Arctocephalus forsteri, the Australasian fur seal, South Australian fur seal, New Zealand fur seal, Antipodean fur seal, or long-nosed fur seal, is a species of fur seal found mainly around southern Australia and New Zealand. The name New Zealand fur seal is used by English speakers in New Zealand; kekeno is used in the Māori language. As of 2014, the common name long-nosed fur seal has been proposed for the population of seals inhabiting Australia.
Although the Australian and New Zealand populations show some genetic differences, their morphologies are very similar, and thus they remain classed as a single species. After the arrival of humans in New Zealand, and particularly after the arrival of Europeans in Australia and New Zealand, hunting reduced the population near to extinction.
|Distribution of the New Zealand fur seal|
Males have been reported as large as 160 kg; their average weight is about 126 kg. Males can be 2 metres long. Females are between 30–50 kg on average, and can be as long as 1.5 metres. Pups are 3.3–3.9 kg on average, and between 40 and 55 cm long. At 290 days old males are about 14.1 kg, and females are about 12.6 kg. They have external ears and hind flippers that rotate forward, which visibly distinguish them from other seals. They have a pointy nose with long pale whiskers. The fur seals are covered by two layers of fur. The coat is grey-brown on their back, and lighter on their belly. Some have white tips on longer upper hairs, which can give them a silver-like appearance.
So called "Upland Seals" once found on Antipodes Islands and Macquarie Island have been claimed as a distinct subspecies with thicker furs by scientists although it is unclear whether these seals were genetically distinct.
The species occurs in Australia and New Zealand. It is found in the coastal waters and on the offshore islands of southern Australia, from the south-west corner of Western Australia to just east of Kangaroo Island in South Australia, and also in southern Tasmania and the subantarctic Macquarie Island. Small populations are forming in Bass Strait and coastal waters of Victoria and southern New South Wales. Before the arrival of humans in New Zealand, the species bred around all the New Zealand mainland and its subantarctic islands. There are now established and expanding colonies around the entire South Island, on Stewart Island and all of the New Zealand subantarctic islands. There are also newly established breeding colonies on the North Island.
The species can "porpoise" out of the water when travelling quickly at sea. They can dive deeper and longer than any other fur seal. Females can dive for about 9 minutes and to a depth of about 312 metres, and can dive deeper and longer in autumn and winter. Males can dive for about 15 minutes to a depth of about 380 metres. On average, the species typically only dives for 1–2 minutes. When they dive for food they dive deeper during the day but shallower at night, because during the day their prey typically migrates to deeper depths and migrates back up during the night.
Lactating females alter their dive patterns in order to regularly care for their young. Dives are shorter, from around 9 minutes down to 5 minutes. Several longer trips may be taken at first to find patches of prey. The shorter dives then utilise these patches. Due to the differences in diving pattern between males and females, there is very little inter-sexual competition for food sources. Males typically forage over continental shelf breaks in deeper water, while females typically utilise the continental shelf as foraging grounds. It is believed that differences in diving abilities and depths could be the cause of some sexual dimorphism between males and females.
Diving behaviour by the pups begins in the months leading up to weaning, when the pups are nursing less. The pups begin to dive from the age of 6–10 months, yet weaning is known to occur between the ages of 8 and 11 months, so the young pups do not have much time to learn to forage. The pups need to progressively develop nocturnal diving skills while they still have their mothers' milk to fall back on if dives are unsuccessful. Age, physiological development, and experience are important factors for success in hunting and contribute to the development of the pups' diving ability and behaviour. This transitional period when young pups are becoming nutritionally independent while their foraging efficiency is rather low, is a time of high risk, and mortality can be very high. Based on scat samples, it has been found that the pups start by eating cephalopods and eventually making their way to fish, but this may just be a result of prey availability during different times of the year.
Males vocalise through a bark or whimper, either a guttural threat, a low-intensity threat, a full threat, or a submissive call. Females growl and also have a high-pitched pup attraction wail call. Pup-attraction calls allow communication from longer distances. Once together, females use olfactory recognition to confirm the pup as their own. In males, the full neck display is a non-combative posture that functions as a threat to surrounding males by which they are able to assess each other's dominance status.
