Arditi

Arditi (from the Italian verb ardire, lit. "to dare", and translates as "The Daring [Ones]") was the name adopted by Royal Italian Army elite special force of World War I. They were the first modern shock troops and have been defined "the most feared corps by opposing armies".[1][2]

Reparti d'assalto (Assault Units) were formed in the summer of 1917 by Colonel Bassi, and were assigned the tactical role of shock troops, breaching enemy defenses in order to prepare the way for a broad infantry advance. The Arditi were not units within infantry divisions, but were considered a separate combat arm.

The Reparti d'assalto were successful in bringing in a degree of movement to what had previously been a war of entrenched positions. They won numerous engagements armed mainly with daggers and hand grenades, which proved very effective in the confined space of a trench. Their exploits on the battlefield were exemplary and they gained an illustrious place in Italian military history. They were demobilized by 1920.

The name Arditi was later used in 1919–20 by the Italian occupiers of Fiume who were led by Gabriele D'Annunzio, most of whom had been members of the Royal Italian Army. Their use of a uniform with black shirts and black fez was later taken up by Benito Mussolini's paramilitary forces, the Blackshirts.

From 1 October 1975 the flag of X Arditi Regiment (formed in 1942 in imitation of the IX Assault unit of the First World War) was adopted by the 9º Reggimento d'Assalto Paracadutisti Col Moschin (9th Parachute Assault Regiment Col Moschin). To this day operatives of Col Moschin and Italian commando frogmen are known as "Arditi Incursori" and are viewed as the heirs of the Arditi of World War I.

Arditi
Italian Arditi
Members of the Arditi corps, 1918, wielding daggers.
Active1917-1920
Country Kingdom of Italy
BranchRoyal Italian Army
TypeSpecial forces
Nickname(s)Fiamme nere ("Black Flames")
Motto(s)O la vittoria, o tutti accoppati
ColorsBlack
MarchFiamme nere
EngagementsWorld War I
Commanders
Current
commander
None

World War I

Early experiments

Arditi1
Soldier of the "Companies of death" wearing Farina helmet and body armour.

The ardito concept can be traced back to 1914 when every regiment of the Royal Army was ordered to create a group of explorers trained to act behind enemy lines. The first Arditi units were formed and trained in Sdricca di Manzano, in the province of Udine, where the event is still celebrated on the last Sunday in July.[3]

Others argue that the so-called "Companies of death", special patrols of infantry and engineers engaged in cutting or blasting enemy barbed wire, should be considered as precursors of the Arditi. They were easily recognizable by their use of armor and "Farina" helmets.[4] The use of explosives in that role resulted in entirely unnecessary sacrifices of the members of these units.

Arditi manifesto
Arditi propaganda poster.

The task of Arditi units was not to clear the way for regular infantry to attack enemy lines, but to completely overrun enemy positions. The most daring volunteers were chosen, particularly those who were not bothered by loud incoming artillery fire close by. The men also studied fencing and were masters of hand-to-hand combat. Once ready, they were sent to the front armed with a dagger and hand grenades. Most did not carry rifles or carbines because they would be cumbersome to fire in the confined spaces of a trench. The Arditi approached enemy trenches while they were being shelled by Italian artillery. Just as the barrage was lifted they would jump inside the trench while the enemy was huddling down, and use their daggers at close quarters to suppress enemy resistance. These primitive tactics were surprisingly effective. Arditi had to hold the positions they conquered for 24 hours and then would be replaced by the regular infantry. Arditi might lose 25% to 30% of their numbers during such an attack. Their motto was O la vittoria, o tutti accoppati meaning "Either victory, or everyone dies".[5] The typical unit had 13 officers and 400 soldiers selected on a voluntary basis. One such unit was completely wiped out while attacking Monte Osvaldo in April 1916.

In 1916 the supreme command decided to award special status to Arditi units but was reluctant to create new units.[6] The Arditi badge, to be carried on the left arm, included the monogram VE (for Victor Emmanuel III of Italy), and was designed exclusively as a symbol of distinction for these soldiers. This was the first official use of the word "Ardito" by the Italian army.

