Archangel

An archangel /ˌɑːrkˈeɪndʒəl/ is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is usually associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are very similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions.

The English word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος (arch- + angel, literally "chief angel" or "angel of origin").[1] It appears only twice in the New Testament in the phrase "with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God" (1 Thessalonians 4:16) and in relation to 'the archangel Michael' (Jude 9). The corresponding but different Hebrew word in the Hebrew Scripture (Old Testament) is found in two places as in "Michael, one of the chief princes" (Dan 10:13) and in "Michael, the great prince" (Dan 12:1).

Paolo de Matteis - The Annunciation
The Annunciation by Paolo de Matteis

Description

Four Archangels, St John's Church, Warminster, Wiltshire
The four archangels, mosaics at St John's Church, Warminster

Michael and Gabriel are recognized as archangels in Judaism, Islam, the Baha'i Faith, and by most Christians. Some Protestants consider Michael to be the only archangel. Raphael—mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit—is also recognized as an archangel in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Gabriel, Michael, and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on September 29 (between 1921 and 1969, March 24 for Gabriel and October 24 for Raphael), and in the Eastern Orthodox Church on November 8 (if the Julian calendar is used, this corresponds to November 21 in the Gregorian). The named archangels in Islam are Jibrael, Mikael, Israfil, and Azrael. Jewish literature, such as the Book of Enoch, also mentions Metatron as an archangel, called the "highest of the angels", though the acceptance of this angel is not canonical in all branches of the faith.

Some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the named angels vary, depending on the source. Gabriel, Michael, and Raphael are always mentioned; the other archangels vary, but most commonly include Uriel, who is mentioned in 2 Esdras.

In Zoroastrianism, sacred texts allude to the six great Amesha Spenta (literally "Bounteous/Holy Immortals")[2] of Ahura Mazda.

In Zoroastrianism

An increasing number of experts in anthropology, theology and philosophy, believe that Zoroastrianism contains the earliest distillation of prehistoric belief in angels.[3]

The Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism are likened to archangels. They individually inhabit immortal bodies that operate in the physical world to protect, guide, and inspire humanity and the spirit world. The Avesta explains the origin and nature of archangels or Amesha Spentas.[3]

To maintain equilibrium, Ahura Mazda engaged in the first act of creation, distinguishing his Holy Spirit Spenta Mainyu, the Archangel of righteousness. Ahura Mazda also distinguished from himself six more Amesha Spentas, who, along with Spenta Mainyu, aided in the creation of the physical universe. Then he oversaw the development of sixteen lands, each imbued with a unique cultural catalyst calculated to encourage the formation of distinct human populations. The Amesha Spentas were charged with protecting these holy lands and through their emanation, also believed to align each respective population in service to God.[4]

The Amesha Spentas (amesha meaning eternal and spenta meaning brilliance and beneficence) as attributes of God are:

  1. Spenta Mainyu (Phl. Spenamino): lit. "Bountiful Spirit"
  2. Asha Vahishta (Phl. Ardwahisht): lit. "Highest Truth"
  3. Vohu Mano (Phl. Vohuman): lit. "Righteous Mind"
  4. Khshathra Vairya (Phl. Shahrewar): lit. "Desirable Dominion"
  5. Spenta Armaiti (Phl. Spandarmad): lit. "Holy Devotion"
  6. Haurvatat (Phl. Hordad): lit. "Perfection or Health"
  7. Ameretat (Phl. Amurdad): lit. "Immortality"

In Judaism

Jacob Wrestling with the Angel
Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Gustave Doré, 1885

The Hebrew Bible uses the term מלאכי אלוהים (malakhi Elohim; Angels of God),[5] The Hebrew word for angel is "malach," which means messenger, for the angels מלאכי יי (malakhi Adonai; Angels of the Lord) are God's messengers to perform various missions - e.g. 'angel of death';[6] בני אלוהים (b'nei elohim; sons of God) and הקדושים (ha-q'doshim; the holy ones) to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angelic messengers. Other terms are used in later texts, such as העליונים (ha-elyonim, the upper ones, or the supreme ones). References to angels are uncommon in Jewish literature except in later works such as the Book of Daniel, though they are mentioned briefly in the stories of Jacob (who according to one interpretation wrestled with an angel) and Lot (who was warned by angels of the impending destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah). Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name.[7] It is therefore widely speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity.[8] According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias (230–270 CE), specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon.

There are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible). In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to have ranked amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkavah and Kabbalist mysticism and often serves as a scribe. He is briefly mentioned in the Talmud,[9] and figures prominently in Merkavah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel,[10] is looked upon particularly fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel[11] and briefly in the Talmud,[12] as well as many Merkavah mystical texts. The earliest references to archangels are in the literature of the intertestamental periods (e.g., 4 Esdras 4:36).

