Archie (search engine)

Archie is a tool for indexing FTP archives, allowing people to find specific files. It is considered to be the first Internet search engine.[2] The original implementation was written in 1990 by Alan Emtage, then a postgraduate student at McGill University in Montreal, and Bill Heelan, who studied at Concordia University in Montreal and worked at McGill University at the same time.[3]

Type of site
Web search engine
LaunchedSeptember 10, 1990[1]
Current statusDead


The archie service began as a project for students and volunteer staff at the McGill University School of Computer Science in 1987,[4] when Peter Deutsch (systems manager for the School[4]), Emtage, and Heelan were asked to connect the School of Computer Science to the Internet.[5] The earliest versions of Archie, written by Alan Emtage, simply contacted a list of FTP archives on a regular basis (contacting each roughly once a month, so as not to waste too many resources of the remote servers) and requested a listing. These listings were stored in local files to be searched using the Unix grep command.

The name derives from the word "archive" without the v. Alan Emtage has said that contrary to popular belief, there was no association with the Archie Comics and that he despised them.[6] Despite this, other early Internet search technologies such as Jughead and Veronica were named after characters from the comics. Anarchie, one of the earliest graphical ftp clients was named for its ability to perform Archie searches.


Archie was developed as a tool for mass discovery and the concept was simple. The developers populated the engine's servers with databases of anonymous FTP host directories.[7] This was used to find specific file titles since the list was plugged in to a searchable database of websites.[8]

Bill Heelan and Peter Deutsch wrote a script allowing people to log in and search collected information using the Telnet protocol at the host "" [].[4] Later, more efficient front- and back-ends were developed, and the system spread from a local tool, to a network-wide resource, and a popular service available from multiple sites around the Internet. The collected data would be exchanged between the neighbouring Archie servers. The servers could be accessed in multiple ways: using a local client (such as archie or xarchie); telnetting to a server directly; sending queries by electronic mail; and later via a World Wide Web interface. At the zenith of its fame the Archie search engine accounted for 50% of Montreal Internet traffic.

In 1992, Emtage along with Peter Deutsch and some financial help of McGill University formed Bunyip Information Systems the world's first company expressly founded for and dedicated to providing Internet information services with a licensed commercial version of the Archie search engine used by millions of people worldwide. Bill Heelan followed them into Bunyip soon after, where he together with Bibi Ali and Sandro Mazzucato was a part of so-called Archie Group. The group significantly updated the archie database and indexed web-pages. Work on the search engine was ceased in the late 1990s.

A legacy Archie server is still maintained active for historic purposes in Poland at University of Warsaw's Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling.

See also


  1. ^ Deutsch, Peter (11 September 1990). "[next] An Internet archive server server (was about Lisp)". Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  2. ^ "The First Search Engine, Archie". Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
  3. ^ "In Russian: History of the Internet. The First Search Engine". Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  4. ^ a b c "Peter Deutsch: archie - An Electronic Directory Service for the Internet". Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  5. ^ "Life Before (And After) Archie". Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  6. ^ BBC Radio 4 - Saturday Live, 7 November 2009
  7. ^ West, Nicholas. A Rough Guide to the Internet. ISBN 9781471005374.
  8. ^ Ledford, Jerri L. (2015). Search Engine Optimization Bible. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 4. ISBN 9780470452646.

Further reading

External links


.nz is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for New Zealand. It is administered by InternetNZ, with oversight and dispute resolution handled by the Domain Name Commission Limited (DNCL). Registrations are processed via authorised registrars. As of 5 August 2018 there were 715,692 registered .nz domains.

Alan Emtage

Alan Emtage (born November 27, 1964) conceived and implemented the first version of Archie, a pre-Web Internet search engine for locating material in public FTP archives.

Digital marketing

Digital marketing is the marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, but also including mobile phones, display advertising, and any other digital medium.Digital marketing's development since the 1990s and 2000s has changed the way brands and businesses use technology for marketing. As digital platforms are increasingly incorporated into marketing plans and everyday life, and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops, digital marketing campaigns are becoming more prevalent and efficient.