Establishment and use

In 1917 as a result of proposals put forward by young officers who were tired of the gruesome bloodshed of trench life, assault units were formed within the 48th Division of the VIII Army Corps, commanded by Captain Giuseppe Bassi. As early as March 1917 the Italian Supreme Command had sent a circular communication giving information about the constitution of Austro-Hungarian special units.[7]

Following a positive evaluation it was decided to establish the new special units,[8] but disagreements on equipment and training delayed the start of operations until July 29, 1917, when King Victor Emmanuel officially sanctioned the creation of Arditi units.

Gli arditi della brigata Bologna al comando del ten. Arturo Avolio
Brigata Bologna's Arditi at the command of Lieutenant Arturo Avolio

The new assault units were formed and then developed independently with training different from that of ordinary soldiers. The better trained German army was the first to adopt the concept of shock assault troops with the Stormtroopers, but the Italians followed their example. A training school was established, as noted above, at Sdricca di Manzano, in Friuli. The first units were created in the 2nd Army, and by the time of Caporetto there were 27 units, although only a few actually saw combat. In all, approximately 18,000 men made up the Arditi units. Many of these men saw combat on the river Piave, where the advance of Austro-Hungarian troops was halted. Arditi used to swim across the Piave, clenching a dagger between their teeth and assault the Austrian and German positions on the other bank of the river Piave. These men came to be known as Caimani del Piave ("the Caimans of the Piave").[9] Because Austrian uniforms had a stiff collar, the "Caimani" preferred to use a resolza knife, typical of Sardinia (Pattada), as this blade could easily penetrate the collar of the enemy uniform (other arditi formations used a simple dagger). Today, the badge worn by COMSUBIN commandoes shows a caiman clenching a dagger in its jaws. This is an emblem chosen to honor the memory of the Caimani del Piave.

In June 1918 an entire division of assault troops with nine units was placed under the command of Major General Ottavio Zoppi, and then was expanded to become an Army Corps with twelve units in two divisions. By the end of the war there were 25 assault units, mostly classified as Bersaglieri.[10]

The Arditi contributed in a major way to the breakthrough on the Piave that in November 1918 made possible the final victory over Austrian armies.

Shortly after the end of the war, in January 1920, all units were disbanded.

Training

Initially the soldiers were volunteers, but later on unit commanders designated suitable soldiers for transfer to Arditi units. Arditi were usually drawn from Bersaglieri or Alpini (two Italian military specialties whose soldiers were renowned for their stamina and physical prowess). After undergoing tests of strength, skill and nerve, the recruits were trained in the use of weapons and innovative tactics of attack. They also received hand-to-hand fighting instruction with or without weapons (according to the "Flower of Battle" techniques developed in the Middle Ages),[11] all supported by continuous physical training.

In particular, Arditi were trained with hand grenades, marksmanship and the use of the flamethrower and machine gun. Training was very realistic, and several men were killed during basic training: in particular, victims were caused by splinters from hand grenades, because their operating procedure provided for a direct assault immediately after throwing a grenade. The rigorous training, team spirit and contempt of danger, but also the privileges they enjoyed, made the Arditi an elite corps, but also created a climate of distrust and jealousy with officers belonging to other units of the regular army. Their military skill, however, earned them respect for the ability to resolve on the battlefield situations tactically impossible for regular army units.

Reginaldo Giuliani, a Catholic priest and an Ardito, wrote several books on his experiences including Croce e spada ("Cross and Sword").

Uniform

The uniform of the Arditi drawn from regular infantry units consisted of a Bersagliere cyclist coat with black flames as a lapel patch. Arditi drawn from Alpini units would instead wear green flames on their lapel patch, and Arditi drawn from Bersaglieri units would wear crimson flames. They would also wear a dark green sweater and a black fez (a hat) identical to that of the Bersaglieri infantry (although Bersaglieri wore a crimson fez, rather than a black one) and trousers. From these uniforms and other insigna, indicative of the army unit of origin, was born a distinction between the Red Flames (Bersaglieri Arditi), Black Flames (Arditi Infantry) and Green Flames (Arditi Alpini). The Red Flames were sometimes called Crimson Flames.

