Archean

The Archean Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/, also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years ago). During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents and life started to form.

Archean Eon
4000–2500 million years ago
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Etymology and changes in classification

Archean (or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin". Its earliest use is from 1872, when it meant "of the earliest geological age."[1][2] Before the Hadean Eon was recognized, the Archean spanned Earth's early history from its formation about 4,540 million years ago until 2,500 million years ago.

Instead of being based on stratigraphy, the beginning and end of the Archean Eon are defined chronometrically. The eon's lower boundary or starting point of 4 Gya (4 billion years ago) is officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy.[3]

Geology

When the Archean began, the Earth's heat flow was nearly three times as high as it is today, and it was still twice the current level at the transition from the Archean to the Proterozoic (2,500 million years ago). The extra heat was the result of a mix of remnant heat from planetary accretion, from the formation of the metallic core, and from the decay of radioactive elements.

Although a few mineral grains are known to be Hadean, the oldest rock formations exposed on the surface of the Earth are Archean. Archean rocks are found in Greenland, Siberia, the Canadian Shield, Montana and Wyoming (exposed parts of the Wyoming Craton), the Baltic Shield, the Rhodope Massif, Scotland, India, Brazil, western Australia, and southern Africa. Granitic rocks predominate throughout the crystalline remnants of the surviving Archean crust. Examples include great melt sheets and voluminous plutonic masses of granite, diorite, layered intrusions, anorthosites and monzonites known as sanukitoids. Archean Eon rocks are often heavily metamorphized deep-water sediments, such as graywackes, mudstones, volcanic sediments, and banded iron formations. Volcanic activity was considerably higher than today, with numerous lava eruptions, including unusual types such as komatiite.[4] Carbonate rocks are rare, indicating that the oceans were more acidic due to dissolved carbon dioxide than during the Proterozoic.[5] Greenstone belts are typical Archean formations, consisting of alternating units of metamorphosed mafic igneous and sedimentary rocks, including Archean felsic volcanic rocks. The metamorphosed igneous rocks were derived from volcanic island arcs, while the metamorphosed sediments represent deep-sea sediments eroded from the neighboring island arcs and deposited in a forearc basin. Greenstone belts, being both types of metamorphosed rock, represent sutures between the protocontinents.[6]:302–03

Evolution of Earth's radiogenic heat
The evolution of Earth's radiogenic heat flow over time

The Earth's continents started to form in the Archean, although details about their formation are still being debated, due to lack of extensive geological evidence. One hypothesis is that rocks that are now in India, western Australia, and southern Africa formed a continent called Ur as of 3,100 Ma.[7] A differing conflicting hypothesis is that rocks from western Australia and southern Africa were assembled in a continent called Vaalbara as far back as 3,600 Ma.[8] Although the first continents formed during this eon, rock of this age makes up only 7% of the present world's cratons; even allowing for erosion and destruction of past formations, evidence suggests that only 5–40% of the present area of continents formed during the Archean.[6]:301–02

By the end of the Archaean c. 2500 Ma, plate tectonic activity may have been similar to that of the modern Earth. There are well-preserved sedimentary basins, and evidence of volcanic arcs, intracontinental rifts, continent-continent collisions and widespread globe-spanning orogenic events suggesting the assembly and destruction of one and perhaps several supercontinents. Liquid water was prevalent, and deep oceanic basins are known to have existed attested by the presence of banded iron formations, chert beds, chemical sediments and pillow basalts.

Environment

Archean
Artist's impression of the Archean Eon.

The Archean atmosphere is thought to have nearly lacked free oxygen. Astronomers think that the Sun had about 70–75 percent of the present luminosity, yet temperatures on Earth appear to have been near modern levels after only 500 Ma of Earth's formation (the faint young Sun paradox). The presence of liquid water is evidenced by certain highly deformed gneisses produced by metamorphism of sedimentary protoliths. The moderate temperatures may reflect the presence of greater amounts of greenhouse gases than later in the Earth's history.[9][10] Alternatively, Earth's albedo may have been lower at the time, due to less land area and cloud cover.[11]

Early life

The processes that gave rise to life on Earth are not completely understood, but there is substantial evidence that life came into existence either near the end of the Hadean Eon or early in the Archean Eon.