Females mature between 4 and 6 years old, and males mature between 8 and 10 years old. These seals are polygynous. Males obtain and guard territory in late October before females arrive. Often females mate only once a year, and this usually occurs eight days postpartum for about 13 minutes on average. Females have a delayed implantation of the fertilised egg, so that implantation on the uterine wall does not occur for 3 months. Gestation occurs for 9 months Females are more aggressive near the time of birth, and do not like to be approached right after birth. Females will continue to reproduce until their death which is on average between 14 and 17 years of age.
Females first arrive on the shore between November and January, just a few days before giving birth, and stay close to the birth site for up to ten days. When they are close to labour they become very restless and irritable. When beginning labour, which can last as much as five hours, they lie down and toss their head in the air, straining forward on their fore flippers, lifting their hind quarters, or moving laterally, before slowly lowering their head down, a process they repeat until they finally give birth. In one study, observations of the actual birth, starting from when the pup was first seen, found an average of 2 minutes for a head-first delivery, but an average of 6.5 minutes if the pup came out tail first. Immediately after birth the mother begins frequently sniffing the newborn pup to better identify when she has to find it after a trip out to sea. Pups are fairly mature at birth, and within 60 minutes they start suckling for about 7 minutes. Eventually the suckling can exceed 33 minutes.
The mothers may take from 45 minutes to 3 days before leaving the pups to swim, and 6–12 days to go on longer feeding trips. Even then the mothers tend to not leave the pups for longer than 2 days. When the pups are about 21 days old they have been seen to congregate into little pods while their mothers are away. When the females return they only feed their own pups, and have been seen to be hostile toward pups that are not their own.
Female seals have been documented to have a gradual increase in trips for feeding throughout lactation. It has been found that mothers who have sons made longer foraging trips then the mothers who had daughters during the lactation period. When observing growth patterns in the male and female pups within two cohorts, it is recognised that the growth patterns are similar, however the males grow faster and are weaned off nursing heavier in some years. Suckling can occur for about 300 days. Pups start to eat solid food just before weaning, and are eventually weaned around September, when they disperse.
Pup mortality has been attributed to both natural factors and human interaction. The biggest natural cause of death for pups is starvation, followed by suffocation in the amnion, stillbirth, trampling, drowning, and predation. Human factors include the handling of pups, tagging, and human presence in general.
Their diet includes cephalopods, fish, and birds. Octopus and arrow squid make up most of their cephalopod diet. Individuals located near their southern range limit have been known to eat penguins as part of their diet. Stomach contents have been analysed and shown to include anchovy, barracuda, flounder, hagfish, lamprey, red cod, school shark, and many other species. Further analysis of otoliths from their scat show that for fish prey species, lantern fish composed the majority of their fish diet, followed by anchovies, pink cod, and hoki. There are different factors that affect their diet, such as season, sex, breeding, surrounding colony, oceanography, and climatic patterns.
Known predators are killer whales, sharks, male New Zealand sea lions, and possibly leopard seals. New Zealand sea lions are also known to target pups as their prey. Several regurgitations by sea lions have been found to contain remains of fur seal pups, some with plastic tags previously attached to female fur seal pups.
Before the arrival of humans, the seals bred around all of New Zealand. Hunting by the first New Zealand settlers, the Maori, reduced their range. Commercial hunting from shortly after the European discovery of New Zealand in the 18th century until the late 19th century reduced the population near to extinction.
Today commercial fisheries are one of the main sources of death of New Zealand fur seals usually by entanglement and drowning. Monitoring of these pinnipeds in the Kaikoura region found that entanglements with green trawl nets and plastic strapping tape were the most common. A little less than half of the individuals were successfully released with good chances of survival even after significant entanglement wounds. It has been estimated by the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society that over 10,000 seals could have drowned in nets between 1989 and 1998. They are also known to have been shot by commercial and recreational fishermen, because they are assumed to interfere with fishing gear. How often these shootings occur is unknown, but pressure groups have stated that the conflict between the seals and commercial fisheries is expected to increase. On 21 August 2014, two decomposing animals were found beheaded near Louth Bay in South Australia. The circumstances of their deaths were considered suspicious and an investigation followed their discovery. In 2015, several conservative members of Parliament encouraged public debate around the potential implementation of seal culling in South Australia in response to increasing interactions with South Australian commercial fisheries. As of July 2015, the killing of long-nosed fur seals remains an illegal act.
