Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar

Diwan Bahadur Sir Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar, KCSI[2][3] (14 October 1887 – 17 July 1976) was an Indian lawyer, diplomat and statesman who served as a senior leader of the Justice Party and in various administrative and bureaucratic posts in pre-independence and independent India.

Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar was born on 14 October 1887 in the town of Kurnool and had his schooling in Kurnool. He graduated from the Madras Christian College and studied law at the Madras Law College. On completion of his studies, practised as a lawyer before joining the Justice Party and entering politics. Mudaliar was nominated to the Madras Legislative Council in 1920 and served from 1920 to 1926 and as a member of the Madras Legislative Assembly from 1931 to 1934, losing to S. Satyamurti in the 1934 elections. He served as a member of the Imperial Legislative Council from 1939 to 1941, as a part of Winston Churchill's war cabinet from 1942 to 1945 and as the Indian Representative in the Pacific War Council. He was India's delegate to the San Francisco Conference and served as the first President of the United Nations Economic and Social Council.[1] He also served as the last Diwan of Mysore kingdom and occupied the seat from 1946 to 1949.


Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar

ARMudaliar
Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar in 1934
24th Diwan of the Mysore Kingdom
In office
August 1946 – November, 1949
MonarchJayachamaraja Wodeyar Bahadur
Preceded byN. Madhava Rao
Succeeded bypost abolished
President of the United Nations Economic and Social Council[1]
In office
23 January 1946 – 23 January 1947
Preceded byNone
Succeeded byJan Papanek
Member of the Imperial War Cabinet
In office
1942–1945
MonarchGeorge VI
Prime MinisterWinston Churchill
Succeeded byWar Cabinet disbanded
Member of the Viceroy's Executive Council
In office
1939–1942
MonarchGeorge VI of the United Kingdom
Governor-GeneralVictor Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow
Personal details
Born14 October 1887
Kurnool, Madras Presidency
Died17 July 1976 (aged 88)
Madras
NationalityIndian
Political partyJustice Party
Alma materMadras Christian College
Occupationdiplomat
Professionlawyer

Early life

Ramasamy Mudaliar was born on 14 October 1887 in Kurnool in a Tamil-speaking Thuluva Vellalar(agamudayar) family. He was the eldest of a pair of twins, the other being Arcot Lakshmanaswamy Mudaliar.[4] He studied at Municipal High school, Kurnool, and graduated in arts from Madras Christian College.[4] On graduation, Mudaliar studied law and was nominated to the Madras Legislative Council.[4] Uncle to World War II veteran Commander V.S.P. Mudaliar.[5]

Justice Party

Ramasamy Mudaliar was a part of the Justice Party ever since its inception in 1917 and served as its general secretary.[6] In July 1918, Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar went to England along with Dr. T. M. Nair and Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu as a part of the Justice Party delegation to argue in favor of communal representation and give evidence before the Reforms Committee.[7] The evidence was taken just before Dr. Nair's death on 17 July 1919.

Ramasamy Mudaliar rose in stature gradually and began to be regarded as the "brain of the Justice Party".[8] He assisted in coordinating between non-Brahmins in different parts of India and organizing non-Brahmin conferences.[8] Mudaliar was a prominent orator and was known for his inspiring speeches.[8]

In the elections to the Madras Legislative Council held on 8 November 1926, the Justice Party lost the elections, winning just 21 of the 98 seats in the council.[9] Mudaliar was one of the many who met with failure in the elections. Mudaliar took a temporary retirement from politics and replaced P. N. Raman Pillai as the editor of Justice, the mouthpiece of the Justice Party.[8] Under Mudaliar, there was a tremendous growth in circulation, and the Justice became widely popular.[8] On 1 March 1929, Mudaliar appeared before the Simon Commission along with Sir A. T. Paneerselvam, another important leader of the Justice Party, to provide evidence on behalf of the Justice Party.[8] Mudaliar served as the mayor of Madras from 1928 to 1930. In 1935, Mudaliar resigned as the chief editor of Justice following his appointment to the Tariff Board.[8] Mudaliar was knighted in the 1937 Coronation Honours List, by which time he was a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India.[10] He received the accolade at Buckingham Palace on 25 February 1937.[11]