The earliest evidence for life on Earth are graphite of biogenic origin found in 3.7-billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland.[12]

The earliest identifiable fossils consist of stromatolites, which are microbial mats formed in shallow water by cyanobacteria. The earliest stromatolites are found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia.[13][14] Stromatolites are found throughout the Archean[15] and become common late in the Archean.[6]:307 Cyanobacteria were instrumental in creating free oxygen in the atmosphere.[16]

Further evidence for early life is found in 3.47-billon-year-old baryte, in the Warrawoona Group of Western Australia. This mineral shows sulfur fractionation of as much as 21.1%,[17] which is evidence of sulfate-reducing bacteria that metabolize sulfur-32 more readily than sulfur-34.[18]

Evidence of life in the Late Hadean is more controversial. In 2015, biogenic carbon has been detected in zircons dated to 4.1 billion years ago, but this evidence is preliminary and needs validation.[19][20]

Earth was very hostile to life before 4.2–4.3 Ga and the conclusion is that before the Archean Eon, life as we know it would have been challenged by these environmental conditions. While life could have arisen before the Archean, the conditions necessary to sustain life could not have occurred until the Archean Eon.[21]

Life in the Archean was limited to simple single-celled organisms (lacking nuclei), called Prokaryota. In addition to the domain Bacteria, microfossils of the domain Archaea have also been identified. There are no known eukaryotic fossils from the earliest Archean, though they might have evolved during the Archean without leaving any.[6]:306,323 Fossil steranes, indicative for eukaryotes, have been reported from Archean strata but were shown to derive from contamination with younger organic matter.[22] No fossil evidence has been discovered for ultramicroscopic intracellular replicators such as viruses.

Fossilized microbes from terrestrial microbial mats show that life was already established on land 3.22 billion years ago.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ The name "Archean" was coined by American geologist James Dwight Dana (1813–1895): Dana JD (1872). "Green Mountain geology. On the quartzite". American Journal of Science and Arts. 3rd series. 3 (16): 250–257. From p. 253: The Pre-Cambrian eon had been believed to be without life (azoic); however, because fossils had been found in deposits that had been judged to belong to the Azoic age, " … I propose to use for the Azoic era and its rocks the general term Archæn (or Arche'an), from the Greek άρχαιος, pertaining to the beginning.* "
  2. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Archaean". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  3. ^ "International Chronostratigraphic Chart v.2013/01" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy. January 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
  4. ^ Dostal J (2008). "Igneous Rock Associations 10. Komatiites". Geoscience Canada. 35 (1).
  5. ^ Cooper JD, Miller RH, Patterson J (1986). A Trip Through Time: Principles of Historical Geology. Columbus: Merrill Publishing Company. p. 180. ISBN 978-0675201407.
  6. ^ a b c d Stanley SM (1999). Earth System History. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 978-0716728825.
  7. ^ Rogers JJ (1996). "A history of continents in the past three billion years". Journal of Geology. 104 (1): 91–107. Bibcode:1996JG....104...91R. doi:10.1086/629803. JSTOR 30068065.
  8. ^ Cheney ES (1996). "Sequence stratigraphy and plate tectonic significance of the Transvaal succession of southern Africa and its equivalent in Western Australia". Precambrian Research. 79 (1–2): 3–24. Bibcode:1996PreR...79....3C. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(95)00085-2.
  9. ^ Walker JC (June 1985). "Carbon dioxide on the early earth" (PDF). Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere. 16 (2): 117–27. Bibcode:1985OrLi...16..117W. doi:10.1007/BF01809466. hdl:2027.42/43349. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
  10. ^ Pavlov AA, Kasting JF, Brown LL, Rages KA, Freedman R (May 2000). "Greenhouse warming by CH4 in the atmosphere of early Earth". Journal of Geophysical Research. 105 (E5): 11981–90. Bibcode:2000JGR...10511981P. doi:10.1029/1999JE001134.
  11. ^ Rosing MT, Bird DK, Sleep NH, Bjerrum CJ (April 2010). "No climate paradox under the faint early Sun". Nature. 464 (7289): 744–7. Bibcode:2010Natur.464..744R. doi:10.1038/nature08955. PMID 20360739.
  12. ^ Ohtomo Y, Kakegawa T, Ishida A, Nagase T, Rosing MT (8 December 2013). "Evidence for biogenic graphite in early Archaean Isua metasedimentary rocks". Nature Geoscience. 7 (1): 25–28. Bibcode:2014NatGe...7...25O. doi:10.1038/ngeo2025.
  13. ^ Borenstein S (13 November 2013). "Oldest fossil found: Meet your microbial mom". AP News. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  14. ^ Noffke N, Christian D, Wacey D, Hazen RM (December 2013). "Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia". Astrobiology. 13 (12): 1103–24. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13.1103N. doi:10.1089/ast.2013.1030. PMC 3870916. PMID 24205812.
  15. ^ Garwood RJ (2012). "Patterns In Palaeontology: The first 3 billion years of evolution". Palaeontology Online. 2 (11): 1–14. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
  16. ^ "Early life: Oxygen enters the atmosphere". BBC. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
  17. ^ Shen Y, Buick R, Canfield DE (March 2001). "Isotopic evidence for microbial sulphate reduction in the early Archaean era". Nature. 410 (6824): 77–81. doi:10.1038/35065071. PMID 11242044.
  18. ^ Seal RR (2006). "Sulfur Isotope Geochemistry of Sulfide Minerals". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 61 (1): 633–77. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.61.12.
  19. ^ Borenstein S (19 October 2015). "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth". Excite. Yonkers, NY: Mindspark Interactive Network. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-10-20.
  20. ^ Bell EA, Boehnke P, Harrison TM, Mao WL (November 2015). "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (47): 14518–21. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11214518B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1517557112. PMC 4664351. PMID 26483481. Early edition, published online before print.
  21. ^ Nisbet E (1980). "Archaeon Stromatolites and the Search for the Earliest Life". Nature. 284 (5755): 395–96. Bibcode:1980Natur.284..395N. doi:10.1038/284395a0.
  22. ^ French KL, Hallmann C, Hope JM, Schoon PL, Zumberge JA, Hoshino Y, Peters CA, George SC, Love GD, Brocks JJ, Buick R, Summons RE (May 2015). "Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (19): 5915–20. doi:10.1073/pnas.1419563112. PMC 4434754. PMID 25918387.
  23. ^ Oldest Evidence for Life on Land Unearthed in South Africa