In the Kabbalah there are ten archangels, each assigned to one sephira: Metatron, Raziel (other times Jophiel), Tzaphkiel, Tzadkiel, Khamael, Raphael, Haniel, Michael, Gabriel, and Sandalphon. Chapter 20 of the Book of Enoch mentions seven holy angels who watch, that often are considered the seven archangels: Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Uriel, Saraqael, Raguel, and Remiel.[13] The Life of Adam and Eve lists the archangels as well: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael and Joel. Medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides made a Jewish angelic hierarchy.

In Christianity

Guido Reni 031
Guido Reni's Archangel Michael Trampling Lucifer, 1636

The New Testament makes several references to angels, but uses the word "archangel" only twice, at Thessalonians 4:16 ("For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first", KJV) and Jude 1:9 ("Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee", KJV).

Roman Catholic

Archangels in Emly
Gabriel, Michael and Raphael, depicted in stained glass in St Ailbe's Church, a Catholic church in Ireland

In Roman Catholicism, three are honored by name:

  • Gabriel
  • Michael
  • Raphael

These three are commemorated together liturgically on Sept. 29. Formerly each had his own feast (see individual articles).

The latter of these identifies himself in Tobit 12:15(NAB) thus: "I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stand and serve before the Glory of the Lord."

The Fourth Book of Esdras, which mentions the angel Uriel (and also the "archangel" Jeremiel), was popular in the West and was frequently quoted by Church Fathers, especially Ambrose, but was never considered part of the Catholic biblical canon.[14]

The Catholic Church gives no official recognition to the names given in some apocryphal sources, such as Raguel, Saraqael and Remiel (in the Book of Enoch) or Izidkiel, Hanael, and Kepharel (in other such sources).[15]

Eastern Orthodox

Archangels
Angelic Council, Orthodox icon of the seven archangels, left to right: Jegudiel, Gabriel, Selaphiel, Michael, Uriel, Raphael, Barachiel. Beneath the mandorla of Christ-Immanuel (God is with us) are representations of Cherubim (blue) and Seraphim (red).

Eastern Orthodox Tradition mentions "thousands of archangels";[16] however, only seven archangels are venerated by name.[17] Uriel is included, and the other three are most often named Selaphiel, Jegudiel, and Barachiel (an eighth, Jeremiel, is sometimes included as archangel).[18] The Orthodox Church celebrates the Synaxis of the Archangel Michael and the Other Bodiless Powers on November 8 of the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar (for those churches which follow the Julian Calendar, November 8 falls on November 21 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Other feast days of the Archangels include the Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel on March 26 (April 8), and the Miracle of the Archangel Michael at Colossae on September 6 (September 19). In addition, every Monday throughout the year is dedicated to the Angels, with special mention being made in the church hymns of Michael and Gabriel. In Orthodox iconography, each angel has a symbolic representation:[18]

  • Michael in the Hebrew language means "Who is like God?" or "Who is equal to God?" Michael has been depicted from earliest Christian times as a commander, who holds in his right hand a spear with which he attacks Lucifer/Satan, and in his left hand a green palm branch. At the top of the spear, there is a linen ribbon with a red cross. The Archangel Michael is especially considered to be the Guardian of the Orthodox Faith and a fighter against heresies.
  • Gabriel means "God is my strength" or "Might of God". He is the herald of the mysteries of God, especially the Incarnation of God and all other mysteries related to it. He is depicted as follows: In his right hand, he holds a lantern with a lighted taper inside, and in his left hand, a mirror of green jasper. The mirror signifies the wisdom of God as a hidden mystery.
  • Raphael means "It is God who heals" or "God Heals".[19][20] Raphael is depicted leading Tobit (who is carrying a fish caught in the Tigris) with his right hand and holding a physician's alabaster jar in his left hand.
  • Uriel means "God is my light", or "Light of God" (II Esdras 4:1, 5:20). He is depicted holding a sword in his right hand, and a flame in his left.
  • Sealtiel means "Intercessor of God". He is depicted with his face and eyes lowered, holding his hands on his bosom in prayer.
  • Jegudiel means "Glorifier of God". He is depicted bearing a golden wreath in his right hand and a triple-thonged whip in his left hand.
  • Barachiel means "Blessed by God". He is depicted holding a white rose in his hand against his breast.
  • Jerahmeel means "God's exaltation". He is venerated as an inspirer and awakener of exalted thoughts that raise a person toward God (II Esdras 4:36). As an eighth, he is sometimes included as an archangel.

In the canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, 1 Enoch describes Saraqael as one of the angels who watch over "the spirits that sin in the spirit" (20:7–8).

Coptic Orthodox

Coptic Icon of the Archangel Michael
Coptic icon of the Archangel Michael. Among all the archangels, the Copts pay special attention to St Michael.