All India Non-Brahmin Movement

Mudaliar maintained friendly relations with Shahu Maharaj and non-Brahmin leaders from Maharashtra and parts of North India and helped in coordinating between and uniting leaders from different parts of India and in organising non-Brahmin conferences.[12] Mudaliar was a participant in the Satara non-Brahmin Conference held on 18 December 1922.[12] Rajaram II presided over this conference.[12] He also participated in the All-India Non-Brahmin Conference held at Belgaum on 26 December 1924 where Mudaliar's oratory was appreciated. At the Seventh Non-Brahmin Conference held on 8 February 1925, he appealed for unity amongst non-Brahmins.[12][13]

Following the death of Sir P. T. Theagaroya Chetty in 1925, Ramasamy Mudaliar functioned as the sole link between Shahu Maharaj's Satya Shodhak Samaj and the Justice Party. He assisted the Raja of Panagal in organising an All-India Non-Brahmin Confederation at Victoria Hall, Madras on 19 December 1925. Mudaliar supported the candidature of B. V. Jadhav who was eventually appointed President. On 26 December 1925, he organised a second conference at Amaravati. The conference comprised two sessions. The Maharaja of Kolhapur presided over the first while the Raja of Panagal presided over the second. In the second session of the Conference, Mudaliar said:

It was too late in the day for me to defend what was the Non-Brahmin movement. When its activities had spread from Bombay to Madras, from the Vindhya mountains to Cape Comorin, its very extent and the lightning rapidity with which its principles have pervaded the country will be the best justification of the Movement

Mudaliar's utterances at this conference became the target of The Hindu, which criticised him by saying that "the Speaker was desiring to produce an effect in another province, forced him to draw rather freely on his imagination".

As member of the War Cabinet

British Overseas Airways Corporation and Qantas, 1940-1945. CH7068
Poole, Dorset, Digvijaysinhji Ranjitsinhji, the Maharajah Jam Sahib of Nawanagar and Sir A. Ramaswamy Mudaliar arrived from India for talks with the War Cabinet (between 1940-1945).

Shortly before the Second World War broke out in 1939, Ramaswamy Mudaliar was appointed member of the Viceroy's Executive Council.[14][15] In June 1942, he was knighted again as a KCSI. In July 1942, Ramasamy Mudaliar was appointed to Prime Minister Winston Churchill's War Cabinet, one of the two Indians nominated to the post, with equal rights and privileges as representatives from Britain's dominions.[16][17] I

Doctor of Civil Law

Oxford University confirmed "Doctor of Civil Law" to Mudaliar for appreciating his contribution during the Second World War time. [18]

As president of ECOSOC

Mudaliar served as India's delegate to the United Nations at the San Francisco Conference between 25 April and 26 June 1945, where he chaired the committee which discussed economic and social problems.[19] Mudaliar was elected as the First President of the Economic and Social Council during its session at Church House, London, on 23 January 1946.[1][20][21] Under his presidency, the Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in February 1946 calling for an international health conference.[22] At the health conference which was eventually held on 19 June 1946, inaugurated by Sir Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar, the World Health Organization came into being and the constitution for the new organisation was read out and approved by delegates from 61 nations.[23] On the expiry of his one-year term, he returned to India and took over as the Chief Minister of Mysore.