Human activity near seal rookeries have been correlated to distress and panic, resulting in indirect deaths of pups. The use of metal cattle ear tags on pups has also been associated with a decrease in pup fitness due to incomplete healing of the tag site.
In Australian Commonwealth waters, Arctocephalus forsteri is protected under the Environment Protection Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC) Act 1999 under which it is listed as a protected marine species. The species is also protected within the jurisdictions of the following Australian states:
|New South Wales||Vulnerable||Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (NSW)|
|South Australia||Marine mammal||National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (SA)|
|Tasmania||Rare||Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (TAS)|
|Victoria||Protected||Wildlife Act 1975 (Vic)|
|Western Australia||Other protected fauna||Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (WA)|
The species received protection by the creation of a 16 million hectare Marine Park located on the eastern side of Macquarie island in 2000. The Tasmanian government has also extended to Macquarie Island Nature Reserve by 3 nautical miles surrounding the island.
Adrian Stephen Pederick (born 4 September 1962) is an Australian politician, representing the South Australian House of Assembly seat of Hammond for the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia.
Pederick won Hammond from Liberal-turned-independent Peter Lewis who left to contest a seat in the Upper House. Previous to his election in to politics, Pederick managed a family dryland and grazing enterprise property at Coomandook for the past 14 years and is a supporter of local and regional community causes and events. The 2006 election saw Pederick elected with a 12.0-point margin. He was reelected for a third consecutive term in the 2014 election.Arctocephalus
The genus Arctocephalus consists of fur seals. Arctocephalus translates to "bear head."Avoid Bay Islands Conservation Park
The Avoid Bay Islands Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia occupying three islands located west-southwest of Coffin Bay of Eyre Peninsula. The group, which includes Black Rocks and Sudden Jerk Island (also known as Avoid Island), supports breeding populations of seabirds and marine mammals. Colonies of the endangered Australian Sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) and protected New Zealand Fur-seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) occur on some of these islands.
The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.Bachelor herd
A bachelor herd is a herd of (usually) juvenile male animals who are still sexually immature or 'harem'-forming animals who have been thrown out of their parent groups but not yet formed a new family group. It may also refer to a group of males who are not currently territorial or mating with females. Examples include seals, dolphins, lions, and many herbivores such as deer, horses, and elephants. Bachelor herds are thought to provide useful protection for social animals against more established herd competition or aggressive, dominant males. Males in bachelor herds are sometimes closely related to each other. Some animals, for example New Zealand fur seals, live in a bachelor herd all year except for the mating season, when there is a substantial increase in aggression and competition. In many species, males and females move in separate groups, often coming together at mating time, or to fight for territory or mating partners. In many species it is common for males to leave or be driven from the group as they mature, and they may wander as lone animals or form a bachelor group for the time being. This arrangement may be long term and stable, or short term until they find a new group to join.Canterbury-Otago tussock grasslands
The Canterbury-Otago tussock grasslands are an ecoregion of South Island, New Zealand.Cap Island Conservation Park
Cap Island Conservation Park is located 7.5 km offshore, west of Mount Misery, Eyre Peninsula. The park covers Cap Island's 8ha surface. The island consists of a granite base and a calcarenite mantle; its margins steeply over-hanging and eroded. Typical vegetation is a low Nitre Bush (Nitraria billardierei) shrubland. Cap Island Conservation Park was constituted by statute in 1972 to conserve a sea bird breeding area and Australian Sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) and New Zealand Fur-seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) haul-out areas.Cap Island also bears the alternative name of Gap Island and historically was also known as Rocky Island.DNA virus
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The nucleic acid is usually double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) but may also be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). DNA viruses belong to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. Single-stranded DNA is usually expanded to double-stranded in infected cells. Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses.Isles of St Francis Conservation Park
