Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este (25 April 1781 – 5 November 1850) was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the House of Este. For much of the Napoleonic Wars he was in command of the Austrian army.

Ferdinand was born at Milan. He attended the military academy in Wiener Neustadt before embarking on a military career. In 1805 in the war of the Third Coalition against France, Ferdinand was commander-in-chief of the Austrian forces with General Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich as his quartermaster general. In October his army was surrounded at Ulm. General Mack surrendered, but Ferdinand managed to escape with 2000 cavalry to Bohemia. There he took command of the Austrian troops and raised the local militia. With a total of 9,000 men he set out for Iglau to distract attention from the Coalition's movements. He succeeded in holding the Bavarian division of Prince Karl Philipp von Wrede in Iglau thereby and preventing it from joining the Battle of Austerlitz.

In 1809 in the war of the Fifth Coalition against France, Ferdinand commanded an Austrian army of 36,000 men. In April he invaded the Duchy of Warsaw hoping to encourage a local uprising against Napoleon (see Polish–Austrian War). But the Poles rallied to Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski. Ferdinand was defeated at the Battle of Raszyn, but managed to occupy Warsaw. In June, however, Ferdinand was compelled to withdraw from Warsaw, and to give up Kraków and Galicia as well.

In 1815 in the war of the Seventh Coalition against France, Ferdinand commanded two divisions of the Austrian Reserve. The following year he was appointed military commander in Hungary.

In 1830 Ferdinand was appointed military and civil governor of Galicia, taking up residence in Lviv. After the Revolution of 1848 he resided mostly in Italy.

Ferdinand never married. In 1850 he died at Schloss Ebenzweier in Altmünster near Gmunden, Austria.

Ferdinand Karl Joseph Austria 1781 1850 lithocolor
Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph (lithography by Joseph Kriehuber, 1841).
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria

There have been several men titled Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, including:

Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria (1503–1564), who later ascended to the title of the Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand II, Archduke of Inner Austria (1578–1637), who later ascended to the title of the Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria (1608–1657), who later ascended to the title of the Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand IV, Archduke of Austria (1633–1654), who later ascended to the title of the King of the Romans, heir to the title of the Holy Roman Emperor

Archduke Franz Ferdinand Karl Ludwig Joseph (1863–1914), better known as Franz Ferdinand, was Heir to the Austrian throne from 1896 until he was assassinated in 1914, sparking World War IOthers who have held the title:

Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria (1529–1595)

Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias (1571–1578)

Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria (1609/1610–1641)

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislaus of Austria-Este (1754–1806), fourth son and fourteenth child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, commander of an Austrian army in the War of the Third Coalition

Archduke Ferdinand Joseph Johann Baptist (1769–1824), second son of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, became Grand Duke Ferdinand III of Tuscany

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este (1781–1850), younger son of Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislaus.

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marcelin (1793–1875), eldest son of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, became Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria upon his father's death in 1835

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este (1821–1849), younger son of Duke Francis IV of Modena

Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph (1832–1867), second son of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and brother of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria; became Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico in 1864

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Ludwig Joseph Johann Maria (1868–1915), younger brother of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, abandoned his dynastic rights to marry Bertha Czuber in 1909

Archduke Ferdinand of Austria (HI & RH, 1918–2004), married to Countess Helene (1937– ), only daughter of HIllH Carl Theodor, Count zu Toerring-Jettenbach and HRH Princess Elizabeth of Greece and Denmark (a sister of Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent)

Archduke Ferdinand Zvonimir of Austria (born 1997), son of Archduke Karl of Austria, grandson of Crown Prince Otto of Austria, second-in-line to the headship of the House of Habsburg

Austro-Polish War

The Austro-Polish War or Polish-Austrian War was a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809 (a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon's French Empire and Bavaria). In this war, Polish forces of the Napoleon-allied Duchy of Warsaw and assisted by forces of the Kingdom of Saxony, fought against the Austrian Empire. By May, the Russian Empire joined against Austria. Polish troops withstood the Austrian attack on Warsaw defeating them at Raszyn, then abandoned Warsaw in order to reconquer parts of pre-partition Poland including Kraków and Lwów, forcing the Austrians to abandon Warsaw in futile pursuit.

Battle of Günzburg

The Battle of Günzburg on 9 October 1805 saw General of Division Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher's French division attempt to seize a crossing over the Danube River at Günzburg in the face of a Habsburg Austrian army led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Karl Mack von Lieberich. Malher's division managed to capture a bridge and hold it against Austrian counterattacks. The battle occurred during the War of the Third Coalition, part of the larger Napoleonic Wars.