Digital marketing methods such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing, e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, Display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones. In essence, this extension to non-Internet channels helps to differentiate digital marketing from online marketing, another catch-all term for the marketing methods mentioned above, which strictly occur online.

Encyclopedia of Life

The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9 million living species known to science. It is compiled from existing databases and from contributions by experts and non-experts throughout the world. It aims to build one "infinitely expandable" page for each species, including video, sound, images, graphics, as well as text. In addition, the Encyclopedia incorporates content from the Biodiversity Heritage Library, which digitizes millions of pages of printed literature from the world's major natural history libraries. The project was initially backed by a US$50 million funding commitment, led by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation, who provided US$20 million and US$5 million, respectively. The additional US$25 million came from five cornerstone institutions—the Field Museum, Harvard University, the Marine Biological Laboratory, the Missouri Botanical Garden, and the Smithsonian Institution. The project was initially led by Jim Edwards and the development team by David Patterson. Today, participating institutions and individual donors continue to support EOL through financial contributions.

Harrison College (Barbados)

Harrison College is a co-educational grammar school (secondary school) in Bridgetown, Barbados. Founded in 1733, the school takes its name from Thomas Harrison, a Bridgetown merchant, who intended it to serve as "A Public and Free School for the poor and indigent boys of the parish".

Even in the nineteenth century it was recognised as perhaps the most prestigious secondary school in the British West Indies, attracting boys from neighbouring islands, including Pelham Warner who later went on to become the "Grand Old Man" of English cricket. Described as "The Eton College of Barbados", since Barbados' independence in 1966, five out of Barbados's eight Prime Ministers have been alumni of Harrison College, among whom are also numbered the national poet Kamau Brathwaite and Alan Emtage the co-inventor of Archie search engine.

The school is responsible for the production of at least 65% of all government scholars or exhibition winners since the government introduced these aids to help funding with tertiary education.

It was an all-boys school for most of its history, with girls admitted to the Sixth Form in at least 1970 and to the lower forms in September 1980. Since the 1960s, no fees have been attached to study at Harrison College, but entry is by a competitive national examination. Harrison College or "Kolij" as it is more affectionately known to its students and alumni has been a cornerstone of Barbadian education since its establishment in 1733.

History of the Internet

The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of wide area networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, United Kingdom, and France. The U.S. Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s, including for the development of the ARPANET project, directed by Robert Taylor and managed by Lawrence Roberts. The first message was sent over the ARPANET in 1969 from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI).

Packet switching networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, Merit Network, CYCLADES, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of communications protocols. Donald Davies first demonstrated packet switching in 1967 at the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, which became a testbed for UK research for almost two decades. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks.

The Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was developed by Robert E. Kahn and Vint Cerf in the 1970s and became the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET, incorporating concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin. In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment for national supercomputing centers at several universities, and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which also created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the very late 1980s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Limited private connections to parts of the Internet by officially commercial entities emerged in several American cities by late 1989 and 1990, and the NSFNET was decommissioned in 1995, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.

In the 1980s, research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee resulted in the World Wide Web, linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network. Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture, commerce, and technology, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as JANET in the United Kingdom and Internet2 in the United States. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1 Gbit/s, 10 Gbit/s, or more. The Internet's takeover of the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking. However, the future of the global internet may be shaped by regional differences in the world.

Index of Internet-related articles

This page provides an index of articles thought to be Internet or Web related topics.

Invention in Canada

This article outlines the history of Canadian technological invention. Technologies chosen for treatment here include, in rough order, transportation, communication, energy, materials, industry, public works, public services (health care), domestic/consumer and defence technologies.