Many of the Arditi badges and symbols were later adopted by the fascist regime, for example a badge depicting a skull with a dagger clenched between the teeth. The anti-fascist Arditi del Popolo also had their own badge (skull with red eyes and dagger). Their battle cry was A Noi! ('to us'), which was later adopted as one of the phrases commonly used when making the Roman salute and originated as a duelling challenge during the Renaissance.

Equipment

Typical equipment of the Arditi was the dagger for hand-to-hand combat, and hand grenades. The grenades were used to create panic and confusion as well as for their disruptive effect. The Thevenot hand grenade frequently used by the Arditi was well suited for assaults, not being overly powerful, but very noisy so as to provoke fear in the opponents. Other weapons included machine guns and flame throwers. The Arditi also used 37 mm and 65 mm cannons against pillboxes and fortifications.

In the Museo del Risorgimento in Turin, the hall is dedicated to the resistance against Fascism there are on display a dagger and a hand grenade belonging to the Arditi del Popolo. Due to lack of resources the first daggers were manufactured from surplus stock of the bayonets from the Vetterli rifle. Each bayonet was cut in half and fashioned into two daggers.

The Battle of the Piave River, June 1918 Q19082

Arditi illustrating a fight with dagger and hand grenades.

Farina helmet for Arditi troops-Morges Inv 1010178-P5120275-gradient

"Farina" helmet for Arditi troops

Under fascism

In the post-World War I period, many Arditi joined the 'National Association Arditi d'Italia' (ANAI), founded by captain Mario Carli, then involved in the Futurist movement in art. Carli wrote the essay "Arditi are not gendarmes" in collaboration with Filippo Tommaso Marinetti.[12]

A large number of Arditi joined the fascist movement, but support was not unanimous, as is clear from the Arditi del Popolo, a fringe breakaway movement of the ANAI, politically leaning to the maximalist wing of socialism. In any case, most Arditi who joined the ANAI transferred their allegiance to the FNAI (National Federation Arditi D'Italia), founded on 23 October 1922 by Mussolini. The ANAI was later dissolved.

Foto Fiume
Gabriele D'Annunzio (in the middle with the stick) with some legionaries (components of the Arditi's department of the Italian Royal Army) in Fiume in 1919. To the right of D'Annunzio, facing him, Lt. Arturo Avolio.

The Arditi were active participants in Gabriele D'Annunzio's coup in the city of Fiume (now Rijeka, in Croatia). When his original plan for Italian annexation was rebuffed by the government in Rome, D'Annunzio proclaimed the founding of the "Italian Regency of Carnaro". With the trade unionist De Ambris, D'Annunzio promulgated a constitution, the Charter of Carnaro, containing strongly progressive or even radical elements. On December 25, 1920, regular Italian army troops put an end to the short-lived "regency," after brief clashes.

The Arditi del Popolo

The Roman section of the Italian Arditi, in contrast to the strong but not yet consolidated movement of fascist squadrismo, became the Arditi del Popolo, a paramilitary group that was clearly anti-fascist. Its members came from anarchist, communist, and socialist movements. The Communists constituted the majority, but there were also components such as Republican Vincenzo Baldazzi (who was one of the leaders), and sometimes, as in the defense of Parma, also militants of the (Catholic) Popular Party, such as the adviser Corazza who was killed in Parma in clashes with fascist forces. The movement was born in the summer of 1921 through the work of Argo Secondari, a former lieutenant of the "Black Flame" infantry and an anarchist. The strength of these paramilitary formations were 20,000 men enrolled, among them war veterans, who were neutral or strongly anti-fascist.

Perhaps the most resonant event was the defense of Parma against fascist squadrismo in 1922: around 10,000 squadristi, first under the command of Roberto Farinacci, then Italo Balbo, had to withdraw from the city after five days of clashes against a group consisting of socialists, anarchists and communists, controlled by the heads of the Arditi del Popolo (350 took part in the battle against the fascists) Antonio Cieri and Guido Picelli. The Fascist lost 39 men, the Arditi del Popolo five.

