Architecture of New York City

The building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper, which has shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise. Surrounded mostly by water, the city has amassed one of the largest and most varied collection of skyscrapers in the world.[1]

New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early Gothic revival skyscraper with large-scale gothic architectural detail. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.[2] The Art Deco design of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The Chrysler building is considered by many historians and architects to be one of New York's finest, with its distinctive ornamentation such as V-shaped lighting inserts capped by a steel spire at the tower's crown.[3] An early influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers.[4]

The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930.[5] In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In the outer boroughs, large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.[6][7][8] Split two-family homes are also widely available across the outer boroughs, for example in the Flushing area.

Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.[9][10] Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues.[11] A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the presence of wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 19th century, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could burst municipal water pipes.[12] Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, including Jackson Heights in Queens, which became more accessible with expansion of the subway.[13]

Midtown Manhattan seen from the Empire State Building
The Midtown Manhattan skyline at night from the Empire State Building. Shown are clear examples of Art Deco and Modern architecture.

Concentrations of buildings

Pano Manhattan2007 amk
A section of Midtown Manhattan in daytime.
Lower Manhattan from Jersey City November 2014 panorama 3
A section of Lower Manhattan at sunset.
Chrysler Building by David Shankbone Retouched
The Chrysler Building (1930), is one of the city's best examples of the art-deco style with ornamental hub-caps and iconic spire
Empire State Building by David Shankbone
The Empire State Building (1931), formerly the city's tallest building and arguably the most famous skyscraper on Earth.
Citigroup center
The Citigroup Center (1977), also one of the city's most striking skyscrapers with its 45° angled top and a unique stilt-style base
LOC Lower Manhattan New York City World Trade Center August 2001
The Lower Manhattan skyline shortly before 9/11.
American International Building3
American International Building, with its 30-metre spire rising to 290 metres, was from 2001 to 2013 the tallest complete building in Lower Manhattan.

New York has two main concentrations of high-rise buildings: Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan, each with its own uniquely recognizable skyline. Midtown Manhattan, the largest central business district in the world, is home to such notable buildings as the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, Citigroup Center and Rockefeller Center. Lower Manhattan comprises the third largest central business district in the United States (after Midtown and Chicago's Loop). Lower Manhattan was characterized by the omnipresence of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center from its completion in 1973 until its destruction in the September 11 attacks, 2001.

In the first decade of the 21st century, Lower Manhattan saw reconstruction to include the new One World Trade Center.

Manhattan Skyline from Staten Island Ferry
Picture of the New York City Manhattan Skyline taken from aboard Staten Island ferry.

The Downtown skyline received new designs from such architects as Santiago Calatrava and Frank Gehry. Goldman Sachs is building a 225-metre-tall (738 ft), 43-floor building across the street from the World Trade Center site.

New York City has a long history of tall buildings. It has been home to 10 buildings that have held the world's tallest fully habitable building title at some point in history, although half have since been demolished. The first building to bring the world's tallest title to New York was the New York World Building, in 1890. Later, New York City was home to the world's tallest building for 75 continuous years, starting with the Park Row Building in 1899 and ending with 1 World Trade Center upon completion of the Sears Tower in 1974. The 1899 Park Row Building, one of the world's earliest skyscrapers, is still standing.

The high-rise buildings of Brooklyn constitute a third, much smaller skyline. The high-rise buildings in downtown Brooklyn are centered around a major NYC subway hub. Downtown Brooklyn is also experiencing an extensive building boom, with new high rise luxury residential towers, commercial space and a new arena in the planning stages. The building boom in Brooklyn has had a great deal of opposition from local civic and environmental groups which contend that Brooklyn needs to maintain its human scale. The borough of Queens has also been developing its own skyline in recent years with One Court Square (formerly the Citigroup Building, currently the tallest building in NYC outside Manhattan), and the Queens West development of several residential towers along the East River waterfront.

The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.[2]

Famous buildings

The Empire State Building, a 102-story contemporary Art Deco style building, was designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmon and finished in 1931. It was the world's tallest building for a record 42 years. The tower takes its name from the nickname of New York State and is currently the third tallest building in the city, the first being One World Trade Center, and second belonging to 432 Park Avenue. It was the first building to go beyond the 100+ story mark, and has one of the world's most visited observation decks, which over 110 million have visited since its completion. The building was built in a record 14 months.

