Ardahan Province

Ardahan Province (Turkish: Ardahan ili; Armenian: Արդահան; Georgian: არტაანი), is a province in the north-east of Turkey, at the very end of the country, where Turkey borders with Georgia and Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Ardahan.

Ardahan Province

Ardahan ili
Location of Ardahan Province in Turkey
Location of Ardahan Province in Turkey
CountryTurkey
RegionNortheast Anatolia
SubregionAğrı
Government
 • Electoral districtArdahan
Area
 • Total5,661 km2 (2,186 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total98,907
 • Density17/km2 (45/sq mi)
Area code(s)0478
Vehicle registration75

History

The first surviving record about this region is attributed to Strabo, who calls it Gogarene (Gugark) and mentions that it was a part of the Armenia, taken away from the Kingdom of Iberia.[2][3] In the Middle Ages Ardahan served as an important transit point for goods arriving from the Abbasid Caliphate and departing to the regions around the Black Sea. During the 8th to 10th centuries the region was in hands of the Bagrationi princes of Tao-Klarjeti, and later part of Kingdom of Georgia between 11th to 15th centuries. It was place where Byzantine-Georgian wars took a place. According to the Arab historian Yahya of Antioch, the Byzantines razed Ardahan and slaughtered its population in 1021.[3] The Mongols took hold of the region in the 1230s but the Georgian princes of Samtskhe were able to recapture it in 1266. As a result of Peace of Amasya, signed in 1555, Ardahan passed to Ottoman hands and reorganized into the Ardahan sanjak as part of eyalet of Childir. In 1578 Ottomans appointed the former Georgian prince, Manuchar (who took the name of Mustafa after converting to Islam) as the first governor.[4] From 1625 onwards the entire eyalet was a hereditary possession of the now-Muslim atabegs of Samtskhe,[5] which administered it as hereditary governors, with some exceptions, until the mid-18th century.[4]

In 1878, after the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), the region was incorporated into the Russian Empire, and until 1918 was known as Kars Oblast. Part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921, Ardahan was reclaimed by Turkey under the Treaty of Kars in 1921.

The construction of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline gave the local economy a brief boost from 2000 onwards.

Geography

Ardahan province is located in the far north east of Turkey, where the eastern extremity of the high plateau of Eastern Anatolia converges with the Lesser Caucasus mountain range. It is consequently an area of very high altitude and severe winters. This is attractive open countryside which however spends many months of the year under snow. At this altitude temperatures on average reach −20 °C (−4 °F) and can drop below freezing all year round, including summer months.

The local economy depends on farming and raising livestock. Until 1993 Ardahan was a district of the province of Kars, becoming a province in its own right has meant more investment in infrastructure

There are two crossing points into the Samtskhe–Javakheti district of Georgia, one at Posof and the other (currently closed) at Çıldır. The Turkish military have a strong presence in this border district, another boost to the local economy.

Climate

The predominant climate in the Ardahan province is humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) bordering on a subarctic climate (Dfc), with most large settlements in the province being located in lowest possible elevation areas, in attempt to avoid the year-round cold temperatures, thus staying just below the subarctic limit. Smaller locales, districts, villages and a significant portion of the landscape, exhibits a true subarctic climate (Dfc), being the second most widespread climate in the region.[6]

Population

Ardahan is an impoverished area that since the 1950s has seen a large number of its people migrate to other parts of Turkey or abroad. The population declined from 170,000 people in 1990 to 119,000 in 2000. The population is 105,454 as of 2010. Ethnic groups in the region include, Turks, Georgians and Azerbaijanis. In the period when the province was part of Russian Empire between 1878 and 1917, it was part of the militarily administered Kars Oblast.