In the following months, many heads of the Arditi del Popolo were jailed or killed by fascist squadristi, sometimes with the collusion of police agencies.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ L'esercito italiano rispolvera il mito degli arditi (Italian)
  2. ^ http://www.homolux.it/100-anni-fa-nascevano-gli-arditi-il-corpo-piu-temuto-dagli-eserciti-avversari/
  3. ^ Rules of years for the infantry, approved June 30, 1914.
  4. ^ Circolare Comando Supremo: n. 496 di P.RS. del 16 giugno 1915. Oggetto: Attacco di posizioni rafforzate.
    Circular Supreme Command: No. 496 of P.RS. 16 June 1915. Subject: Attack of fortified positions.
  5. ^ S. Farina, Le Truppe d'Assalto Italiane (The Italian assault troops).
  6. ^ Circolare Comando Supremo n. 15810 del 15 luglio 1916. Oggetto: Norme per la concessione del distintivo per militari arditi.
    Supreme Command Circular No 15,810 of 15 July 1916. Subject: Rules for the granting of distinctive bold military.
  7. ^ Circolare Comando Supremo n. 6230 del 14 marzo 1917, da CS (UAVS) a C. d'Armata e Zona Gorizia (fino a C. di Brigata). Oggetto: reparti d'assalto.
    Supreme Command Circular No. 6230 14 March 1917, from CS (UAVS) to Army Corps Area and Gorizia (up to Brigade Corps). Subject: assault troops.
  8. ^ Circolare Comando Supremo n. 111660 del 26 giugno 1917, da CS a C. di 1ª, 2ª, 3ª ,4ª, 6ª Armata. Oggetto: reparti d'assalto.
    Supreme Command Circular No 111,660 26 June 1917, from CS to Command of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th Army. Subject: assault troops.
  9. ^ Caimani Del Piave
  10. ^ Angelo Pirocchi and Velimir Vuksic, Italian Arditi. Elite Assault Troops 1917-1920. Oxford, Osprey, 2004.
  11. ^ A Brief Examination of Fiore dei Liberi's Treatises Flos Duellatorum & Fior di Battaglia
  12. ^ Summaries from Liparoto ANPI.

Sources

  • Tom Behan, The Resistible Rise of Benito Mussolini, Bookmarks, 2003, ISBN 978-1-898876-90-8 (account of the book in Socialist Worker review)

Italian language

  • Balsamini, Luigi, Gli Arditi del Popolo. Dalla guerra alla difesa del popolo contro le violenze fasciste, Casalvelino Scalo, Galzerano, 2002.
  • Cordova, Ferdinando, Arditi e legionari dannunziani, Padova, Marsilio, 1969.
  • Francescangeli, Eros, Arditi del Popolo. Argo Secondari e la prima organizzazione antifascista (1917–1922), Roma, Odradek, 2000.
  • Fuschini, Ivan, Gli Arditi del Popolo, prefazione di Arrigo Boldrini, Ravenna, Longo, 1994.
  • Rossi, Marco, Arditi, non gendarmi! Dall’arditismo di guerra agli arditi del popolo 1917-1922, Pisa, BFS, 1997.

External links

1921 in Italy

Events from the year 1921 in Italy.

9th Paratroopers Assault Regiment

The 9º Reggimento d'Assalto Paracadutisti (9th Paratroopers Assault Regiment) Col Moschin ("Moschin Hill") is a Special Forces unit of the current Italian Army — in part due to its distinguished history, but also due to the arduous training which members must undertake. Training takes no less than two years for long-term members, and five months for short-term volunteers (with 1–2 years total military service).

The department has been the protagonist of numerous military and anti-terrorist operations all over the world and is the only one to have participated in all the missions abroad of the Italian Army from the post-war period until today.

The regiment, framed in the Italian Army Special Forces Command, for operational activity depends on the COFS, (Interforces Command for Special Forces Operations).

Since 2016, it has also been working, at the request of the intelligence services of AISE, for individual missions reserved abroad, filling a gap with respect to the services of other countries. A notable former member is the Italian astronaut Paolo Nespoli.