Completed in 1930, the Chrysler Building is a distinctive symbol of New York, standing 1,048 feet (319 m) high on the east side of Manhattan. Originally built for the Chrysler Corporation, the building is presently co-owned by TMW Real Estate (75%) and Tishman Speyer Properties (25%). The Chrysler Building was the first structure in the world to surpass the 1,000 foot threshold.

The Comcast Building is a slim Art Deco skyscraper and the focal point of Rockefeller Center. At 850 ft (259 m) with 70 floors, it is the seventh tallest building in New York and the 30th tallest in the United States. Built in 1933 and originally called the RCA Building, it is one of the most famous and recognized skyscrapers in New York. The frieze above the main entrance was executed by Lee Lawrie and depicts Wisdom, along with a phrase from scripture that reads "Wisdom and Knowledge shall be the stability of thy times", originally found in the Book of Isaiah, 33:6.

The International Style was a groundbreaking exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art that completely changed the face of architecture in New York and the world. Mies Van Der Rohe, a focus of the show, later built the Seagram Building on Park Ave at 53rd Street. One of the most important buildings for modern architecture, the Seagram Building transformed its midtown site, the development of tall buildings, and the history of architecture. Other architects replicated details from Seagram within New York and around the world for decades following its completion in the late 1950s. The bronze extrusions attached to the mullions are exemplary of this trend in tall building design and can be seen in many cities.

Grand Central Terminal is among the top 10 most visited tourist attractions in the world. The railroad terminal, completed in 1913, is the third on its site. It was built in the Beaux-Arts style by the firms Reed and Stem and Warren and Wetmore. It became a National Historic Landmark in 1976.

The MetLife Building, formerly the Pan Am Building, was the largest commercial office building in the world when it opened on March 7, 1963. It is an important part of the Manhattan skyline and one of the fifty tallest buildings in the USA.

The World Trade Center's twin towers were the city's tallest buildings from 1973 until their destruction in the September 11 attacks. The towers rose 1,368 feet (417 m) and 1,362 feet (415 m) respectively, both 110 Floors. The North Tower's 360 foot antenna housed most of the city's communications, while the South Tower was home to a popular observation deck. They were the tallest buildings in the world until Chicago's 1,454-foot Sears Tower was completed in 1974.

Citigroup Center is 59-story office tower located at 53rd Street and Lexington Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. It is considered one of the most important post-war skyscrapers to be in erected in New York City. The striking design of the steeply slanted roof, the sleek aluminum-clad façade, and its base on four stilts over a church also on the site made the skyscraper an instant architectural icon. The sloping roof houses the building's mechanical and ventilation systems. The designers settled on an aluminum-clad façade to reduce the weight load on the building's foundation and support structures, since its entire weight would be supported by stilts. However, this did not come without a price; when the building was erected in 1977 it was discovered that the light-weight façade made the building vulnerable to swaying under high wind conditions. Concerned that the building might tip over in very high winds the building's engineers installed a "Tuned mass damper" in the roof which acts as a counterbalance to the building's swaying.

Time Warner Center is a mixed-use skyscraper at Columbus Circle on Manhattan's Upper West Side. It has attracted much attention as the first major building to be completed since the September 11 terrorist attacks and has become known to many New Yorkers as the "new twin towers." Additional publicity was generated in 2003 when David Martinez paid $45 million for a penthouse condominium, a record for New York residential sales.

The Condé Nast Building, officially Four Times Square, is a modern skyscraper in Times Square in Midtown Manhattan and one of the most important examples of green design in skyscrapers in the United States. Environmentally friendly gas-fired absorption chillers, along with a high-performing insulating and shading curtain wall, ensure that the building does not need to be heated or cooled for the majority of the year. Office furniture is made with biodegradable and non-toxic materials. The air-delivery system provides 50% more fresh air than is required by New York City Building Code, and a number of recycling chutes serve the entire building. Being the first project of its size to undertake these features in construction, the building has received an award from the American Institute of Architects, as well as AIA New York State.

Hearst Tower, located in Midtown Manhattan at 300 West 57th Street, is another example of the new breed of green design skyscrapers in New York City. Hearst Tower is a glass and steel construction skyscraper which rests on the base of the original 1920s Hearst Corporation Building. Hearst Tower is easily identified by the dramatic interlocking triangular glass panels designed by British architect Lord Norman Foster. Hearst Tower is also the first skyscraper in New York City to be awarded the coveted Gold LEED Certified rating by the United States Green Building Council.

