

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John Garstang

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List of Roman place names in Britain

A partial list of Roman place names in Great Britain.

This list includes only names documented from Roman times. For a more complete list including later Latin names, see List of Latin place names in Britain.

The early sources for Roman names show numerous variants and misspellings of the Latin names. Moreover, one of the principal authorities, Ptolemy, wrote in Greek so names that he records need to be transliterated back into Latin to reveal the original form.

Note that in general only one source is shown below for each name, although many of the names are recorded in more than one of the sources.

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Peak District

The Peak District is an upland area in England at the southern end of the Pennines. It is mostly in northern Derbyshire, but also includes parts of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Staffordshire, West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire. An area of great diversity, it is mostly split into the Dark Peak, where most of the moorland is found and the geology is gritstone, and the limestone area of the White Peak.

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Tourism remains important for its towns and villages and their varied attractions, country houses and heritage sites. Outside the towns, walking on the extensive network of public footpaths, cycle trails, rock climbing and caving are popular pursuits.

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There are many Roman sites in Great Britain that are open to the public. There are also many sites that do not require special access, including Roman roads, and sites that have not been uncovered.

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When a water-powered cotton mill was constructed in 1776, Stalybridge became one of the first centres of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The wealth created in the 19th century from the factory-based cotton industry transformed an area of scattered farms and homesteads into a self-confident town.

Stockport

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The Metropolitan Borough of Tameside is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester in North West England. It is named after the River Tame, which flows through the borough and spans the towns of Ashton-under-Lyne, Audenshaw, Denton, Droylsden, Dukinfield, Hyde, Mossley and Stalybridge plus Longdendale. Its western border is approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Manchester city centre. It borders High Peak in Derbyshire to the east, the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham to the north, the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport to the south, and the City of Manchester to the west. As of 2011 the overall population was 219,324.The history of the area extends back to the Stone Age. There are over 300 listed buildings in Tameside and three Scheduled Ancient Monuments, which includes a castle of national importance. The settlements in Tameside were small townships centred on agriculture until the advent of the Industrial Revolution. The towns of the borough grew and became involved in the cotton industry, which dominated the local economy. The current borough was created in 1974 as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972. Since then the area has been administered by Tameside Borough Council, which has been judged by the Audit Commission to be "performing strongly".

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and outdoor spaces
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Stately homes
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