Arditi (band)

Arditi is a Swedish martial industrial and neoclassical band. It consists of Henry Möller (Puissance and Leidungr) and Mårten Björkman from black metal bands Algaion and Octinomos. Arditi formed in 2001, deriving their name from the early Italian special forces unit known as the Arditi. They released their first EP, Unity of Blood in 2002, following it soon after was their first full-length album, Marching on to Victory in 2003. Since then Arditi has released four more full-length albums, Spirit of Sacrifice in 2005, Standards of Triumph in 2006, Omne Ensis Impera in 2008, Leading the Iron Resistance in 2011 as well as three more EPs, including a limited edition split album with Toroidh.

Arditi has collaborated with Swedish black metal band Marduk on the tracks "1651", "Deathmarch" and "Warschau III: Necropolis".

Arditi (disambiguation)

Arditi is the name adopted by the Italian Army elite storm troops of World War I.

Arditi may also refer to:

Arditi (surname)

Arditi del Popolo ("People's Squads"), an Italian militant anti-fascist group

A former name of the 9th Parachute Assault Regiment of the Italian Army

Arditi (band), a Swedish martial industrial and neoclassical band

Arditi del Popolo

The Arditi del Popolo (The People's Daring Ones) was an Italian militant anti-fascist group founded at the end of June 1921 to resist the rise of Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party and the violence of the Blackshirts (squadristi) paramilitaries. It grouped revolutionary trade-unionists, socialists, communists, anarchists, republicans, as well as some former military officers, and was co-founded by Mingrino, Argo Secondari, Gino Lucetti – who tried to assassinate Mussolini on 11 September 1926 – the deputy Guido Picelli and others. The Arditi del Popolo were an offshoot of the Arditi elite troops, who had previously occupied Fiume in 1919 behind the poet Gabriele d'Annunzio, who proclaimed the Italian Regency of Carnaro. Those who split to form the Arditi del Popolo were close to the anarchist Argo Secondari and were supported by Mario Carli. The formazioni di difesa proletaria (Proletarian Defense Formations) later merged with them. The Arditi gathered approximately 20,000 members in summer 1921.

Arditi–Ginzburg equations

The Arditi–Ginzburg equations describe ratio dependent predator–prey dynamics. Where N is the population of a prey species and P that of a predator, the population dynamics are described by the following two equations:

Here f(N) captures any change in the prey population not due to predator activity including inherent birth and death rates. The per capita effect of predators on the prey population (the harvest rate) is modeled by a function g which is a function of the ratio N/P of prey to predators. Predators receive a reproductive payoff, e, for consuming prey, and die at rate u. Making predation pressure a function of the ratio of prey to predators contrasts with the prey dependent Lotka–Volterra equations, where the effect of predators on the prey population is simply a function of the magnitude of the prey population g(N). Because the number of prey harvested by each predator decreases as predators become more dense, ratio dependent predation represents an example of a trophic function. Ratio dependent predation may account for heterogeneity in large-scale natural systems in which predator efficiency decreases when prey is scarce. The merit of ratio dependent versus prey dependent models of predation has been the subject of much controversy, especially between the biologists Lev R. Ginzburg and Peter A. Abrams. Ginzburg purports that ratio dependent models more accurately depict predator-prey interactions while Abrams maintains that these models make unwarranted complicating assumptions.

Banca Sella Group

Banca Sella Holding S.p.A. is an Italian holding company for the Banca Sella Group (Italian: Gruppo Banca Sella). The main company of the group was Banca Sella S.p.A., an Italian bank based in Biella, Piedmont.

According to a research by Mediobanca, Banca Sella Group was ranked the 20th largest bank in Italy by total assets as of 31 December 2016.

Binyamin Arditi

Binyamin Arditi (Hebrew: בנימין ארדיטי‎, 1 July 1897 – 20 May 1981) was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Herut and Gahal between 1955 and 1965.

Giovinezza

"Giovinezza" (pronounced [dʒoviˈnettsa] – Italian for "Youth") is the official hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party, regime, and army, and was the unofficial national anthem of Italy between 1924 and 1943. Although often sung with the official national anthem Marcia Reale, some sources consider Giovinezza to have supplanted the Royal March as the de facto national anthem (Inno della Patria) of Italy, to the dismay of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy—a powerful symbol of the diarchy between the King and Mussolini. It was subsequently the official anthem of the Italian Social Republic.Ubiquitous in fascist Italy, the hymn emphasized youth as a theme of the fascist movement and was one example of the centrality of the Arditi (Italian World War I veterans) to the fascist narrative.