Tallest buildings

The 15 tallest standard structures, which include those with the 10 highest antennae or radio towers (pinnacles)

Std.
rank
Name Year
Location
(Midtown & Lower Manhattan)
Floors
Pinnacle
height
ft
Pinn.
hgt
m
Standard
height
ft
Std.
hgt
m
Notes
1 One World Trade Center 2013 West Street & Vesey Street 104 1,792 546 1,776 541
2 Empire State Building 1931 Fifth Avenue & West 34th Street 102 1,472 449 1,250 380 [14][15]
2 432 Park Avenue 2014 Park Avenue & East 57th Street (Manhattan) 89 1,396 426 1,396 426
3 Bank of America Tower 2009 Sixth Avenue between 42nd & 43rd Sts 54 1,200 370 1,200 370 [16][17]
4 Chrysler Building 1930 Lexington Avenue & 42nd Street 77 1,046 319 1,046 319 [18][19]
5 New York Times Building 2007 Eighth Avenue between 41st & 42nd Sts 52 1,046 319 1,046 319 [20][21]
6 One57 2014 West 57th Street between 6th & 7th Aves 75 1,005 306 1,005 306 [22][23]
7 American International Bldg 1932 Pine, Cedar and Pearl Streets 66 952 290 952 290 [24][25]
8 40 Wall Street 1930 Wall Street between Nassau & William Sts 70 927 283 927 283 [26][27]
9 Citigroup Center 1977 53rd Street between Lexington & 3rd Aves 59 915 279 915 279 [28][29]
10 Trump World Tower 2001 First Avenue between 47th & 48th Streets 72 861 262 861 262 [30][31]
11 Comcast Building (ex-RCA Building and ex-GE Building) 1930 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 6th Ave, 49th & 50th Sts 70 850 259 850 259 [32][33]
12 CitySpire Center 1987 West 56th Street between 6th & 7th Aves 75 814 248 814 248 [34][35]
13 One Chase Manhattan Plaza 1961 between Pine, Liberty, Nassau & William Sts 60 813 248 813 248 [36][37]
14 Condé Nast Building 2000 Broadway between 42nd & 43rd Streets 48 1,118 341 809 247 [38][39]
15 MetLife Building (ex Pan Am) 1963 200 Park Avenue at East 45th Street 59 808 246 808 246 [40][41]
† (constructed as the Cities Service Company Building)
‡ (constructed as the Bank of Manhattan Trust Corporation Building)
All addresses are in Midtown Manhattan except those in lighter shades, which are in Lower Manhattan.

Residential architecture

Gracie Mansion snow jeh

Gracie Mansion, the mayor's official residence.

Forest Hills Gardens, Queens, NY

A large single family home in Forest Hills Gardens, Queens.

Fitzgerald-Ginsberg Mansion in Flushing, Queens

A Tudor Revival style mansion in Flushing, Queens constructed in 1924.

Howard Beach 1 by David Shankbone

Houses placed on Hawtree Creek in Howard Beach, Queens.

Long Island City's high rises

21st century residential towers in Long Island City, Queens.

The Edge in Williamsburg with Seastreak ferry

New high-rise condominiums on the Williamsburg, Brooklyn waterfront.

Saitta House Fall 1

Queen Anne architecture c. 1899 in Dyker Heights, Brooklyn.

1 West 72nd Street (The Dakota) by David Shankbone

The Dakota Building on the Upper West Side of Manhattan.

LowerEastSideTenements

Tenement buildings in the Lower East Side.

Harlem 02

Brownstone townhouses in Harlem.

Ninth-north

Apartment buildings in Hell's Kitchen.

Row houses in alternating cream, yellow, and gray brick, in Bushwick, Brooklyn
Row houses in Bushwick, Brooklyn.

As New York City grew, it spread outward from where it originally began at the southern-tip of Manhattan Island into surrounding areas.[42] In order to house the burgeoning population, farm land and open space in Upper Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, and Staten Island were developed into neighborhoods of brownstones, apartment buildings, multi-family and single-family homes.[43] The density of this new construction generally depended on the area's proximity and accessibility to Manhattan.