As Diwan of Mysore

Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar was appointed as the dewan in 1946.[24] He succeeded Dewan N. Madhava Rao. He presided over a very turbulent period. On 3 June 1947, Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy made a public declaration about the acceptance by the Indian Leaders for partition of India in to two Independent dominion. This announcement had a tremendous impact on the Indian States. Early in June 1947. the Dewan convened a Press Conference, at Bangalore, and announced that the Mysore Government had taken a decision to accede to the New dominion of India and to send its representatives to the Indian Constituent assembly. Thereafter British parliament passed the Indian Independence Act, 1947 on 15 July 1947 and the Bill received Royal Assent on 18 July 1947. This act provided for the creation of independent dominion of India and Pakistan on 15 Aug 1947. This act also freed the Indian states from the suzerainty of British Government. There were a lot of misgivings about the lapse of suzerainty and the resultant freedom given to the over 560 Indian States. Indian leaders drafted an Instrument of Accession asking the Rulers to accede to the dominion government on three subjects of Defence, Communication and External affairs. Maharaja of Mysore executed the Instrument of accession on 9 Aug 1947 and the same was accepted by the Governor General of India on 16 Aug 1947. But this also gave impetus to the local congress leaders to renew their demand for a Responsible Government. This led to an agitation known as " Mysore Chalo". There appears to be an obfuscation of facts among the agitating public that Mysore Maharaja on the advice of the Dewan and his secretary Sir T. Thamboo Chetty was refusing to join the Indian Union. The truth of the matter was India was not a Union then. India had just become an Independent Dominion. Maharaja of Mysore was one of the earliest to sign the Instrument of accession. Maharaja soon on 24 Sept 1947 gave his assent to setting up of a Responsible Government and on 25 Oct 1947, Mr. K.C. Reddy became the First Chief Minister with a cabinet of nine ministers. But Dewan continued to remain asa link between the Cabinet and the Maharaja. But as Maharaja accepted the recommendation of the Constituent assembly of Mysore to accept the Constitution of India for the state of Mysore and become a Part-B state in the soon to be formed Republic of India, and issued a proclamation to this effect on 25 Nov 1949. With this the post of Dewan was also abolished. During his tenure as Diwan of Mysore, Mudaliar organised a number of Tamil music concerts in the Mysore kingdom in order to raise money for the restoration of Carnatic musician Tyagaraja's samadhi or tomb at Tiruvaiyaru.[25] Mr. Ramasamy Mudaliar was sent by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru as head of the Indian Delegation to New York to argue India's case in The Security Council when Hyderabad appealed to it against Accession to India and eloquently argued the case for India and Security council decided in favour of India.

Later years

Mudaliar was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1954 and the Padma Vibhushan in 1970.[26] The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) was established on 5 January 1955 and Sir Mr. Arcot Ramaswami Mudaliar was elected as the first Chairman of ICICI Ltd. In his later years, Mudaliar served as the Chairman of the India Steamship Company and of the Tube Investments of India, until his death in 1976; helped AMM group setup TI cycle of India.[27] AMM group runs Sir Ramaswamy Mudaliar higher secondary school in Ambattur in remembrance of him.[28] A.R.L.M. Matriculation Higher Secondary School is run by his family in his remembrance. His sons are based out of United States.

Religious beliefs

Despite his violent tirades against Varnashrama dharma and Hindu scriptures in his writings and editorials in the Justice, Ramasamy Mudaliar was known to be a staunch Vaishnavite. He regularly sported the Vaishnavite namam. Once while offered beef during a visit to England, he refused it with horror.[29]

Works

  • Searchlight on Council debates: speeches in the Madras Legislative Council. Orient Longman. 1960.
  • Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar (1987). Mirror of the year: a collection of Sir A. Ramaswami Mudaliar's editorials in Justice, 1927. Dravidar Kazhagam.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "UN Economic and Social Council". www.un.org.
  2. ^ Whitaker, Joseph (1964). An Almanack for the Year of Our Lord. J. Whitaker. p. 286.
  3. ^ The International Who's who. Europa Publications Ltd. 1956. p. 656.
  4. ^ a b c Muthiah, S. (13 October 2003). "Achievements in double". The Hindu: Metro Plus. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-10-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 152
  7. ^ Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 69
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 153
  9. ^ Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 189
  10. ^ "No. 34365". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 January 1937. pp. 688–689.
  11. ^ "No. 34375". The London Gazette. 26 February 1937. p. 1324.
  12. ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 48
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of Political Parties, Pg 49
  14. ^ Menon, V. P. (1998). Transfer of Power in India. Orient Blackswan. p. 143. ISBN 978-81-250-0884-2.
  15. ^ "No. 34625". The London Gazette. 12 May 1939. p. 3194.
  16. ^ http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/sir-ramaswami-mudaliar-and-sir-v-t-krishnamachari-indian-news-photo/138601582?Language=en-GB
  17. ^ "Britain's Gambit". Time Magazine. 13 July 1942. Retrieved 2008-11-02.
  18. ^ நகரத்தூதன் (City Herald) , 22-7-1945, Page.5
  19. ^ "50 Years of SEARO in South East Asia: 1948–1957, the Second Decade". About SEARO. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 8 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  20. ^ "BACKGROUND INFORMATION". United Nations Economic and Social Council. Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  21. ^ "List of Presidents of ECOSOC". United Nations. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13.
  22. ^ "Pre WHO Years". About SEARO. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 8 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  23. ^ "The emergence of the World Health Organization:Pre WHO Years". About SEARO. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 8 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  24. ^ "Diwans of Mysore". Princely States of India K–Z. worldstatesman.org. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  25. ^ S. Muthiah (27 October 2003). "When the postman knocked". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
  26. ^ M. C. Sarkar (1970). Hindustan year-book and who's who, Volume 38. p. 259.
  27. ^ Muthiah, S. (5 October 2009). "Cycling into the future". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
  28. ^ "Sir Ramaswamy Mudaliar School - About Us". www.srmschool.org.
  29. ^ Sir Alan Lascelles, Duff Hart-Davis (2006). King's counsellor: abdication and war : the diaries of Sir Alan Lascelles. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-297-85155-4.