Luigi Arditi

Luigi Arditi (22 July 1822 – 1 May 1903) was an Italian violinist, composer and conductor.

Michele Arditi

The marquess Michele Arditi (Presicce, 13 September 1746 – Naples, 23 April 1838) was an Italian lawyer, antiquarian and archaeologist, uncle of the historian Giacomo Arditi.

Michele Ariditi was known for his outstanding skills in archaeology. In 1807, the Kingdom of Naples had taken initiatives to revive archaeological investigations in Naples. Arditi was appointed as Director of the Royal Museum and Superintendent of Excavations, and was charged with the task of developing a new integrated plan for the development of the excavations in the Kingdom. This meant reviving the work at Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Paestum, as well as bringing into focus work at the sites north of Naples, for example at Pozzuoli and the area around Cuma.

Molière Award for Best Supporting Actress

Molière Award for Best Supporting Actress. Winners and nominees.

1987 : Sabine Haudepin in Kean

Anne Alvaro in Tonight We Improvise (Ce soir on improvise)

Catherine Arditi in Adriana Monti

Lucienne Hamon in Conversations After a Burial (Conversations après un enterrement)

Magali Noël in Cabaret

1988 : Catherine Salviat in Dialogues of the Carmelites (Dialogues des carmélites)

Pascale de Boysson in Fall (Ce que voit Fox)

Denise Chalem in Double Inconstancy (La Double Inconstance)

Nicole Jamet in The Secret (Le Secret)

Nada Strancar in The Winter's Tale (Le Conte d'hiver)

1989 : Christine Murillo in The Seagull (La Mouette)

Béatrice Agenin in Une femme sans histoire

Catherine Rich in La Vraie Vie

Martine Sarcey in Une absence

Michèle Simonnet in Just Between Ourselves (Entre nous soit dit)

1990 : Judith Magre in Greek

Catherine Frot in Faut pas tuer Maman

Lucienne Hamon in The Passage of Winter (La Traversée de l'hiver)

Christiane Muller in Les Palmes de Monsieur Schutz

Martine Sarcey in The Passage of Winter (La Traversée de l'hiver)

1991 : Catherine Arditi in A croquer... ou l’Ivre de cuisine

Annie Grégorio in Coiffure pour dames

Catherine Rich in The Girl from Maxim's (La Dame de chez Maxim)

Catherine Rouvel in Eurydice

Maïa Simon in Heldenplatz

1992 : Danièle Lebrun in Le Misanthrope

Myriam Boyer in Roberto Zucco

Michèle Laroque in Ornifle or It's Later than you Think (Ornifle)

Catherine Rich in The Girl from Maxim's (La Dame de chez Maxim)

Marie-France Santon in The Waltz of the Toreadors (La Valse des toréadors)

1993 : Françoise Bertin in Temps contre temps

Annick Alane in Enter a Free Man (Les dimanches de Monsieur Riley)

Nadia Barentin in Monsieur Klebs et Rosalie

Gisèle Casadesus in Le Jugement dernier

Annie Grégorio in Une folie

1994 : Annick Alane in Fashions for Ladies (Tailleur pour dames)

Gisèle Casadesus in Le Retour en Touraine

Catherine Rich in Quand elle dansait...