The development of these areas was often spurred by the opening of bridges and the connection of boroughs via public transportation. For example, the Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883 and connects Brooklyn and Manhattan across the East River. Brooklyn Heights, a nabe on the Brooklyn waterfront, is often credited as the United States' first suburb.[44] The bridge allowed an easier commute between Brooklyn and Manhattan and spurred rapid construction, development, and redevelopment. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, completed in 1964,[45] opened up many areas of Staten Island to residential and commercial development, especially in the central and southern parts of the borough, which had previously been largely undeveloped. Staten Island's population doubled from about 221,000 in 1960 to about 443,000 in 2000.

By 1870, stone and brick had become firmly established as the building materials of choice, as the construction of wood-frame houses had been greatly limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.[9][10] Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a network of quarries, sometimes quite distant, which is evident in the variety of textures and hues of stone seen in the city's buildings. In the days before rail, stones were floated down the Hudson River or along the Atlantic Seaboard from pits in New England. While trains brought marble from Vermont and granite from Minnesota, it was Connecticut brownstone that was so popular in the construction of New York's row homes in the late 19th century that the term brownstone became synonymous with row house.

Beginning in the 1950s, public housing projects dramatically changed the city's appearance. New, large scale (frequently high-rise) residential complexes replaced older communities, at times removing artifacts and landmarks that would now be considered of historic value. During this period, many of these new projects were built in an effort towards urban renewal championed by the famed urban planner Robert Moses. The resulting housing projects have suffered from inconsistent funding, poor maintenance, and high crime, prompting many to consider these projects a failure.

A distinctive feature of residential (and many commercial) buildings in New York City is the presence of wooden roof-mounted water towers, which were required on all buildings higher than six stories by city ordinance in the 19th century because the municipal water pipes could not withstand the extraordinarily high pressure necessary to deliver water to the top stories of high-rise buildings.[12]

Bridges and tunnels

New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors.[46] The boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are their own islands, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west-end of the larger Long Island. This precipitates a need for an extensive infrastructure of bridges and tunnels. Nearly all of the city's major bridges and several of its tunnels, have broken or set records. For example, the Holland Tunnel was the world's first vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927.[47]

The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement. Their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.[48][49]

Street grid

Formulated in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, New York adopted a visionary proposal to develop Manhattan north of 14th Street with a regular street grid. The economic logic underlying the plan, which called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south, and 155 orthogonal cross streets, was that the grid's regularity would provide an efficient means to develop new real estate property. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park, disapproved.

New Yorkers commonly give addresses by the street and avenue number, as in "34th & 5th" for the Empire State Building.

One of the city's most famous thoroughfares, Broadway, is one of the longest urban streets in the world. Other famous streets include Park Avenue and Fifth Avenue. 42nd Street is the capital of American theater. The Grand Concourse, modeled on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, is the most notable street in the Bronx. The City Beautiful movement inspired similar boulevards in Brooklyn, known as parkways.

