Archinus

For the writer with this name, see Archinus (historian).

Archinus (Ancient Greek: Ἀρχῖνος) was an Athenian democratic politician who wielded substantial influence between the restoration of democracy in 403 BC and the beginning of the Corinthian War in 395 BC.

In the early days of the restored democracy, he acted to weaken the oligarchic exiles at Eleusis by ending the period during which citizens could register to emigrate to Eleusis before its announced ending date. He seems to have advocated a moderate democratic policy, opposing motions to expand the franchise and restore the levels of pay for civil service that had typified the golden days of Periclean democracy in Athens in the mid-5th century BC.

Archinus is also said to have encouraged the official adoption by Athens of the 24-letter Ionic alphabet in 403/2 (Suda, Σαμίων ὁ δῆμος), alongside the archon Eucleides.

References

  • Buck, Robert J. Thrasybulus and the Athenian Democracy: The Life of an Athenian Statesman. Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998. ISBN 3-515-07221-7
  • Fine, John V. A. The Ancient Greeks: A critical history. Harvard University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-674-03314-0
  • D’ Angour, A.J. "Archinus, Eucleides and the reform of the Athenian alphabet". Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (1999) 109-130
Archinus (historian)

Archinus (Ancient Greek: Ἀρχῖνος) was a historian of ancient Greece, who lived at an uncertain date, and who wrote a work on the history of Thessaly. This book however is now lost.

Armand D'Angour

Armand D'Angour (born 23 November 1958) is a British classical scholar and classical musician, Associate Professor of Classics at Oxford University and Fellow and Tutor in Classics at Jesus College, Oxford. His research embraces a wide range of areas across ancient Greek culture, and has resulted in publications that contribute to scholarship on ancient Greek music and metre, the Greek alphabet, innovation in ancient Greece, and Latin and Greek lyric poetry. He has written poetry in ancient Greek and Latin, and was commissioned to compose odes in ancient Greek for the 2004 and 2012 Olympic Games. His research into the sounds of ancient Greek music (2013 to date) has been widely publicised., and his book Socrates in Love (published in March 2019) presented evidence for a radically revisionist thesis regarding the role of Aspasia of Miletus in the development of Socrates' thought.

Encyrtinae

Encyrtinae is a subfamily of parasitic wasps in the family Encyrtidae.

Epigraphy

Epigraphy (Ancient Greek: ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition.

A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing, translating, and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances. It is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document. Often, epigraphy and history are competences practised by the same person.

An epigraph is any sort of text, from a single grapheme (such as marks on a pot that abbreviate the name of the merchant who shipped commodities in the pot) to a lengthy document (such as a treatise, a work of literature, or a hagiographic inscription). Epigraphy overlaps other competences such as numismatics or palaeography. When compared to books, most inscriptions are short. The media and the forms of the graphemes are diverse: engravings in stone or metal, scratches on rock, impressions in wax, embossing on cast metal, cameo or intaglio on precious stones, painting on ceramic or in fresco. Typically the material is durable, but the durability might be an accident of circumstance, such as the baking of a clay tablet in a conflagration.

Eucleides

Eucleides (Greek: Εὐκλείδης) was archon of Athens towards the end of the fifth century BC. He contributed towards the re-establishment of democracy during his years in office (403-402 BC). He is also believed to have contributed to the new political order, with proposals that sought to deal with the challenge of the potentially disruptive minority who had supported oligarchy in the previous years.

List of ancient Greek tyrants

This is a list of tyrants from Ancient Greece.

List of encyrtid genera

There is approximately 350 genera within the family Encyrtidae (Apocrita, Hymenoptera). There are two subfamilies: Encyrtinae and Tetracneminae.

Thrasybulus

Thrasybulus (; Greek: Θρασύβουλος, Thrasyboulos; "brave-willed"; c. 440 – 388 BC) was an Athenian general and democratic leader. In 411 BC, in the wake of an oligarchic coup at Athens, the pro-democracy sailors at Samos elected him as a general, making him a primary leader of the successful democratic resistance to that coup. As general, he was responsible for recalling the controversial nobleman Alcibiades from exile, and the two worked together extensively over the next several years. In 411 and 410, Thrasybulus commanded along with Alcibiades and others at several critical Athenian naval victories.

After Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian War, Thrasybulus led the democratic resistance to the new oligarchic government, known as the Thirty Tyrants, which the victorious Spartans imposed on Athens. In 404 BC, he commanded a small force of exiles that invaded the Spartan-ruled Attica and, in successive battles, defeated first a Spartan garrison and then the forces of the oligarchy. In the wake of these victories, democracy was re-established at Athens. As a leader of this revived democracy in the 4th century BC, Thrasybulus advocated a policy of resistance to Sparta and sought to restore Athens' imperial power. He was killed in 388 BC while leading an Athenian naval force during the Corinthian War.

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