The terms chosen for the "age" described below are both literal and metaphorical. They describe the technology that dominated the period of time in question but are also representative of a large number of other technologies introduced during the same period. Also of note is the fact that the period of invention of a technology can begin modestly and can extend well beyond the "age" of its introduction. To maintain continuity, the complete treatment of an invention is dealt with in the context of its dominant "age".

Jughead (search engine)

Jughead is a search engine system for the Gopher protocol. It is distinct from Veronica in that it searches a single server at a time.

Jughead was developed by Rhett Jones in 1993 at the University of Utah.

The name "Jughead" was originally chosen to match the Archie search engine, as Jughead Jones is Archie's friend in Archie Comics. Later a backronym was developed: Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display.

It was released by the original author under the GNU General Public License in 2006, and its source code has been modernized to better run on current POSIX systems.

Due to trademark issues, the modified version was called Jugtail, and has been made available for download on GNU Savannah (see external links).

List of the oldest currently registered Internet domain names

This is a list of the oldest extant registered generic top-level domains used in the Domain Name System of the Internet.


MacX is a display server implementation supporting the X11 display server protocol that ran on System 7, Mac OS 8, and Mac OS 9. It also ran under A/UX. Prior to X11R4 and the introduction of the PowerPC-based Power Macintosh, this server was developed internally by Apple Inc. for the Motorola 68000 based Macintoshes. MacX was initially developed within the Networking and Communications organization as one component of the Apple DEC Alliance suite of products, but later was moved to Apple's A/UX group since X11 was (and is) an important part of UNIX user interfaces. Versions supporting X11R4 and X11R5 were developed for Apple by a small team of engineers at AGE Logic, Inc., a San Diego, California company. AGE also OEMed the MacX software under the trade name XoftWare for Macintosh. Apple provided early versions of the Power Macintosh to AGE Logic, and the result was a binary that supported both the Power Macintosh as well as earlier, 68000-based systems.

AGE Logic was later acquired by a Silicon Valley company named NetManage in the mid-1990s. NetManage was headquartered directly across the street from Apple in Cupertino, California. XoftWare for Macintosh was merged into NetManage's product offering for the Macintosh, which included a wide variety of standalone Internet desktop applications (e.g., telnet, archie search engine, gopher protocol, FTP), along with various software titles, mainly terminal emulators that were acquired by AGE Logic when it purchased Pacer Software earlier in the decade.By 1998, Apple had discontinued MacX as it transitioned from the classic Mac OS to the Unix-like Mac OS X, which had ample support for X11 (earlier versions of Mac OS X did not directly support X11, but as of Mac OS X v10.3, has been made available directly from Apple). NetManage disbanded its Macintosh group earlier, around 1996, and as a result, discontinued support of XoftWare for Macintosh.

McGill University School of Computer Science

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Technological and industrial history of 21st-century Canada

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Technology is a major cultural determinant, no less important in shaping human lives than philosophy, religion, social organization, or political systems. In the broadest sense, these forces are also aspects of technology. The French sociologist Jacques Ellul defined la technique as the totality of all rational methods in every field of human activity so that, for example, education, law, sports, propaganda, and the social sciences are all technologies in that sense. At the other end of the scale, common parlance limits the term's meaning to specific industrial arts.

Timeline of web search engines

This page provides a full timeline of web search engines, starting from the Archie search engine in 1990. It is complementary to the history of web search engines page that provides more qualitative detail on the history.

Veronica (search engine)

Veronica was a search engine system for the Gopher protocol, released in November 1992 by Steven Foster and Fred Barrie at the University of Nevada, Reno.

During its existence, Veronica was a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of Gopher servers. The Veronica database could be searched from most major Gopher menus. Although the original Veronica database is no longer accessible, various local Veronica installations and at least one complete rewrite ("Veronica-2") still exist.

Web search engine

A web search engine or Internet search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web search (Internet search), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a web search query. The search results are generally presented in a line of results, often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may be a mix of web pages, images, videos, infographics, articles, research papers and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler.

Internet content that is not capable of being searched by a web search engine is generally described as the deep web.

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