References

  • Ralhan, O. P. (2002). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. ISBN 978-81-7488-865-5.
1920 Madras Presidency Legislative Council election

The first legislative council election to Madras Presidency after the establishment of dyarchical system of government by the Government of India Act, 1935, was held in November 1920. Indian National Congress boycotted the election due to its participation in the Non-cooperation movement. The election occurred during the early stages of non-Brahmin movement and the major issue of the election was anti-Brahminism. Justice party won the election with no significant opposition and A. Subbarayalu Reddiar became the first Chief Minister of the presidency.

1926 Madras Presidency Legislative Council election

The third legislative council election to Madras Presidency after the establishment of dyarchical system of government by the Government of India Act, 1919, was held in November 1926. Justice party lost the election to Swaraj Party. However, as the Swaraja Party refused to form the Government, the Governor of Madras set up an independent government under the leadership of P. Subbarayan and with the support of nominated members.

1930 Indian general election

General elections were held in British India in September 1930. They were boycotted by the Indian National Congress and marked by public apathy. The newly elected Central Legislative Assembly met for the first time on 14 January 1931.

1934 Madras Presidency Legislative Council election

In the fifth legislative council election to Madras Presidency after the establishment of dyarchical system of government by the Government of India Act, 1919 the ruling Justice party lost the election and the opposition Swaraj Party emerged as the single largest party. However, it refused to form the government, due to its opposition to dyarchy. The incumbent chief minister, Raja of Bobbili retained power and formed a minority government.

1937 Madras Presidency Legislative Council election

The first legislative council election for the Madras Presidency after the establishment of a bicameral legislature by the Government of India Act of 1935 was held in February 1937. The Indian National Congress obtained a majority by winning 27 out of 46 seats in the Legislative Council for which the elections were held. This was the first electoral victory for the Congress in the presidency since elections were first conducted for the Council in 1920 and C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) became the Chief Minister. The Justice Party which had ruled the presidency for most of the previous 17 years was voted out of power. Congress also won the Legislative assembly election held simultaneously.

A.R.L.M. Matriculation Higher Secondary School

Arcot Ramasamy Lakshmanaswami Mudhaliyar Matriculation Higher Secondary School, known as ARLM Matriculation Higher Secondary School is a school in Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, India. It was founded by, and named after, the Arcot Twins Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar and A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar. Located in the heart of Cuddalore, it has a 7.5-acre (3.0 ha) campus. The school follows Matriculation unit system for its curriculum.

A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar

Diwan Bahadur Sir Arcot Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar, FRCOG, FACS (14 October 1887 – 1974) was an Indian educationist and physician. He was the identical younger twin brother of Sir Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar. Initial education was in Kurnool and they moved to Chennai in 1903.He pursued his education from the prestigious Madras Christian College. He later went on to become the longest serving Vice-Chancellor of Madras University (for 27 years) and principal of Madras Medical College. He was also the Deputy Leader of the Indian delegation to the First World Health Assembly in Geneva in 1948. He was elected as the chairman of the World Health Organization (WHO) Executive Board in 1949 and 1950, was Vice-President of the Eighth World Health Assembly in 1955 and President of the Fourteenth World Health Assembly.

Administration of the Kingdom of Mysore

The Kingdom of Mysore (Kannada: ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ; 1399 – 1947 CE) was a kingdom in southern India founded in 1399 by Yaduraya in the region of the modern city of Mysore, in the Karnataka state. The Wodeyar dynasty, as the ruling family is known, ruled the southern Karnataka region until Indian independence in 1947, when the kingdom was merged with the Union of India.

