On the basis of the General Rules for Archives published in 1983, historical archives were being expanded at the provincial and county levels. Two of the most important archives were the First Historical Archives of China (FHAC), located in Beijing containing the archives of the Ming and Qing dynasties, and the Second Historical Archives of China (SHAC), located in Nanjing containing the archives of the Kuomintang period. And the Central Archives (the State Archives Administration) contains the archives of the Communist Party and the People's Republic. A number of foreign scholars have been granted access to these archives. In 1987 public and research libraries still faced serious space, management, and service problems. Even with the special efforts being made to solve these problems, it was clear that they would not be quickly resolved.
In the late 1980s, China was experiencing an active educational and cultural life. Students were staying in school longer, educational standards were being raised, and facilities were being improved. Intellectuals were encouraged to develop their expertise, especially in the scientific and technical spheres, and a wide variety of traditional and modern literary and art forms were allowed to flourish. This situation was likely to continue as long as it served the interest of economic modernization and posed no threat to the political establishment.
The Archives of Macao (Chinese: 澳門檔案館; Portuguese: Arquivo de Macau) is a general archive in São Lázaro, Macau, China. It collects, processes, protects and make available records pertaining Macau.Best Chinese Universities Ranking
The Best Chinese Universities Ranking (BCUR) is a ranking table of Chinese institutions of higher education. It is compiled by Shanghai Ruanke, the same agency that is behind the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU).China Film Archive
The China Film Archive is a film archive in Beijing, China.Education in Tibet
Education in Tibet is the public responsibility of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. Education of ethnic Tibetans is partly subsidized by the government. Primary and secondary education is compulsory, while preferential policies aimed at Tibetans seek to enroll more in vocational or higher education.First Historical Archives of China
The First Historical Archives of China (SHAC, Chinese: 中国第一历史档案馆) is a home to many historical documents, managed by the National Archives Administration of China.Guozijian
The Guozijian, sometimes translated as the Imperial College, Imperial Academy, Imperial University, National Academy, or National University, was the national central institution of higher learning in Chinese dynasties after the Sui. It was the highest institution of academic research and learning in China's traditional educational system, with the function of administration of education.
In Vietnam, the Imperial Academy (Vietnamese: Quốc Tử Giám) existed after the Lý dynasty. Several notable chairmen of Guozijian in Vietnam history are Chu Văn An, Nguyễn Phi Khanh, Vũ Miên, and Lê Quý Đôn.Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers
The Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (LPAT ; Chinese: 教師語文能力評核) is an assessment examination for the language proficiency of teachers in Hong Kong. According to regulations, any teachers teaching English language or Putonghua (a.k.a. Mandarin Chinese) in Hong Kong, where Cantonese Chinese is mostly spoken, must have passed the LPAT, i.e. achieved a grade of not lower than Level 3 in each part of the assessment.National Archives Administration of China
The National Archives Administration (Chinese: 国家档案局) of China is the national administrative agency responsible for historical records of the state dating back to imperial times in China. The archive collections include more than 800,000 records. There are more than 80 million items of information in documents, records, files, manuscripts on important political figures. The agency also concurrently holds records for the Communist Party of China. Hence it is also known as the Central Archives.National Key Disciplines
National Key Disciplines (simplified Chinese: 国家重点学科; traditional Chinese: 國家重點學科; pinyin: guójiā zhòngdiǎn xuékē) is a list of key disciplines currently recognized as important and receiving support by the central government of the People's Republic of China.National Key Universities
National Key Universities (Chinese: 国家重点大学) previously referred to universities recognized as prestigious and which received a high level of support from the central government of the People's Republic of China. The term is no longer in official use. However, it remains part of the vernacular, as evidenced by numerous Chinese media articles which still refer to "National Key Universities".A list of 16 National Key Universities was first promulgated by the Chinese government in 1959, and included Peking University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Renmin University, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Fudan University. In 1960, another 44 universities were added to this list. By 1978, there were 88 National Key Universities. At the end of the 20th century, after reforms to the system of higher education in China, the Chinese government instituted a two-tier system of universities, namely universities managed by the central government and universities managed by provincial governments. The majority of universities would be managed by provincial governments. A small number of universities which affected national development or were highly specialized would be managed by the Chinese Ministry of Education (or by a few other ministries). The term "National Key Universities" then became defunct, and these schools are now normally referred to as "211" universities, based on China's Project 211. Universities under the Chinese Ministry of Education, of which there are currently 75, became known as "Universities directly under the Ministry of Education" (教育部直属高校).The term "zhòngdiǎn" 重点, translated here as "key," in this phrase can also be translated as "major," "priority," or "focal."Project 985
Project 985 (Chinese: 985工程; pinyin: Jiǔbāwǔ gōngchéng) is a project that was first announced by CPC General secretary and Chinese President Jiang Zemin at the 100th anniversary of Peking University on May 4, 1998, to promote the development and reputation of the Chinese higher education system by founding world-class universities in the 21st century. The name derives from the date of the announcement, May 1998, or 98/5 according to the Chinese date format. The project involves both national and local governments allocating large amounts of funding to certain universities in order to build new research centers, improve facilities, hold international conferences, attract world-renowned faculty and visiting scholars, and help Chinese faculty attend conferences abroad.In 2009, the original 9 founding member universities of Project 985 formed the C9 League, which is referred to as the Chinese equivalent of the US Ivy League. By the end of the second phase of the project, 39 universities were sponsored. It was announced in 2011 that the project has closed its doors, and no more new schools will be able to join in.In September 2017, a related plan called the Double First Class University Plan was announced. It was unclear whether this plan represents a new way of ranking universities in China, or replaces Project 211 and Project 985.Scholar-official
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen or Scholar-bureaucrats (Chinese: 士大夫; pinyin: shì dàfū) were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty. After the Sui dynasty these officials mostly came from the scholar-gentry (紳士 shēnshì) who had earned academic degrees (such as xiucai, juren, or jinshi) by passing the imperial examinations. The scholar-officials were schooled in calligraphy and Confucian texts. They dominated the government and local life of China until the mid-20th century. The American philosopher and historian Charles Alexander Moore concluded:
Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one. It was good enough to be praised and imitated in 18th century Europe. Nevertheless, it has given China a tremendous handicap in their transition from government by men to government by law, and personal considerations in Chinese government have been a curse.