Isles of St Francis Conservation Park was a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on islands within the Isles of St Francis off the west coast of Eyre Peninsula about 562 kilometres (349 mi) north-west of the state capital of Adelaide and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) south-west of the town of Ceduna.The conservation park consisted of land on ten (sic) islands within the Isles of St Francis which form the south-westerly extension of the Nuyts Archipelago.The land first received protected area status as a pair of fauna conservation reserves proclaimed on 16 March 1967 under the Crown Lands Act 1929 in respect to Freeling Island and Smooth Island. Additional fauna conservation reserves were proclaimed on 4 November 1967 in respect to Dog Island, Egg Island, Fenelon Island, Hart Island, Masillon Island, West Island and all of St Francis Island with exception to section 220 which had been acquired by the Australian government. On 27 April 1972, all of the land proclaimed as fauna conservation reserves was reconstituted as the Isles of St Francis Conservation Park under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. On 19 December 1991, additional land was added to the conservation park to extend protection over land located between high tide and low tide. As of 2010, the conservation park covered an area of 12.36 square kilometres (4.77 sq mi).On 25 August 2011, all of the land within the conservation park was constituted as part of the Nuyts Archipelago Wilderness Protection Area with the result that the conservation park ceased to exist.In 1980, the conservation park was described as follows:
St Francis Island is the site of a reintroduction program for the endangered brush tailed bettong (Bettongia penicillata), which became extinct on the island in the early 1900s. St Francis Island is also one of only two islands in South Australia which has a population of the vulnerable southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). This island also supports a population of the carpet snake (Morelia spilota), which is vulnerable in South Australia and in decline throughout its mainland range. Several rare or uncommon bird species breed on the Isles, including Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae), the second rarest goose species in the world and the banded rail (Rallus philippensis). Significant breeding colonies of Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), one of the rarest marine mammals in the world, occur on Fenelon and West Islands… St Francis granite formation outcrops on eastern St Francis Island and this is a type locality… The Isles also support a large breeding population of short tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris). New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) breed on Fenelon Island...
This group of nine islands lies off the coast of South Australia near Ceduna, beyond the Nuyts Archipelago group of islands. The total area covered by the group is 1,312 ha, the largest islands in the group being St Francis Island (809ha), Masillon Island (202 ha) and Egg, Dog and West Islands (all 60 ha in area). The islands consist of limestone and sand over granite bases. Nuyts Volcanics formation outcrops on western St Francis Island, and St Francis Granite formation outcrops on eastern St Francis Island. Both are considered geological monuments. The vegetation on the larger islands consists mostly of coast saltbush (Atriplex cinerea) shrubland on the low-lying areas, with grassland and scattered low shrubs covering the remainder. Populations of bush rat (Rattus fuscipes) occur on Dog and Masillon Islands. St Francis is also the site of a breeding population of short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris). Other birds which breed on the Isles include Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis novaehollandiae), banded rail (Rallus philippensis), rock parrot (Neophema petrophila) and little penguin (Eudyptula minor). Significant breeding colonies of Australian sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) occur on Fenelon and West Islands and New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) breed on Fenelon Island…
For most of these islands, pastoral leases have been held since the late 1800s. St Francis Island is the most disturbed of the group, a large part of it having been cleared and the whole island grazed by sheep, but the vegetation is now recovering. Introduced plants are common on St Francis Island. The remaining islands are in their natural state.
The conservation park was classified in 2010 as being an IUCN Category Ia protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate.List of carnivorans by population
This is a list of estimated global populations of Carnivora species. This list is not comprehensive, as not all carnivorans have had their numbers quantified.List of mammals of New Zealand
This is a list of the native living mammals of New Zealand. It does not include introduced species, nor extinct Saint Bathans Fauna.List of mammals of South Australia
This is a list of mammals of South Australia. It includes all mammals recorded in South Australia since European settlement, including some known only from subfossil remains, and including naturalised alien species.