External links

Anorthosite

Anorthosite ( ) is a phaneritic, intrusive igneous rock characterized by its composition: mostly plagioclase feldspar (90–100%), with a minimal mafic component (0–10%). Pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and olivine are the mafic minerals most commonly present.

Anorthosites are of enormous geologic interest, because it is still not fully understood how they form. Most models involve separating plagioclase crystals based on their density. Plagioclase crystals are usually less dense than magma; so, as plagioclase crystallizes in a magma chamber, the plagioclase crystals float to the top, concentrating there.Anorthosite on Earth can be divided into five types:

Archean-age anorthosites

Proterozoic anorthosite (also known as massif or massif-type anorthosite) – the most abundant type of anorthosite on Earth

Layers within Layered Intrusions (e.g., Bushveld and Stillwater intrusions)

Mid-ocean ridge and transform fault anorthosites

Anorthosite xenoliths in other rocks (often granites, kimberlites, or basalts)Of these, the first two are the most common. These two types have different modes of occurrence, appear to be restricted to different periods in Earth's history, and are thought to have had different origins.Lunar anorthosites constitute the light-coloured areas of the Moon's surface and have been the subject of much research.

Dacite

Dacite ( ) is an igneous, volcanic rock. It has an aphanitic to porphyritic texture and is intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite. The word dacite comes from Dacia, a province of the Roman Empire which lay between the Danube River and Carpathian Mountains (now modern Romania and Moldova) where the rock was first described.

Eoarchean

The Eoarchean ( ; also spelled Eoarchaean) is the first era of the Archean Eon of the geologic record for which the Earth has a solid crust. It spans 400 million years from the end of the Hadean Eon 4 billion years ago (4000 Mya) to the start of the Paleoarchean Era 3600 Mya. The beginnings of life on Earth have been dated to this era and evidence of cyanobacteria date to 3500 Mya, just outside this era. At that time, the atmosphere was without oxygen and the pressure values ranged from 10 to 100 bar (around 10 to 100 atmospheres).

Era (geology)

A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an eon into smaller units of time. The Phanerozoic Eon is divided into three such time frames: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic (meaning "old life", "middle life" and "recent life") that represent the major stages in the macroscopic fossil record. These eras are separated by catastrophic extinction boundaries, the P-T boundary between the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic and the K-Pg boundary between the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic. There is evidence that catastrophic meteorite impacts played a role in demarcating the differences between the eras.

The Hadean, Archean and Proterozoic eons were as a whole formerly called the Precambrian. This covered the four billion years of Earth history prior to the appearance of hard-shelled animals. More recently, however, the Archean and Proterozoic eons have been subdivided into eras of their own.