Since only a select few could become court or local officials, the majority of the scholar-literati stayed in villages or cities as social leaders. The scholar-gentry carried out social welfare measures, taught in private schools, helped negotiate minor legal disputes, supervised community projects, maintained local law and order, conducted Confucian ceremonies, assisted in the governments collection of taxes, and preached Confucian moral teachings. As a class, these scholars claimed to represent morality and virtue. The district magistrate, who by regulation was not allowed to serve in his home district, depended on the local gentry for advice and for carrying out projects, which gave them the power to benefit themselves and their clients.Second Historical Archives of China
The Second Historical Archives of China (SHAC, Chinese: 中国第二历史档案馆; pinyin: zhōng guó dì èr lì shǐ dàng àn guǎn) is located on 309 East Zhongshan Rd., Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.State Key Laboratories
The National Key Laboratories (simplified Chinese: 国家重点实验室; traditional Chinese: 國家重點實驗室; pinyin: guójiā zhòngdiǎn shíyànshì) is a list of university and private sector laboratories currently receiving funding and administrative support from the central government of the People's Republic of China.
These labs often specialize in particular areas of academic interest. This can include:
Mathematics and Physics
Taixue (Tai-hsueh; simplified Chinese: 太学; traditional Chinese: 太學; literally: 'Greatest Study or Learning'), or sometimes called the "Imperial Academy", "Imperial School", "Imperial University" or "Imperial Central University", was the highest rank of educational establishment in Ancient China between the Han Dynasty and Sui Dynasty. The university held 30,000 students and administration during the 2nd century. This provided the Han Dynasty with well-educated bureaucrats. It was replaced by the Guozijian. The first nationwide government school system in China was established in 3 CE under Emperor Ping of Han, with the Taixue located in the capital of Chang'an and local schools established in the prefectures and in the main cities of the smaller counties.Taixue taught Confucianism and Chinese literature among other things for the high level civil service, although a civil service system based upon examination rather than recommendation was not introduced until the Sui and not perfected until the Song Dynasty (960–1279).Visual China Group
Visual China Group (VCG) is a Beijing, China-based photo and media agency. Established in 2000, it is a supplier of stock multimedia content to the commercial media industry. VCG is currently the largest stock image and media footage provider in China and third largest in the world.Since 2006, VCG has been the exclusive distributor of Getty Images' library in China. In January 2016, Unity Glory International, an affiliate of VCG, announced that it would acquire the image licensing business of Corbis. Unity Glory licenses the Corbis libraries to Getty for distribution outside of China via VCG. In early 2018, it acquired photo sharing website 500px.Yangshi Lei Archives
The Yangshi Lei Archives (Chinese: 样式雷; pinyin: Yàngshì Léi; literally: 'Lei style architecture') are the collection of design drawings and models of Qing imperial architecture. "Yangshi" means architect or architecture, "Lei" is the surname of the Lei architectural family.Works in the archives include the Forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven, the Summer Palace, the Chengde Mountain Resort, the Eastern Qing tombs and so on. The manuscripts in this archive contain contents that span from interior decoration, site surveys, to construction methods. In terms of forms, they contain drawings of floor plans, sections, elevations, and model buildings made of wood. Over 12,000 out of around 17,000 individual pieces so far found, are now collected in the National Library of China. In 2007, UNESCO inscribed it to the Memory of the World Register-Asia and the Pacific.ZHC
The ZHC (Chinese: 职业汉语能力测试; pinyin: Zhíyè Hànyŭ Nénglì Cèshì; literally: 'Professional Chinese Ability Test') is a test held by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of the People's Republic of China to test Chinese citizens' proficiency in Mandarin Chinese.