After Mack's Austrian army invaded Bavaria, it found itself the target of a powerful offensive by the army of Emperor Napoleon I of France. When Napoleon's corps threatened to envelop Mack's army, the Austrian general unwisely held his ground near the city of Ulm. As the French armies blocked the Austrian retreat routes to the east, Mack attempted to move his army to the south bank of the Danube. After receiving orders to seize the Danube bridges, Marshal Michel Ney sent Malher to capture the crossing at Günzburg. Malher's main attack on two bridges failed in the face of a vigorous Austrian defense. However, a late-arriving French unit captured the eastern bridge that had just been rebuilt by the Austrians and was able to hold on to it until evening. Discouraged by the encounter, Mack ordered his soldiers to march back to Ulm which is 22 kilometers west-southwest of Günzburg.

Battle of Hohenlinden

The Battle of Hohenlinden was fought on 3 December 1800, during the French Revolutionary Wars. A French army under Jean Victor Marie Moreau won a decisive victory over the Austrians and Bavarians led by Archduke John of Austria. After being forced into a disastrous retreat, the allies were compelled to request an armistice that effectively ended the War of the Second Coalition. Hohenlinden is 33 km east of Munich in modern Germany.

General of Division (MG) Moreau's 56,000 strong army engaged some 64,000 Austrians and Bavarians. The Austrians, believing they were pursuing a beaten enemy, moved through heavily wooded terrain in four disconnected columns. Instead, Moreau ambushed the Austrians as they emerged from the Ebersberg forest while launching MG Antoine Richepanse's division in a surprise envelopment of the Austrian left flank. Displaying superb individual initiative, Moreau's generals managed to encircle and smash the largest Austrian column.

This crushing victory, coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte's victory at the Battle of Marengo on 14 June 1800, ended the War of the Second Coalition. In February 1801, the Austrians signed the Treaty of Lunéville, accepting French control up to the Rhine and the French puppet republics in Italy and the Netherlands. The subsequent Treaty of Amiens between France and Britain began the longest break in the wars of the Napoleonic period.

Battle of Raszyn (1809)

The first Battle of Raszyn was fought on 19 April 1809 between armies of the Austrian Empire under Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este and the Duchy of Warsaw under Józef Antoni Poniatowski, as part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars. The battle was not decisive, but it did result in the Austrians obtaining their goal by capturing the Polish capital Warsaw.

Battle of Ulm

The Battle of Ulm on 16–19 October 1805 was a series of skirmishes, at the end of the Ulm Campaign, which allowed Napoleon I to trap an entire Austrian army under the command of Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich with minimal losses and to force its surrender near Ulm in the Electorate of Bavaria.

Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon

Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon (July 21, 1783 – August 21, 1853) was a French general during the Napoleonic Wars. He chose to go into exile on Saint Helena with the ex-Emperor after Napoleon's second abdication.

Count Karl Ludwig von Ficquelmont

Karl Ludwig, Count of Ficquelmont (German: [ˈfɪkɛlˌmɔnt]; French: Charles-Louis comte de Ficquelmont; March 23, 1777 – April 7, 1857) was an Austrian aristocrat, statesman and Field marshal of the Austrian Imperial army of French noble origin.

Ferdinand Charles

Ferdinand Charles may refer to:

Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Further Austria (1628–1662), ruler of Further Austria

Ferdinand Charles, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (1652–1708), ruler of the Duchy of Mantua

Ferdinand Charles of Austria-Este (1754–1806), son of Empress Maria Theresa

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este (1781–1850)

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este (1821–1849)

Ferdinand Charles of Bourbon-Parma (1823–1854), crown-prince of Lucca, later Duke Charles III of Parma

Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria (1868–1915), son of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria

Ferdinand Charles Stanley (1871–1935), son of Frederick Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby

Ferdinand Charles, comte d'Aspremont-Lynden (1689–1772), soldier

Franjo Jelačić

Baron Franjo Jelačić Bužimski (English: Franz Jellacic, also Francis Yellachich of Buzhim or German: Franz Jellačić von Buzim, Hungarian: Ferenc Jellacsics de Buzim) (14 April 1746 – 4 February 1810) was a Croatian nobleman, a member of the House of Jelačić. He began his service in the Habsburg army as a Grenz infantry officer and fought against the Ottoman Turks. During the French Revolutionary Wars he received promotion to the rank of general officer and won an outstanding victory at Feldkirch. His later career proved that his martial abilities were limited. He twice led independent division-sized forces in the Napoleonic Wars, with unhappy results. He was Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian infantry regiment from 1802 until his death.

Franz von Werneck

Franz Freiherr von Werneck, born 13 October 1748 – died 17 January 1806, enlisted in the army of Habsburg Austria and fought in the Austro-Turkish War, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars. He enjoyed a distinguished career until 1797, when he lost a battle and was dismissed as punishment. He was only reinstated in 1805. In that year he surrendered his command and was later brought up on charges. He died while awaiting a court-martial.