See also

References

  1. ^ "About New York City". Emporis. Archived from the original on March 9, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
  2. ^ a b Fischler, Raphael (1998). "The Metropolitan Dimension of Early Zoning: Revisiting the 1916 New York City Ordinance". Journal of the American Planning Association. 64 (2).
  3. ^ "Favorites! 100 Experts Pick Their top 10 New York Towers". The Skyscraper Museum. January 22, 2006. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  4. ^ Pogrebin, Robin (April 16, 2006). "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers". The New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2006.
  5. ^ Plunz, Richar A. (1990). "Chapters 3 [Rich and Poor] & 4 [Beyond the Tenement]". History of Housing in New York City: Dwelling Type and Change in the American Metropolis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-06297-4.
  6. ^ Garb, Margaret (March 1, 1998). "If You're Thinking of Living In/Riverdale, the Bronx; A Community Jealous of Its Open Space". The New York Times.
  7. ^ "New York Metro: 6 Affordable Neighborhoods". nymag.com.
  8. ^ Shaman, Diana (February 8, 2004). "If You're Thinking of Living In/Douglaston, Queens; Timeless City Area, With a Country Feel". The New York Times.
  9. ^ a b Lankevich (1998), pp. 82–83.
  10. ^ a b Wilson, Rufus Rockwell (1902). New York: Old & New: Its Story, Streets, and Landmarks. J. B. Lippincott. p. 354.
  11. ^ B. Diamonstein–Spielvoegel, Barbaralee (2005). The Landmarks of New York. Monacelli Press. ISBN 1-58093-154-5. See also Whyte, William H. (1939). The WPA Guide to New York City. New Press. ISBN 1-56584-321-5.
  12. ^ a b Elliot, Debbie (December 2, 2006). "Wondering About Water Towers". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on May 3, 2007. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  13. ^ Hood, Clifton (2004). 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 175–177. ISBN 0-8018-5244-7.
  14. ^ "Empire State Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  15. ^ "Empire State Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  16. ^ "Bank of America Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  17. ^ "Bank of America Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  18. ^ "Chrysler Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  19. ^ "Chrysler Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  20. ^ "New York Times Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  21. ^ "New York Times Headquarters". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  22. ^ "One57". The Skyscraper Center. CTBUH. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
  23. ^ "One57". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
  24. ^ "American International". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  25. ^ "American International Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  26. ^ "The Trump Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  27. ^ "Trump Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  28. ^ "Citigroup Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  29. ^ "Citigroup Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  30. ^ "Trump World Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  31. ^ "Trump World Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  32. ^ "GE Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  33. ^ "GE Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  34. ^ "CitySpire Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  35. ^ "CitySpire Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on November 29, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  36. ^ "One Chase Manhattan Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  37. ^ "One Chase Manhattan Plaza". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  38. ^ "Condé Nast Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  39. ^ "Conde Nast Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  40. ^ "MetLife Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved November 19, 2007.
  41. ^ "MetLife Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  42. ^ "The Battery: Where Manhattan Begins!". March 22, 2010.
  43. ^ "upper Manhattan history - Ephemeral New York". ephemeralnewyork.wordpress.com.
  44. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 18, 2007. Retrieved February 8, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ "History - Staten Island History".
  46. ^ "Watch New York Harbor Clip - How the Earth Was Made - HISTORY".
  47. ^ "Holland Tunnel (I-78)". www.nycroads.com.
  48. ^ "New York Architecture Images-Manhattan Bridge". nyc-architecture.com.
  49. ^ "New York Architecture Images-". nyc-architecture.com.

Further reading

External links

138 East 50th Street

138 East 50th Street, officially named The Centrale, is a residential building under construction in Midtown Manhattan.

425 Park Avenue

425 Park Avenue is an office building in New York City being redeveloped by L&L Holding and GreenOak Real Estate, with a design by architectural firm Foster + Partners. Work on the new structure began in 2016, and is expected to be completed in late 2019.

520 Park Avenue

520 Park Avenue is a skyscraper located on East 60th Street and Park Avenue on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City. It was designed by Robert A.M. Stern Architects. The building was funded through a US$450 million construction loan from The Children's Investment Fund. At 781 ft (238 m) tall, it is the 36th tallest building in New York, and the tallest on the Upper East Side.Arthur and William Lie Zeckendorf of Zeckendorf Development developed the building.

520 West 41st Street

520 West 41st Street is a proposed 106-story supertall skyscraper in New York City, U.S. state of New York. It would have been located in Midtown Manhattan. The building would have surpass all other skyscrapers on the island by floor-count. Upon completion, it would either have been the fifth or sixth tallest building in New York.

80 Flatbush

80 Flatbush is a proposal for a mixed-use development in Boerum Hill, Brooklyn, New York City, near Downtown Brooklyn. The completion of the project is contingent on the rezoning of the site owned by Alloy and the New York City Department of Education so that two towers can be built and floor-area ratio can be tripled. The tallest tower will be as tall as the Chrysler Building and the 13th tallest building in New York City. Without the rezoning, Alloy will still be able to build a single tower taller than the Williamsburg Savings Bank Tower, which is over 500 feet (150 m) tall.

The two buildings will incorporate residential units, schools, office space, and a retail base. One of the schools will be a new facility for Khalil Gibran International Academy, while the other will be a new school. Alloy, the developer, is also partnering with BRIC to turn a building on the site that will not be razed into new spaces for the organization.The development is planned for a triangular plot in Brooklyn. All of the buildings present today will not be razed; one, a former Civil War infirmary, will be preserved and re-purposed as a cultural facility.Following a height reduction for both towers, the project was approved by a New York City Council subcommittee in September 2018, and is likely to be approved by the full council.