Josiane Stoléru in The Visitor (Le Visiteur)

Marie Trintignant in The Homecoming (Le Retour)

1995 : Catherine Frot in Un air de famille

Sabine Haudepin in Quadrille

Claire Maurier in Un air de famille

Marie-France Santon in Business is business (Les Affaires sont les affaires)

Michèle Simonnet in La Chambre d'amis

1996 : Sonia Vollereaux in Lapin lapin

Catherine Arditi in The Diary of a Young Girl (Le journal d'Anne Frank)

Florence Darel in An Ideal Husband (Un mari idéal)

Claire Nadeau in Benefactors (Le bonheur des autres)

Edith Perret in An Ideal Husband (Un mari idéal)

1997 : Dominique Blanchar in As Better, Better than Before (Tout comme il faut)

Elisabeth Commelin in The Libertine (Le Libertin)

Ginette Garcin in The Man Who Walked Through Walls (Le Passe-muraille)

Chantal Lauby in La Terrasse

Maïa Simon in Un cœur français

1998 : Geneviève Casile in Bel-Ami

Isabelle Candelier in André le magnifique

Nathalie Cerda in The Hygiene of the Assassin (Hygiène de l'assassin)

Michèle Garcia in Funny Money (Espèces menacées)

Valérie Mairesse in The Surprise of Love (La Surprise de l'amour)

1999 : Geneviève Fontanel in A Delicate Balance (Délicate balance)

Micheline Dax in Frederick or the Crime Boulevard (Frédérick ou le boulevard du crime)

Chantal Neuwirth in Rêver peut-être

Florence Pernel in A Streetcar Named Desire (Un Tramway nommé désir)

Frédérique Tirmont in London Assurance (Le Bel Air de Londres)

2000 : Dominique Blanchar in The Learned Ladies (Les Femmes savantes)

Catherine Arditi in Between Worlds (Hôtel des deux mondes)

Geneviève Fontanel in Raisons de famille

Claire Nadeau in Mariages et conséquences

Chantal Neuwirth in Les Nouvelles brèves de comptoir

Beata Nilska in A torts et à raisons

2001 : Annick Alane in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Une chatte sur un toit brûlant)

Aurore Clément in The Lady of the Camellias (La Dame aux camélias)

Eliza Maillot in Un homme à la mer

Yasmina Reza in Life X 3 (Trois versions de la vie)

Barbara Schulz in Joyeuses Pâques

2002 : Annie Grégorio in Théâtre sans animaux

Nadia Barentin in La Griffe (A71)

Denise Chalem in Conversations with my Father (Conversations avec mon père)

Anne Consigny in Elvire

Claire Nadeau in Le Jardin des apparences

Josiane Stoléru in The Glass Menagerie (La Ménagerie de verre)

2003 : Annie Sinigalia in A Song at Twilight (Poste restante)

Annick Alane in État critique

Anne Consigny in La Preuve

Marina Hands in Phèdre

Eliza Maillot in Un petit jeu sans conséquence

2004 : Martine Sarcey in L’Inscription

Evelyne Buyle in L'Invité

Guilaine Londez in L'Hiver sous la table

Lysiane Meis in Things We Do for Love (L'Amour est enfant de salaud)

Dominique Reymond in A Spanish Play (Une pièce espagnole)

2005 : Norah Krief in Hedda Gabler

Monique Chaumette in Vigil (Tantine et moi)

Annie Grégorio in Musée haut, musée bas

Anne Loiret in Jacques a dit

Elisabeth Margoni in Sortie de scène

Lysiane Meis in Jacques a dit

2006 : Danièle Lebrun in Pygmalion

Béatrice Agenin in Barefoot in the Park (Pieds nus dans le parc)

Marina Foïs in Viol

Anne Loiret in Broken Glass (Le Miroir)

Josiane Stoléru in Conversations After a Burial (Conversations après un enterrement)

Marie Vincent in The Imaginary Invalid (Le Malade imaginaire)

2007 : Catherine Hiegel in Return to the Desert (Le Retour au désert)

Catherine Arditi in Cabaret

Brigitte Catillon in Eva

Marie-France Santon in Lady Windermere's Fan (L'Éventail de Lady Windermere)

Frédérique Tirmont in Dolores Claiborne

2008 : Valérie Bonneton in God of Carnage (Le Dieu du carnage)

Sabine Haudepin in Les Belles-sœurs

Norah Krief in King Lear (Le Roi Lear)

Bulle Ogier in L'Homme sans but

2009 : Monique Chaumette in Baby Doll

Hélène Alexandridis in Madame de Sade

Christiane Cohendy in Equus

Annie Mercier in Tartuffe

Martine Schambacher in La Charrue et les étoiles

Josiane Stoléru in Cochons d'Inde

2010 : Claire Nadeau in The Loving Maid (La Serva amorosa)