Districts

Ardahan province is divided into 6 districts (capital district in bold):

Cities and towns

Places of interest

There is a unique natural incident, between mid of June and mid July during sunset, depending on angles of the sunrays. An image resembling the silhouette of Atatürk's face can be seen as a shadow on the hillside. It was first seen by a shepherd who was with his herd over the hill.[7]

See also

Coordinates: 41°06′47″N 42°49′15″E / 41.11306°N 42.82083°E

References

  1. ^ "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ Strabo. Geographica. 11.14.7.
  3. ^ a b (in Armenian) «Արդահան» [Ardahan]. Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1976, vol. ii, p. 7.
  4. ^ a b Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  5. ^ D. E. Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 140. GGKEY:4CFA3RCNXRP. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  6. ^ "Climate:Ardahan". Climate-data.org. Retrieved 2016-06-09.
  7. ^ https://www.ntv.com.tr/galeri/seyahat/ardahanda-ataturk-silueti-gorulmeye-baslandi,jqcEH5dVwU6oPHBYrDReXQ. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Akhurian Reservoir

Akhurian Reservoir (Armenian: Ախուրյանի ջրամբար; Turkish: Arpaçay Barajı) is a reservoir on the Akhurian River between Armenia and Turkey. The reservoir has a surface area of 54 km² and a volume of 525 million cubic meters. It is one of the largest reservoirs in the Caucasus, smaller than the Mingachevir reservoir and the Shamkir reservoir in Azerbaijan.

Its water is used for irrigation in Armenia's Aragatsotn, Armavir and Shirak provinces.

Water used on Turkey for irrigation (70000 ha agricultural area) in provinces of Kars and Ardahan.

Ardahan

Ardahan (Armenian: Արդահան, Ardahan; Georgian: არტაანი, Art’aani;) is a city in northeastern Turkey, near the Georgian border.

Ardahan (electoral district)

Ardahan is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects two members of parliament (deputies) to represent the province of the same name for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system.

Battle of Çıldır

The Battle of Çıldır was fought in 1578 during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590) .

Childir Eyalet

The Eyalet of Childir (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت ایالت چلدر; Eyālet-i Çıldır‎) or Akhalzik was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire in the Southwestern Caucasus. The area of the former Çıldır Eyalet is now divided between Samtskhe-Javakheti and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara in Georgia and provinces of Artvin, Ardahan and Erzurum in Turkey. The administrative center was Çıldır between 1578-1628, Ahıska between 1628-1829, and Oltu between 1829-1845.

Damal

Damal, formerly Petereke, is a town and district of Ardahan Province of Turkey, on the road from Kars to Posof.

Governor of Ardahan

The Governor of Ardahan (Turkish: Ardahan Valiliği) is the bureaucratic state official responsible for both national government and state affairs in the Province of Ardahan. Similar to the Governors of the 80 other Provinces of Turkey, the Governor of Ardahan is appointed by the Government of Turkey and is responsible for the implementation of government legislation within Ardahan. The Governor is also the most senior commander of both the Ardahan provincial police force and the Ardahan Gendarmerie.

Gugark

Gugark (Armenian: Գուգարք, Georgian: გოგარენე, Latin: Gogarene) was the 13th province of the ancient kingdom of Armenia. It now comprises parts of northern Armenia, northeast Turkey, and southwest Georgia.

Göle

Göle (Armenian: Կող, Kogh; Georgian: კოლა, Kola; Kurdish: Mêrdînik‎) is a small city and surrounding district in Ardahan Province of Turkey. The city was formerly known as Merdenik, Merdinik or Ardahan-ı Küçük ("Little Ardahan" in Ottoman Turkish).

Göle is a rural district, eighty per cent of the area comprising mountain and forest, with the remainder grazing land and meadow; the local economy depends on this grazing. Göle is famous for its yellow kaşar cheese. Some crops are grown, including grains and potatoes. With the high Allahuekber mountains to the south Göle is exposed to the north resulting in cold winters.

Hanak

Hanak is a district of Ardahan Province of Turkey, on the road from Ardahan to Posof.