Except where otherwise referenced, this list is based upon Kemper, Catherine; Reardon, Terry; Queale, Lynette (2000). "Mammals". In Robinson, A. C.; Casperson, K. D.; Hutchinson, M. N. A list of the vertebrates of South Australia. Biological Survey of South Australia..List of mammals of Victoria
This is a list of mammals of Victoria, Australia:
Acrobates pygmaeus (feathertail glider)
Aepyprymnus rufescens (rufous rat-kangaroo)
Antechinus agilis (agile antechinus)
Antechinus flavipes (yellow-footed antechinus)
Antechinus minimus (swamp antechinus)
Antechinus swainsonii (dusky antechinus)
Arctocephalus forsteri (New Zealand fur seal)
Arctocephalus pusillus (Cape fur seal)
Arctocephalus tropicalis (subantarctic fur seal)
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (minke whale)
Balaenoptera edeni (Bryde's whale)
Balaenoptera musculus (blue whale)
Balaenoptera physalus (fin whale)
Bettongia gaimardi (eastern bettong)
Bettongia penicillata (woylie)
Burramys parvus (mountain pygmy possum)
Canis lupus dingo (dingo)
Caperea marginata (pygmy right whale)
Capra hircus (goat) — naturalised
Cercartetus concinnus (southwestern pygmy possum)
Cercartetus lepidus (Tasmanian pygmy possum)
Cercartetus nanus (eastern pygmy possum)
Axis axis (axis deer) — naturalised
Dama dama (fallow deer) — naturalised
Cervus timorensis (rusa deer) — naturalised
Chalinolobus gouldii (Gould's wattled bat)
Chalinolobus morio (chocolate wattled bat)
Chaeropus ecaudatus (pig-footed bandicoot) - extinct
Conilurus albipes (white-footed rabbit-rat)
Dasyurus maculatus (tiger quoll)
Dasyurus geoffroii (western quoll)
Dasyurus viverrinus (eastern quoll)
Delphinus delphis (short-beaked common dolphin)
Equus caballus (horse) — naturalised
Eubalaena australis (southern right whale)
Falsistrellus tasmaniensis (eastern false pipistrelle)
Felis catus (cat) — naturalised
Globicephala melas (long-finned pilot whale)
Grampus griseus (Risso's dolphin)
Gymnobelideus leadbeateri (Leadbeater's possum)
Hydromys chrysogaster (water rat)
Hydrurga leptonyx (leopard seal)
Hyperoodon planifrons (bottlenose whale)
Isoodon obesulus (southern brown bandicoot)
Kogia breviceps (pygmy sperm whale)
Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser's dolphin)
Lagorchestes leporides (eastern hare-wallaby) — extinct
Lepus europaeus (brown hare) — naturalised
Leporillus apicalis (lesser stick rat)
Lobodon carcinophaga (crabeater seal)
Macropus fuliginosus (western grey kangaroo)
Macropus giganteus (eastern grey kangaroo)
Macropus greyi (toolache wallaby) — extinct
Macropus robustus (eastern wallaroo)
Macropus rufogriseus (red-necked wallaby)
Macropus rufus (red kangaroo)
Macrotis lagotis (greater bilby)
Mastacomys fuscus (broad-toothed mouse)
Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale)
Mesoplodon bowdoini (Andrews' beaked whale)
Mesoplodon densirostris (Blainville's beaked whale)
Mesoplodon ginkgodens (ginkgo-toothed beaked whale)
Mesoplodon grayi (Gray's beaked whale)
Mesoplodon layardii (Layard's beaked whale)
Mesoplodon mirus (True's beaked whale)
Miniopterus schreibersii (common bentwing bat)
Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seal)
Mormopterus planiceps (southern free-tailed bat)
Mus musculus (house mouse) — naturalised
Myotis adversus (large-footed bat)
Neophoca cinerea (Australian sea lion)
Ningaui yvonneae (southern ningaui)
Notomys mitchellii (Mitchell's hopping mouse)
Nyctophilus geoffroyi (lesser long-eared bat)
Nyctophilus gouldi (Gould's long-eared bat)
Nyctophilus timoriensis (greater long-eared bat)
Onychogalea fraenata (bridled nail-tail wallaby)
Orcinus orca (orca)
Ornithorhynchus anatinus (platypus)
Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) — naturalised
Perameles bougainville (western barred bandicoot)
Perameles gunnii (eastern barred bandicoot)
Perameles nasuta (long-nosed bandicoot)
Petauroides volans (greater glider)
Petaurus australis (yellow-bellied glider)
Petaurus breviceps (sugar glider)
Petaurus norfolcensis (squirrel glider)
Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby)
Phascogale calura (red-tailed phascogale)
Phascogale tapoatafa (brush-tailed phascogale)
Phascolarctos cinereus (koala)
Physeter macrocephalus (sperm whale)
Planigale gilesi (paucident planigale)
Potorous longipes (long-footed potoroo)
Potorous tridactylus (long-nosed potoroo)
Pseudocheirus peregrinus (common ringtail possum)
Pseudomys apodemoides (silky mouse)
Pseudomys australis (plains rat)
Pseudomys bolami (Bolam's mouse)
Pseudomys desertor (brown desert mouse)
Pseudomys fumeus (smoky mouse)
Pseudomys gouldii (Gould's mouse)
Pseudomys novaehollandiae (New Holland mouse)
Pseudomys shortridgei (heath mouse)
Pseudorca crassidens (false killer whale)
Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying-fox)
