Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria

Rainer Joseph of Austria (30 September 1783 – 16 January 1853) was a Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia from 1818 to 1848. He was also an Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia.

Archduke Rainer Joseph
Erzherzog Rainer Vizekoenig
Born30 September 1783
Pisa, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died16 January 1853 (aged 69)
Bolzano, Austrian Empire
Burial
Bolzano Cathedral
SpousePrincess Elisabeth of Savoy
IssueAdelaide, Queen of Sardinia
Leopold Ludwig
Ernst Karl
Sigismund Leopold
Rainer Ferdinand
Heinrich Anton
Full name
Rainer Joseph Johann Michael Franz Hieronymus
HouseHabsburg-Lorraine
FatherLeopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
MotherMaria Luisa of Spain
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Biography

Rainer was a son of Emperor Leopold II and Empress Maria Luisa, and was thus a younger brother of Emperor Franz II.

Although Rainer suffered from a mild form of epilepsy, this did not visibly interfere with his military career.[1]

Rainer served as Viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia from 1818 to 1848. The position made Rainer and his wife the head of the Austrian court at Milan. Rainer politics were increasingly unpopular, the Italians resented him for their lack of political freedom and for collecting revenues with so little benefit to them.

Throughout the 1840s, the political situation worsened to such an extent that in 1847, Metternich resurrected his 1817 plans for an Italian chancellery by sending his right-hand man count Charles-Louis de Ficquelmont to Milan as acting Chancellor of Lombardy–Venetia to restore the Austrian rule while taking over Northern Italy's administration. But only a few months later, Ficquelmont was recalled to Vienna to assume the leadership of the Council of war as the Revolutions of 1848 started.

Archduke Rainer's mistakes as well as the lack of understanding between Rainer and Feldmarschall Graf Radetzky, were blamed for the disasters of the Italian Revolution of 1848.[2]

Marriage and children

He married at Prague on 28 May 1820 Princess Elisabeth of Savoy (13 April 1800 – 25 December 1856). She was the sister of the Prince of Carignano, who would in 1831 become King of Sardinia as King Charles Albert. She was also a granddaughter of the late former Duke of the Baltic principality of Courland.

Children included:

  • Maria Karolina (6 February 1821 – 23 Jan 1844) – unmarried, no issue
  • Adelaide (3 June 1822 – 20 January 1855) – wife of Victor Emmanuel II, from 1849 king of Sardinia
  • Leopold Ludwig (6 June 1823 – 24 May 1898) – Oberkommandant der Marine ('High Commander of the Navy') from 1864 to 1868
  • Ernst Karl (8 August 1824 – 4 April 1899), Feldmarschalleutnant
  • Sigismund Leopold (7 January 1826 – 15 December 1891), Feldmarschalleutnant
  • Rainer Ferdinand (11 January 1827 – 27 January 1913) – Austrian Minister President 1859–61;[3][4] his visit to the Hotel Greif in Wels is commemorated by a wall plaque there. Married Archduchess Maria Karoline of Austria (1825-1915). No issue.
  • Heinrich Anton (9 May 1828 – 30 November 1891), Feldmarschalleutnant
  • Maximilian Karl (16 January 1830 – 16 March 1839)

The Revolution of 1848 forced Rainer and Elisabeth from the court at Milan; when the insurrection was quelled, Radetzky was named Rainer's successor as Viceroy. Although his children, except Adelheid, are buried in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna, he and his wife are buried at the Maria Himmelfahrtskirche in Bolzano.

Through his daughter Adelaide, Rainer is an ancestor of the entire royal family of Italy which reigned from 1861 to 1946.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 30 September 1783 – 11 August 1804 His Royal Highness Archduke Ranier Joseph of Austria
  • 11 August 1804 – 16 January 1853 His Imperial & Royal Highness Archduke Ranier Joseph of Austria

Notes

  1. ^ George R. Marek, The Eagles Die. Franz Joseph, Elisabeth, and Their Austria, pp. 41–42. New York: Harper & Row, 1974. This mild form of epilepsy was also suffered by Archduke Karl and his son, Archduke Albrecht, both of whom were able military commanders.
  2. ^ Joan Haslip, The Crown of Mexico, pp. 22, 89, 109. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.
  3. ^ Robert Adolf Kann, A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526–1918, pp. 328, 331. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
  4. ^ Alan Palmer, Twilight of the Habsburgs. The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph, pp. 122–123. New York: Grove Press, 1994.
  5. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 109.
1853

1853 (MDCCCLIII)

was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1853rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 853rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 53rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1853, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Adelaide of Austria

Adelaide of Austria (Adelheid Franziska Marie Rainera Elisabeth Clotilde; 3 June 1822 – 20 January 1855) was the Queen of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, future King of Italy, from 1849 until 1855 when she died as a result of childbirth. She was the mother of Umberto I of Italy.