Geologic eras are further subdivided into geologic periods, although the Archean eras have yet to be subdivided in this way.

Fennoscandia

Fennoscandia (Finnish: Fennoskandia; Swedish: Fennoskandien; Norwegian: Fennoskandia; Russian: Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya) or the Fennoscandian Peninsula is the geographical peninsula comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula. It encompasses Finland, Norway and Sweden, as well as Murmansk Oblast, much of the Republic of Karelia, and parts of northern Leningrad Oblast in Russia.

Its name comes from the Latin words Fennia (Finland) and Scandia (Scandinavian). The term was first used by the Finnish geologist Wilhelm Ramsay in 1898.Geologically, the area is distinct because its bedrock is Archean granite and gneiss with very little limestone, in contrast to adjacent areas in Europe.

The similar term Fenno-Scandinavia typically refers to a cultural or political grouping of Finland with Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway), which is a subset of the Nordic countries.

Gneiss

Gneiss () is a common and widely distributed type of metamorphic rock. Gneiss is formed by high temperature and high-pressure metamorphic processes acting on formations composed of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Orthogneiss is gneiss derived from igneous rock (such as granite). Paragneiss is gneiss derived from sedimentary rock (such as sandstone). Gneiss forms at higher temperatures and pressures than schist. Gneiss nearly always shows a banded texture characterized by alternating darker and lighter colored bands and without a distinct foliation.

Hadean

The Hadean ( ) is a geologic eon of the Earth pre-dating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS, 4 billion years ago. As of 2016, the ICS describes its status as "informal". Geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term, the "Priscoan period", from priscus, the Latin word for "ancient". Other, older texts refer to the eon as the Pre-Archean.

Kaapvaal Craton

The Kaapvaal Craton (centred on Limpopo Province in South Africa), along with the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia, are the only remaining areas of pristine 3.6–2.5 Ga (billion years ago) crust on Earth. Similarities of rock records from both these cratons, especially of the overlying late Archean sequences, suggest that they were once part of the Vaalbara supercontinent.

Kenorland

Kenorland was one of the earliest known supercontinents on Earth. It is thought to have formed during the Neoarchaean Era c. 2.72 billion years ago (2.72 Ga) by the accretion of Neoarchaean cratons and the formation of new continental crust. It comprised what later became Laurentia (the core of today's North America and Greenland), Baltica (today's Scandinavia and Baltic), Western Australia and Kalaharia. It also formed a substantial part of Nena, the supercontinent associated with the Sudbury Basin Impact.

Swarms of volcanic dikes and their paleomagnetic orientation as well as the existence of similar stratigraphic sequences permit this reconstruction. The core of Kenorland, the Baltic/Fennoscandian Shield, traces its origins back to over 3.1 Ga. The Yilgarn Craton (present-day Western Australia) contains zircon crystals in its crust that date back to 4.4 Ga.

Mesoarchean

The Mesoarchean (, also spelled Mesoarchaean) is a geologic era within the Archean Eon, spanning 3,200 to 2,800 million years ago. The era is defined chronometrically and is not referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth. Fossils from Australia show that stromatolites have grown on Earth since the Mesoarchean. The Pongola glaciation occurred around 2,900 million years ago. The first supercontinent Vaalbara broke up during this era about 2,800 million years ago.

The earliest reefs date from this era, and were probably formed by stromatolites. The surface temperature during the Mesoarchean was likely not much higher than modern-day temperatures. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was only a few times higher than its pre-industrial value, and the Sun's luminosity was only 70% of its current value, cancelling out the influence of a greater degree of greenhouse effect that may be operating.

Neoarchean

Not to be confused with archaea, in spite of biological discussion commonly alluding to the only life forms of that era, e.g. microbes

The Neoarchean (; also spelled Neoarchaean) is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon.

The Neoarchean spans the period from 2,800 to 2,500 million years ago—the period being defined chronometrically and not referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth.

Paleoarchean

The Paleoarchean (), also spelled Palaeoarchaean (formerly known as early Archean), is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon. It spans the period of time 3,600 to 3,200 million years ago—the era is defined chronometrically and is not referenced to a specific level of a rock section on Earth. The name derives from Greek "Palaios" ancient. The oldest ascertained life form of fossilized bacteria in microbial mats, 3,480 million years old, found in Western Australia, is from this era. The first supercontinent Vaalbara formed during this period.

During this era, a large asteroid, about 37 to 58 kilometres (23–36 mi) wide, collided with the Earth in the area of South Africa about 3.26 billion years ago, creating the features known as the Barberton greenstone belt.