Pteropus scapulatus (little red flying-fox)
Rattus fuscipes (bush rat)
Rattus lutreolus (Australian swamp rat)
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) — naturalised
Rattus rattus (black rat) — naturalised
Rhinolophus megaphyllus (smaller horseshoe bat)
Saccolaimus flaviventris (yellow-bellied pouched bat)
Scotorepens balstoni (western broad-nosed bat)
Scotorepens orion (eastern broad-nosed bat)
Sminthopsis crassicaudata (fat-tailed dunnart)
Sminthopsis leucopus (white-footed dunnart)
Sminthopsis murina (slender-tailed dunnart)
Sus scrofa (pig) — naturalised
Tachyglossus aculeatus (short-beaked echidna)
Tadarida australis (white-striped free-tailed bat)
Thylogale billardierii (Tasmanian pademelon)
Trichosurus caninus (short-eared possum)
Trichosurus vulpecula (common brushtail possum)
Tursiops australis (burrunan dolphin)
Tursiops truncatus (bottlenose dolphin)
Vespadelus baverstocki (inland forest bat)
Vespadelus darlingtoni (large forest bat)
Vespadelus regulus (southern forest bat)
Vespadelus vulturnus (little forest bat)
Vombatus ursinus (common wombat)
Vulpes vulpes (fox) — naturalised
Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby)
Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier's beaked whale)List of mammals of Western Australia
This is a list of mammals of Western Australia, including both native and naturalised species.List of marine mammal species
Marine mammals comprise over 130 living and recently extinct species in three taxonomic orders. The Society for Marine Mammalogy, an international scientific society, maintains a list of valid species and subspecies, most recently updated in October 2015. This list follows the Society's taxonomy regarding and subspecies.
Conservation status codes listed follow the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v. 2014.3; data current at 19 January 2015) and are clickable to link to IUCN Red List species pages.Montague Island (Australia)
Montague Island is a continental island contained within the Montague Island Nature Reserve, a protected nature reserve that is located offshore from the South Coast region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The nearest town located onshore from the 81-hectare (200-acre) reserve and island is Narooma, situated approximately 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) to the northwest.Montague Island is the second largest island off the New South Wales east coast other than Lord Howe Island. It has been classified by the National Trust as a Landscape Conservation Area for its scenic, scientific and historical values. The Montague Island Light buildings are entered on the Register of the National Estate because of the architectural quality of the tower and residences.The island was first sighted by Europeans in 1770 by James Cook and named Cape Dromedary, then identified as an island and named by the master of the Second Fleet convict transport Surprize after George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax.Montague Island is a popular tourist destination, known for its lighthouse, wildlife, most especially little penguins (Eudyptula minor), and recreational activities; managed by the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NPWS). Public access to the island is restricted to guided tours conducted by the NPWS in association with private operators.Seal culling in South Australia
Seal culling in South Australia was strongly advocated for in 2015 in response to increasing interactions of Arctocephalus forsteri, the indigenous long-nosed fur seal (also known as the New Zealand fur seal), with the state's fishing industry. In the 19th century, both fur seals and Australian sea lions were hunted for their hides. During the 20th century, seals were sometimes culled on the assumption that they were competing with fishermen. As of 2018 seal culling is illegal, but remains a topic of public debate. All pinnipeds in South Australia remain fully protected under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 as listed Marine Mammals. As of 2016, there were an estimated 100,000 long-nosed fur seals in South Australian waters.Whidbey Isles Conservation Park
The Whidbey Isles Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia which consists of seven islands located west-southwest of Coffin Bay, lower Eyre Peninsula. The group, which includes the Four Hummocks group, Perforated Island, Price Island and Golden Island, supports breeding populations of seabirds and marine mammals. Colonies of the endangered Australian Sea-lion (Neophoca cinerea) and protected New Zealand Fur-seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) occur on some of these islands. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.
Extant Carnivora species