Adelaide of Savoy

Adelaide of Savoy may refer to:

Adila, often called Adelaide, wife of Amadeus I, Count of Savoy

Adelaide of Susa (c. 1014/20–1091), daughter of Ulric Manfred II of Turin, wife of Otto I, Count of Savoy

Adelaide of Savoy (died 1079), daughter of Otto I, Count of Savoy and Adelaide of Susa, wife of Rudolf of Rheinfelden

Adelaide (d. aft. 1134), daughter of Amadeus II, Count of Savoy, wife of Manasses, sire de Coligny

Adelaide of Maurienne (1092–1154), daughter of Umberto II, Count of Savoy, married first Louis VI of France and then Matthieu I of Montmorency

Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy (1636–1676), daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, married Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria

Princess Marie Adélaïde of Savoy (1685–1712), daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, married Louis, Dauphin of France, Duke of Burgundy

Maria Carolina Antonietta Adelaide, better known as Princess Maria Carolina of Savoy (1764–1782), daughter of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia, married Anthony of Saxony

Maria Adelaide Clothilde Xaveria Borbonia of Savoy (1794–1802), daughter of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia

Adelaide of Austria (1822–1855), daughter of Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria, married Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia; was Duchess of Savoy prior to husband's accession

Princess Adelaide of Savoy-Genoa, (1904–1979), daughter of Prince Thomas, Duke of Genoa, married Leone Massimo, Prince of Arsoli

Maria Gabriella Giuseppa Aldegonda Adelaide Ludovica Felicita Gennara, better known as Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy (b. 1940), daughter of Umberto II of Italy, married Robert Zellinger de Balkany

Vittoria Cristina Adelaide Chiara Maria, better known as Princess Vittoria of Savoy (b. 2003), daughter of Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont

Archduke Ernest of Austria (1824–1899)

Archduke Ernst of Austria (Ernst Karl Felix Maria Rainer Gottfried Cyriak), Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (August 8, 1824, Milan – April 4, 1899, Arco) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

Archduke Heinrich Anton of Austria

Archduke Heinrich Anton of Austria (Heinrich Anton Maria Rainer Karl Gregor), (May 9, 1828, Milan – November 30, 1891, Vienna) was an Archduke of Austria and Lieutenant field marshal.

Archduke Leopold Ludwig of Austria

Archduke Leopold Ludwig of Austria (German: Leopold Ludwig Maria Franz Julius Estorgius Gerhard Erzherzog von Ósterreich) (b. Milan 6 June 1823 – d. Hórnstein 24 May 1898) was an Austrian general and admiral.

Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria

Archduke Rainer Ferdinand Maria Johann Evangelist Franz Ignaz of Austria (11 January 1827 – 27 January 1913), a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and nephew of Emperor Francis II, was an Austrian politician who served as Minister-President of Austria from 1861 to 1865.

Archduke Rainer of Austria

Archduke Rainer of Austria may refer to:

Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria (1783–1853), eighth son of Emperor Leopold II

Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria (1827–1913), fourth son of Archduke Rainer (1783-1853)

Archduke Rainer of Austria (1895–1930) (1895–1930), eldest son of Archduke Leopold Salvator

Count Karl Ludwig von Ficquelmont

Karl Ludwig, Count of Ficquelmont (German: [ˈfɪkɛlˌmɔnt]; French: Charles-Louis comte de Ficquelmont; March 23, 1777 – April 7, 1857) was an Austrian aristocrat, statesman and Field marshal of the Austrian Imperial army of French noble origin.

Giovanna of Italy

Giovanna of Italy (Bulgarian: Йоанна Савойска, Italian: Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria) (13 November 1907 – 26 February 2000) was the Tsaritsa of Bulgaria by marriage to Boris III of Bulgaria.

Maria Letizia Bonaparte, Duchess of Aosta

Maria Letizia Bonaparte (Marie Laetitia Eugénie Catherine Adélaïde; 20 November 1866 – 25 October 1926) was one of three children born to Prince Napoléon and his wife Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy. In 1888 she married Prince Amadeo, Duke of Aosta, the former king of Spain and her uncle. Maria Letizia became the Duchess of Aosta, Duke of Aosta being a title by which Amadeus was known before and after his kingship. Their marriage was instrumental in almost reviving French hopes of reinstating the Bonaparte dynasty into a position of power, as seen in the days of Napoleon III.

Prince Oddone, Duke of Montferrat

Oddone of Savoy (Oddone Eugenio Maria; 11 July 1846 – 22 January 1866) was an Italian humanist and philanthropist. He was the fourth child and third eldest son of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and his wife Adelaide of Austria. He was a Prince of Savoy.

Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin

Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy-Aosta, Infante of Spain, Count of Turin (24 November 1870 – 10 October 1946) was a grandchild of King Victor Emmanuel II and a member of the House of Savoy. He was a cousin of Victor Emmanuel III.

Princess Mafalda of Savoy

Princess Mafalda of Savoy (2 November 1902 – 27 August 1944) was the second daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife Elena of Montenegro. The future King Umberto II of Italy was her younger brother.

Princess Yolanda of Savoy

Princess Yolanda of Savoy (1 June 1901 – 16 October 1986) was the eldest daughter of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy.

Rainer (given name)

Rainer is the German form of the Germanic name Raginheri (Scandinavian Ragnar), composed of the two elements ragin ("advice") and heri ("army").

Other variants of the name include Dutch Reinier, French Rainier, Spanish and Italian Raniero.

Ancestors of Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria[5]
16. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
8. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
17. Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria
Queen Dowager of Poland-Lithuania
4. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
18. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
9. Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans
19. Countess Palatine Elizabeth Charlotte of Simmern
2. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
20. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
10. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
21. Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
5. Maria Theresa of Austria
Queen of Hungary & Bohemia
22. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
11. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
23. Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
1. Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria
24. Louis, Dauphin of France
12. Philip V of Spain
25. Duchess Maria Anna of Bavaria
6. Charles III of Spain
26. Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma
13. Elisabeth Farnese
27. Countess Palatine Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg
3. Maria Luisa of Spain
28. Augustus II of Poland
Elector of Saxony
14. Augustus III of Poland
Elector of Saxony
29. Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
7. Maria Amalia of Saxony
30. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor
15. Maria Josepha of Austria
31. Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
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