Governor of Transylvania

The governor of Transylvania was a viceroy representing the Habsburg monarchs in the Principality (from 1765 Grand Principality) of Transylvania between 1691 and 1867.

Hohenlinden Order of Battle

In the Battle of Hohenlinden on 3 December 1800, a French army commanded by Jean Victor Marie Moreau decisively defeated the army of Habsburg Austria led by Archduke John. The first action of the campaign was the Battle of Ampfing, two days earlier. After Hohenlinden there was a series of rearguard clashes beginning on 9 December at Rosenheim and continuing from the 14th through the 20th at Salzburg, Neumarkt am Wallersee, Frankenmarkt, Schwanenstadt, Vöcklabruck, Lambach, and Kremsmünster. During the retreat, the Austrian army began a process of disintegration and an armistice was concluded a few days later.For an explanation of the types of forces, see Types of military forces in the Napoleonic Wars.

Ignác Gyulay

Count Ignác Gyulay de Marosnémeti et Nádaska, Ignácz Gyulay, Ignaz Gyulai, or Ignjat Đulaj (11 September 1763 – 11 November 1831) was a Hungarian military officer, joined the army of Habsburg Austria, fought against Ottoman Turkey, and became a general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars. From 1806 he held the title of Ban of Croatia. In the struggle against the First French Empire during Napoleonic Wars, he commanded army corps. At the time of his death, he presided over the Hofkriegsrat, the Austrian Council of War.

While fighting against the Turks, Gyulay rose in rank to become a field officer. From 1793 to 1796, he served on the upper Rhine in combat with the armies of the First French Republic. In 1799 he led a brigade in Germany and the following year he commanded a division. From 1801 until 1831, he was Proprietor (Inhaber) of a Hungarian infantry regiment.

During the Napoleonic Wars, Gyulay fought in the 1805 campaign against the First French Empire and later served his emperor as a negotiator in the peace talks. He commanded an Austrian army corps in the 1809 campaign in Italy. Again leading a corps, he fought at the decisive Battle of the Nations in 1813. During the subsequent French campaign in 1814, he led one of the corps in the victorious Allied armies.

Karl Mack von Leiberich

Karl Freiherr Mack von Leiberich (25 August 1752 – 22 December 1828) was an Austrian soldier. He is best remembered as the commander of the Austrian forces that capitulated to Napoleon's Grande Armée in the Battle of Ulm in 1805. Mack makes a brief appearance as a character in book two of Volume I of Tolstoy's War and Peace.

Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspré

Konstantin Ghilian Karl d'Aspré von Hoobreuk (27 December 1754 – 8 July 1809), served in the army of Habsburg Austria during the French Revolutionary Wars. In the Napoleonic Wars, he made a mark in two major campaigns. In 1809, he was briefly Proprietor (Inhaber) of an infantry regiment and rose to command a division. His son Konstantin d'Aspré (1789–1850) also became an Austrian general.

D'Aspré helped put down the Brabant Revolution of 1789 and 1790 in his native land, and won a coveted award. During the War of the First Coalition he was promoted to command a regiment. He played an important role in one clash during the 1805 campaign. In 1809, he led a brigade of grenadiers in the early battles and later was appointed to command a grenadier division. He was mortally wounded while leading his soldiers at the Battle of Wagram.

List of Austrian field marshals

The list of Austrian field marshals denotes those who held the rank of Feldmarschall in the Austrian or Austro-Hungarian armies. For earlier Austrian field marshals, see List of field marshals of the Holy Roman Empire.

Thomas Ward, Baron Ward

Thomas Ward, Baron Ward of the Austrian Empire (1810–1858) was an English jockey and court favourite, who became finance minister in the Duchy of Lucca.

West Galicia

New Galicia or West Galicia (Polish: Nowa Galicja or Galicja Zachodnia, German: Neugalizien or Westgalizien) was an administrative region of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, constituted from the territory annexed in the course of the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.

Ancestors of Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este
16. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
8. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
17. Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria
4. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
18. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
9. Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
19. Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine
2. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este
20. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
10. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
21. Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
5. Maria Theresa of Austria
22. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
11. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
23. Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
1. Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este
24. Rinaldo III, Duke of Modena
12. Francesco III d'Este, Duke of Modena
25. Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg
6. Ercole III d'Este, Duke of Modena
26. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
13. Charlotte Aglaé of Orléans
27. Françoise-Marie de Bourbon
3. Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este
28. Carlo II Cibo-Malsapina, Duke of Massa
14. Alderano Cibo-Malsapina, Duke of Massa
29. Teresa Pamfili
7. Maria Teresa Cibo-Malsapina, Duchess of Massa
30. Camillo III Gonzaga, Count of Novellara
15. Ricciardia Gonzaga of Novellara
31. Matilde d'Este
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