Central Legislative Assembly

The Central Legislative Assembly was the lower house of the Imperial Legislative Council, the legislature of British India. It was created by the Government of India Act 1919, implementing the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms. It was also sometimes called the Indian Legislative Assembly and the Imperial Legislative Assembly. The Council of States was the upper house of the legislature for India.

As a result of Indian independence, the Legislative Assembly was dissolved on 14 August 1947 and its place taken by the Constituent Assembly of India and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan.

Child Marriage Restraint Act

'Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 passed on 28 September 1929 in the Imperial Legislative Council of India, fixed the age of marriage for girls at 14 years and boys at 18 years which was later amended to 18 for girls and 21 for boys. It is popularly known as the Sharda Act, after its sponsor Harbilas Sarda. It came into effect six months later on 1 April 1930 and it applies to all of British India, not just to Hindus. It was a result of social reform movement in India. Despite strong opposition from the British authorities, the legislation was passed by the British Indian Government which had a majority of Indians. However, it lacked implementation from the British Indian government, largely due to the fear of British authorities losing support from their loyal Hindu and Muslim communalist groups.

Kurnool

Kurnool is the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is often referred as The Gateway of Rayalaseema. It was the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011 census, it is the fifth most populous city in the state with a population of 460,184.

List of Mudaliars

Mudaliar also Mudaliyar, 'Mudali and Moodley is a surname is generally prevalent among Indian Tamils and Sri Lankan Tamils and the Tamil diaspora though it is also used in other parts of South India. It is derived from the honorary title Mudali meaning a person of first rank in the Tamil language which was bestowed upon top-ranking bureaucratic officials and army officers in medieval south India.The following is a list of notable personalities with the Mudaliar surname.

N. Madhava Rao

Nyapathi Madhava Rau Companion of the Indian Empire (CIE) (b. 8 June 1887 - d. 28 August 1972) was an Indian Civil Servant and Administrator who served as the Diwan of Mysore State from 1941 to 1945.

Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations

The Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations is the formal title of the Indian delegation to the United Nations (UN). India was among the founding members of the United Nations and signed the Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942. India also participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization and Diwan Bahadur Sir Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar signed the United Nations Charter on India's behalf.

Ramasamy

Ramasamy is a common Indian name. It may refer to

Ramaswami Mudaliar

Ramaswami Mudaliar or Ramaswamy Mudaliar may refer to:

Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar (1887–1976), Indian lawyer, politician and statesman

S. Ramaswami Mudaliar (1840–1911), Indian merchant, dubash, politician and philanthropist

Salem Ramaswami Mudaliar (1852–1892), Indian lawyer, politician and independence activist

V. K. Ramaswami Mudaliar, Indian politician, former Member of the Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu

Round Table Conferences (India)

The three Round Table Conferences of 1930–32 were a series of peace conferences organized by the British Government and Indian national congress was participant to discuss constitutional reforms in India. These started in November 1930 and ended in December 1932. They were conducted as per the recommendation of Jinnah to Viceroy Lord Irwin and Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and by the report submitted by the Simon Commission in May 1930. Demands for swaraj, or self-rule, in India had been growing increasingly strong. Mahatma Gandhi, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Srinivasa, Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan and Mirabehn are key participants from India. By the 1930s, many British politicians believed that India needed to move towards dominion status. However, there were significant disagreements between the Indian and the British political parties that the Conferences would not resolve. The key topic was about constitution and India which was mainly discussed in that conference.

Szeming Sze

Szeming Sze (Chinese: 施思明, Pinyin: Shī Sīmíng; April 5, 1908 – October 27, 1998) was a prominent Chinese diplomat and the co-founder who helped build the World Health Organization into a specialized United Nations agency.

Viceroy's Executive Council

The Viceroy's Executive Council was the cabinet of the government of British India headed by the Viceroy of India. It is also known as the Council of the Governor-General of India. It was transformed from an advisory council into a cabinet consisting of five members heading revenue, military, law, finance and home by the Indian Councils Act 1861 giving recognition to the portfolio system introduced by Lord Canning in 1859. In 1874, a sixth member was added to be in charge of public works.

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