Fabienne Chaudat in Colombe

Julie Pilod in The Cherry Orchard (La Cerisaie)

Isabelle Sadoyan in Les Fausses Confidences

Josiane Stoléru in Le Démon de Hannah

Dominique Valadié in Twelfth Night (La Nuit des rois)

2011 : Bulle Ogier in Autumn Dream (Rêve d’Automne)

Valérie Benguigui in Le Prénom

Brigitte Catillon in Nono

Dominique Constanza in A Fly in the Ointment (Un fil à la patte)

Nanou Garcia in Aller chercher demain

Christiane Millet in Winter Funeral (Funérailles d’hiver)

2014 : Isabelle Sadoyan in L'Origine du monde

Marie-Julie Baup in Divina

Christine Bonnard in La chanson de l'éléphant

Françoise Fabian in Tartuffe

Valérie Mairesse in Romeo and Juliet (Roméo et Juliette)

Bulle Ogier in Les Fausses Confidences

2015 : Dominique Reymond in Comment vous racontez la partie

Anne Azoulay in King Kong Théorie

Léna Bréban in The Other Place (La Maison d'à côté)

Marie‐Christine Danède in La Colère du Tigre

Noémie Gantier in Atomised (Les Particules élémentaires)

Agnès Sourdillon in The Imaginary Invalid (Le malade imaginaire)

2016 : Anne Bouvier in King Lear (Le Roi Lear)

Béatrice Agenin in Un certain Charles Spencer Chaplin

Michèle Garcia in La Dame blanche

Raphaëline Goupilleau in La Médiation

2017 : Évelyne Buyle in Les Femmes Savantes

Ludivine de Chastenet in Politiquement correct

Anne Loiret in Avant de s'envoler

Josiane Stoléru in Bella Figura'

Dominique Valadié in Time and the Room (Le Temps et la chambre)

Florence Viala in Le Petit-Maître corrigé

2018 : Christine Murillo in Tartuffe

Audrey Bonnet in Actrice

Isabelle de Botton in Clérambard

Françoise Lépine in The Graduate (Le Lauréat)

Élodie Navarre in Le Fils

Paméla Ravassard in La Dame de chez Maxim

Moshe Arditi

Moshe Arditi is a Turkish-American physician who holds multiple appointments in the Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Pediatrics at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, and as a researcher at UCLA. Dr. Arditi is a contributor to more than 103 peer reviewed articles.He received his medical degree from the Istanbul University School of Medicine and completed postgraduate training at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine and the Lurie Children's Hospital, affiliated with the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

Mélo (1986 film)

Mélo is a 1986 French film starring Fanny Ardant, André Dussollier, Sabine Azéma and Pierre Arditi based on the 1929 play by Henri Bernstein.

Pierre Arditi

Pierre Arditi (born 1 December 1944) is a French actor. He is the brother of French actress Catherine Arditi.

Prostitution in Rhode Island

Prostitution in Rhode Island was outlawed in 2009. On November 3, 2009, Republican Governor Donald Carcieri signed into law a bill which makes the buying and selling of sexual services a crime.Prostitution was legal in Rhode Island between 1980 and 2009 because there was no specific statute to define the act and outlaw it, although associated activities were illegal, such as street solicitation, running a brothel, and pimping. With the passing of the law, Nevada became the only U.S. state which allows legal prostitution.

Same Old Song

Same Old Song (French: On connaît la chanson) is a 1997 French film. It was directed by Alain Resnais, and written by Agnès Jaoui and Jean-Pierre Bacri. Jaoui and Bacri also starred in the film with Sabine Azéma, Lambert Wilson, André Dussollier and Pierre Arditi.

Smoking/No Smoking

Smoking/No Smoking is a 1993 French comedy film. It was directed by Alain Resnais and written by Agnès Jaoui and Jean-Pierre Bacri, from the play Intimate Exchanges by Alan Ayckbourn. The film starred Pierre Arditi and Sabine Azéma.

It won the César Award for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor and Best Writing.

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