Kars Eyalet

The Eyalet of Kars (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت قارص; Eyālet-i Ḳarṣ‎) was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was 6,212 square miles (16,090 km2).The town of Kars, which had been levelled to the ground by the Timur in 1368, was rebuilt as an Ottoman fortress in 1579 (1580 according to other sources) by Lala Mustafa Pasha, and became capital of an eyalet of six sanjaks and also a place of pilgrimage. It was conquered by Shah Abbas in 1604 and rebuilt by the Turks in 1616.The size of the Kars garrison in 1640s was 1,002 Janissaries and 301 local recruits. Total 1,303 garrison.

Kars Oblast

Kars Oblast (Russian: Карсская область, Karsskaya Oblast) was one of the oblasts of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire between 1878 and 1917. Its capital was the city of Kars, presently in the Republic of Turkey. The governorate bordered with the Ottoman Empire, Batum Oblast, Tiflis Governorate, Erivan Governorate, and from 1883 to 1903 the Kutais Governorate. It covered all of Turkey's present provinces of Kars and Ardahan and the northeastern part of Erzurum Province as well as a small part of Armenia.

Kartsakhi Lake

Kartsakhi Lake (Georgian: კარწახის ტბა, karts'akhis tba), or Lake Khozapini (Georgian: ხოზაფინის ტბა, khozap'inis tba; Turkish: Hazapin Gölü), or Lake Aktaş (Turkish: Aktaş Gölü), is a soda lake in the Caucasus Mountains. It sits on the international border between Georgia (53%) and Turkey (47%).

It is the second largest lake in Georgia, covering an area of 26.3 or 26.6 square kilometres at an altitude of 1799 m. It is fed by a number of creeks. During the rainy season its excess water discharges to Kura River.An important bird habitat, it holds one of the largest populations of Eurasian eagle-owl in the country, with the Dalmatian pelican and great white pelican. The village of Kartsakhi lies near its northeastern bank.

Lake Çıldır

Lake Çıldır (Turkish: Çıldır Gölü, Armenian: Ծովակ լիճ Tsovak lič, Georgian: ჩრდილი, ჩრდილის ტბა Črdilis tba, meaning "lake of shadows"), is a large freshwater lake in the Ardahan Province, northeastern part of Turkey. It is located at 41.0425°N 43.2552778°E / 41.0425; 43.2552778, close to the borders with Georgia and Armenia. Lake Çıldır is located at the elevation of about 1,900 m (6,200 ft) and is surrounded by a mountainous region. It has an area of 123.00 km2 (47.49 sq mi) and a maximum depth of about 42 m (138 ft). Water from the lake is used for irrigation.

List of populated places in Ardahan Province

Below is the list of populated places in Ardahan Province, Turkey by districts. In the following lists, first place in each list is the administrative center of the district.

Posof

Posof (Georgian: ფოცხოვი, Potskhovi) is a district of Ardahan Province of Turkey, in the far east of the country, 75 km from the city of Ardahan. It has a border crossing with neighboring Georgia at Türkgözü. Posof is well known for its handicrafts particularly its ornate silver belts and knives.

Çıldır

Çıldır (Armenian: Հիւսիսեան, Husenian; meaning "North"; Georgian: ჩრდილი, Chrdili; meaning "Shadow") is a district of Ardahan Province of Turkey.

Çıldır Dam

Çıldır Dam is a dam in Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Şeytan Castle

Şeytan Castle (Turkish: Şeytan Kalesi, Georgian: ქაჯის ციხე) is a castle in the Çıldır district of the Ardahan Province in Turkey.

The castle is located 1.5 kilometers northeast of the village of Yıldırımtepe. The cliffs surrounding the castle were as important to its protection as its walls. The castle was used continuously from the Hellenistic era to the Ottoman period, and was renovated or modified by each of its occupiers. It hosts cisterns, a staircase that descends to the water and a chapel. The name of the castle, meaning "the Devil's castle", originates from the myth that an evil spirit or a devil was sighted in the area in the past, which still survives as a superstition among the area's inhabitants.Ekvtime Takaishvili reported the existence of a prison in the castle. It is mentioned in the chronicles of Alp Arslan in 1064.

Ardahan Province of Turkey
Districts

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