9 DeKalb Avenue

9 DeKalb Avenue, (originally referred to as 340 Flatbush Avenue Extension) is a supertall residential skyscraper under construction for Brooklyn, New York originally owned by Michael Stern's JDS Development Group and Joseph Chetrit's Chetrit Group, now being developed solely by JDS. When completed it will become the tallest structure in New York City outside Manhattan, as well as the first supertall building in Brooklyn.

AIA Guide to New York City

The AIA Guide to New York City by Norval White, Elliot Willensky, and Fran Leadon is an extensive catalogue with descriptions, critique and photographs of significant and noteworthy architecture throughout the five boroughs of New York City. Originally published in 1967, the fifth edition, with new co-author Fran Leadon, was published in 2010.

Andrew Dolkart

Andrew Scott Dolkart is a professor of Historic Preservation at the Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation (GSAPP) and the former Director of the school's Historic Preservation Program. Professor Dolkart is an authority on the preservation of historically significant architecture and an expert in the architecture and development of New York City. He was described as someone who is "without peer among New York's architectural researchers" by architectural critic Francis Morrone and he has written extensively on this topic. Before joining the faculty at Columbia he held a position at the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission and worked as a consultant. Dolkart holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Colgate University (1973) and a Master of Science degree in Historic Preservation from Columbia University (1977); he is a popular lecturer and walking tour guide.

Ballet Hispanico

Ballet Hispánico is an American dance company based in Manhattan, New York. It was founded by the Puerto Rican/Mexican-American dancer and choreographer Tina Ramirez in 1970 and presents dances reflecting the experience of Hispanic and Latino Americans. It describes itself as "the foremost dance representative of Hispanic culture in the United States."The company has performed for more than two million people in the United States, Europe, and South America, and has a repertoire of over 75 works. The company has commissioned nearly 80 works and acquired 11 others, working with 45 choreographers from around the world.

Bank of America Tower (Manhattan)

The Bank of America Tower (BOAT) at One Bryant Park is a 1,200 ft (365.8 m) skyscraper in the Midtown area of Manhattan in New York City. It is located on Avenue of the Americas, between 42nd and 43rd Streets, opposite Bryant Park.

The US$1 billion project was designed by COOKFOX Architects, and advertised to be one of the most efficient and ecologically friendly buildings in the world. It is the fifth tallest building in New York City, after One World Trade Center, 432 Park Avenue, 30 Hudson Yards, and the Empire State Building, and the seventh tallest building in the United States. Construction was completed in 2009.The building's Urban Garden Room at 43rd Street and 6th Avenue is open to the public as part of the city's privately owned public space (POPS) program.

Crown Building (Manhattan)

The Crown Building (formerly known as the Heckscher Building) is a mixed use property located at 57th Street and Fifth Avenue in New York City, one of the most expensive retail and office space locations in the United States. The property is an iconic fixture in Midtown Manhattan designed by Warren and Wetmore, architects of the Helmsley Building and Grand Central Terminal.

David H. Koch Theater

The David H. Koch Theater is a theater for ballet, modern and other forms of dance, part of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts located at the intersection of Columbus Avenue and 63rd Street in New York City, United States. Originally named the New York State Theater, the venue has been home to the New York City Ballet since its opening in 1964, the secondary venue for the American Ballet Theatre in the fall, and served as home to the New York City Opera from 1964 to 2011. The theater occupies the south side of the main plaza of Lincoln Center, opposite David Geffen Hall.

Lika Mutal

Lika Mutal (12 September 1939 – 7 November 2016) was a Peruvian sculptor whose career began in 1971. Mutal is well known for her hand carved stonework, which focuses on the interconnectedness of the human and non-human world. The idea of duality is an omnipresent theme in Mutal’s life, as she is of European heritage, but she lives part-time in the ancient landscape of Lima, Peru and part-time in the modern architecture of New York City. Duality manifests in her work as she juxtaposes rough, jagged edges with smooth, polished surfaces, as well as with the physical structure of the work, has each of the pieces typically as some element that links two independent pieces. Most impressive about her work- is Mutal’s ability to give a sort of dynamism to the inherently static substance of stone. Mutal’s work is well represented globally, and her practice is based out of Norha Haime Gallery in New York City.

Mark Feldstein

Mark Feldstein (May 3, 1937 – October 2001), was an American artist and photographer best known for his large format photography of the streetlife and architecture of New York City.