Precambrian

The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time.

The Precambrian (colored green in the timeline figure) is an informal unit of geologic time, subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale. It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga) to the beginning of the Cambrian Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance.

Proterozoic

The Proterozoic ( ) is a geological eon spanning the time from the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere to just before the proliferation of complex life (such as trilobites or corals) on the Earth. The name Proterozoic combines the two forms of ultimately Greek origin: protero- meaning "former, earlier", and -zoic, a suffix related to zoe "life". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 2500 mya to 541 mya (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian "supereon." The Proterozoic is the longest eon of the Earth's geologic time scale and it is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic.The well-identified events of this eon were the transition to an oxygenated atmosphere during the Paleoproterozoic; several glaciations, which produced the hypothesized Snowball Earth during the Cryogenian Period in the late Neoproterozoic Era; and the Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) which is characterized by the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multicellular organisms and provides us with the first obvious fossil evidence of life on earth.

Saamian orogeny

The Saamian orogeny is one of the earliest recognizable events in the formation of the Baltic Shield, between 3.1 and 2.9 billion years ago in the Archean and Proterozoic. The Saamian orogeny is associated with intense plutonic activity that intruded massive granitoid deposits. The event lined up with the Katarchean, a period in which the Earth's crust approached its present thickness and sialic rocks, rich in silica and aluminum, became commonplace.

Sclavia Craton

The Sclavia Craton is a late Archean supercraton thought to be parental to the Slave and Wyoming Cratons in North America, the Dharwar Craton in southern India, and the Zimbabwe Craton in southern Africa. Sclavia was proposed by Bleeker 2003 who estimated the number of Archean cratons to ca. 35; cratonic fragments which he suggested were derived from a single or a few supercratons.The break-up of Sclavia, and possibly other continents or supercratons, can be linked to a global pulse of magmatic activity around 2.33–2.1 Gya probably caused by increased mantle plume activity. Related results of this mantle activity include the 2.3 Ga-old Precambrian dyke swarms in the Dharwar Craton in southern India which were emplaced in only five million years. Similar swarms have been found in what is today Antarctica, Australia, Finland, Greenland, and North America.There is growing evidences that support that the Slave and Dharwar cratons shared a common history through the Archean but the exact configuration of the Archean supercraton from which they were derived is unknown.Kenorland, a proposed supercontinent, is a "one-piece" alternative to three separate supercratons: Superia, Vaalbara, and Sclavia.

Shield (geology)

A shield is generally a large area of exposed Precambrian crystalline igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that form tectonically stable areas. In all cases, the age of these rocks is greater than 570 million years and sometimes dates back 2 to 3.5 billion years. They have been little affected by tectonic events following the end of the Precambrian, and are relatively flat regions where mountain building, faulting, and other tectonic processes are greatly diminished compared with the activity that occurs at the margins of the shields and the boundaries between tectonic plates.

The term shield, used to describe this type of geographic region, appears in the 1901 English translation of Eduard Suess's Face of Earth by H. B. C. Sollas, and comes from the shape "not unlike a flat shield" of the Canadian Shield which has an outline that "suggests the shape of the shields carried by soldiers in the days of hand-to-hand combat."Shields occur on all continents.

Ur (continent)

Ur is a proposed supercontinent that formed in the Archean 3,100 million years ago (3.1 billion).

In Roger's reconstruction Ur is half a billion years older than Arctica and, in the early period of its existence, it was probably the only continent on Earth, and as such can be considered a supercontinent, though it was probably smaller than present-day Australia. In more recent works geologists often refer to both Ur and other proposed Archaean continental assemblages as supercratons. Ur can, nevertheless, be half a billion years younger than Vaalbara, but the concepts of these two early cratonic assemblages are incompatible.

Vaalbara

Vaalbara was an Archean supercontinent consisting of the Kaapvaal Craton (now located in eastern South Africa) and the Pilbara Craton (now found in north-western Western Australia). E. S. Cheney derived the name from the last four letters of each craton's name. The two cratons consist of crust dating from 2.7 to 3.6 Gya, which would make Vaalbara one of Earth's earliest supercontinents.

Archean Eon
Cenozoic era
(present–66.0 Mya)
Mesozoic era
(66.0–251.902 Mya)
Paleozoic era
(251.902–541.0 Mya)
Proterozoic eon
(541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)
Archean eon (2.5–4 Gya)
Hadean eon (4–4.6 Gya)

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