Feldstein, whose parents were German Jews, often remarked that he just happened to be born in Milan, where his family were located during their emigration from Nazi Germany to the United States. He grew up in New York City and earned art degrees from Hunter College where he studied with Robert Motherwell.

Around 1970, after ten years as a painter, he turned to photography. He later joined the Hunter College faculty as a photography professor, teaching along with Roy DeCarava.

He created the scenic photography for the Broadway musical, The Tap Dance Kid, which ran from December 21, 1983 through August 11, 1985

New York World Building

The New York World Building was a skyscraper in New York City designed by early skyscraper specialist George Browne Post and built in 1890 to house the now-defunct newspaper, The New York World. It was razed in 1955.

Pelham Picture House

Pelham Picture House, now known as "The Picture House Regional Film Center", is a historic movie theater located at Pelham, Westchester County, New York. The rectangular building was built in 1921, in the Spanish Revival style and is oriented at an angle at the northwest corner of Wolf's Lane and Brookside Avenue. It features angled end bays, a distinctive round arched entrance, tiled hoods over the large windows on the end bays, and a wood open truss ceiling in the auditorium.The building typifies early 20th century commercial architecture of New York City commuter suburbs with its eclectic style reflective of the Mission style.The theater was privately owned until it was put up for sale in 2003. Fearing that the historic building would be torn down, concerned Westchester citizens formed a nonprofit (originally Pelham Picture House Preservation, the name was changed to The Picture House Regional Film Center in 2005) and bought the building. The Picture House is a mission-driven film center, operating year-round with film and education programming at the 175 Wolfs Lane location and in area schools. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2010.

Queens Plaza Park

Queens Plaza Park is a residential building under construction in Queens. The building will supersede One Court Square as the tallest building in Queens, as well as one of the tallest buildings in New York City outside of Manhattan. The building is one of many planned in Queens Plaza due to a 2001 rezoning. When complete, the development will incorporate the landmarked Bank of Manhattan Company building built in 1927.

Simon Fieldhouse

Simon Fieldhouse (born 25 March 1956) is an artist based in Sydney, Australia. He was educated at Newington College (1963), Barker College, Geelong Grammar School and The University of Sydney where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts.

He studied law and practiced briefly as a solicitor, ceasing in 1988.

He was co-author of Portraits on Yellow Paper with former Supreme Court of New South Wales judge Roderick Meagher. His works have been exhibited widely and his paintings used to illustrate the National Trust desk diaries "Historic Architecture of Australia" in 2002 and "Historic Architecture of Australia II" in 2004. The Chancellor's Committee of The University of Sydney produced a collection of greeting and gift cards using some of his University paintings in 2002.

He has produced many paintings depicting historic Australian architecture with whimsical characters.

In 2006 he was commissioned by the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Sydney to produce 35 portraits of its professors of medicine. This series follows that of Sir Lionel Lindsay, who produced professors' portraits in 1916.

Fieldhouse also has completed a series of paintings of historic architecture of New York City.

Time Warner Center

The Time Warner Center is a mixed-use building complex in Columbus Circle, Manhattan, New York City. It was developed by The Related Companies and AREA Property Partners, and designed by David Childs and Mustafa Kemal Abadan of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.The Time Warner Center consists of two 750 foot (230 m) twin towers bridged by a multi-story atrium containing upscale retail shops. The complex also contains office and residential tenants. Construction began in November 2000, following the demolition of the New York Coliseum, and a topping-out ceremony was held on February 27, 2003. The property had the highest-listed market value in New York City, $1.1 billion, in 2006.Originally constructed as the AOL Time Warner Center, the building encircles the western side of Columbus Circle and straddles the border between Midtown and the Upper West Side. The total floor area of 2.8 million square feet (260,000 m2) is occupied by office space, including the offices of WarnerMedia (formerly Time Warner) and an R&D center for VMware; residential condominiums; and the Mandarin Oriental, New York hotel. The Shops at Columbus Circle is an upscale shopping mall located in a curving arcade at the base of the building, with a large Whole Foods Market grocery store on the lower level. Deutsche Bank will replace WarnerMedia as the anchor tenant of the 1,100,000-square-foot (100,000 m2) office area beginning in 2021, at which time it will be renamed the Deutsche Bank Center.

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