In addition to Michael, Gabriel and Raphael, the Coptic Orthodox Church recognises four more archangels by name:[21]

Ethiopian Orthodox

Colección Miguel Gallés Icono etíope soporte pergamino XX (25x20) (2)
Ethiopian icon of an angel, possibly St Michael.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church venerates the four archangels Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel, as well as:[22][23]

Protestant

Seven Archangels (St Michael's, Brighton)
Seven archangels depicted in the stained-glass window at St Michael's Church, Brighton; from left: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Chamuel (Camael), Raphael, Jophiel, and Zadkiel
Henry Ossawa Tanner - The Annunciation
The Annunciation by Henry Ossawa Tanner

The Protestant Bible provides names for three angels: "Michael the archangel", the angel Gabriel, who is called "the man Gabriel" in Daniel 9:21 and third "Abaddon"/"Apollyon" in Revelation 9:11. Within Protestantism, the Anglican and Methodist tradition recognizes four angels as archangels: Michael the Archangel, Raphael the Archangel, Gabriel the Archangel, and Uriel the Archangel.[24][25] But a depiction of seven archangels in stained-glass windows can be found in some Anglican churches. In this case, in addition to the aforementioned angels, Camael, Jophiel and Zadkiel are also depicted. They are commemorated on 29 September, “Michaelmas”, in the church calendar.[26] The evangelist Billy Graham wrote that in Sacred Scripture, there is only one individual explicitly described as an archangel—Michael—in Jude 1:9.[27][28]

Restorationist

Seventh-day Adventists hold that the titles "Michael" and "archangel" are in reference to Jesus. However, they only signify his role as the chief of angels and make no reference to the nature of Jesus, who is fully divine. Adventists credit nonconformist minister Matthew Henry as supporting this view.[29]

Jehovah's Witnesses, citing a reference to "an archangel's voice" at 1 Thessalonians 4:16, also believe that "Michael" is another name for Jesus in heaven. They believe Jesus is an archangel in the true sense of the word—the highest spiritual creature.[30]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) interprets the term "archangel" as meaning "Chief Angel",[31] Michael is the only individual so designated in the Latter Day Saints canon.[32] It is believed that he is the head of all of the angels.[31] LDS Church doctrine also states that the archangel Michael was the first man, Adam.[33] Though no other being is identified as an "archangel", Joseph Smith taught that the angel Gabriel was known in mortality as Noah[34] and the angel Raphael is a being of significant standing, even though he has never been identified with any mortal prophet.[35]

In Islam

In Islam, the mentioned archangels[36] in the Qur'an include:

  • Gabriel (Jibrail or Jibril in Arabic). Gabriel is said to be the archangel responsible for transmitting God's revelations to all prophets, including revealing the Quran to Muhammad and inducing him to recite it. Various hadiths (traditions) mention his role in delivering messages from "God the Almighty" to the prophets.
  • Michael (Mikail in Arabic). Michael is often depicted as the archangel of mercy who is responsible for bringing rain and thunder to Earth.[37]
  • Raphael (Israfil in Arabic). Mentioned in the Qur'an as the angel of the trumpet responsible for signaling the coming of Judgment Day.[38]
  • Azrael (malik almawt in Arabic). Mentioned in the Qur'an as the angel of death.

Other traditions

Occultists sometimes associate archangels in Kabbalistic fashion with various seasons or elements, or even colors. In some Kabbalah-based systems of ceremonial magic, all four of the main archangels (Gabriel, Michael, Raphael and Uriel) are invoked as guarding the four quarters, or directions, and their corresponding colors are associated with magical properties.[39] Lucifer or Sataniel in Christian traditions, or Iblis in Islam, is considered an archangel by Satanists and many non-Satanists, but non-Satanists consider him evil and fallen from God's grace.

Cultural references

Fra Angelico-Annunciatory Angel-detail
Annunciatory Angel by Fra Angelico, 1437–1446

In art, archangels are sometimes depicted with larger wings. Some of the more commonly represented archangels are Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, and Uriel.[40]

In the lesser ritual of the pentagram, the invocation includes the words "Before me Raphael; Behind me Gabriel; On my right hand Michael; On my left hand Auriel [Uriel]..."[41]

See also

References

  1. ^ "archangel". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  2. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica, "amesha spenta"". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
  3. ^ a b Mary Boyce, A History of Zoroastrianism Volume One: The Early Period, E. J. Brill, Leiden 1975
  4. ^ Zend Avesta FARGARD XXII (Page 199) Mary Boyce, A History of Zoroastrianism Volume One: The Early Period, E. J. Brill, Leiden 1975. (1989 edition ISBN 9004088474)
  5. ^ Davidson, Baruch S. "What Are Angels?". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
  6. ^ DEATH, ANGEL OF "the "destroying angel" ("mal'ak ha-mashḥit")" Jewish Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Ludwig Blau; Kaufmann Kohler (1908). "ANGELOLOGY". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
  8. ^ Judaism: The Postexilic Period International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
  9. ^ Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zarah 3b.
  10. ^ Daniel 10:13
  11. ^ Daniel 8:15-17
  12. ^ cf. Sanhedrin 95b
  13. ^ Metzger & Coogan (1993) Oxford Companion to the Bible, Oxford University Press, p. 54, ISBN 9780199743919
  14. ^ "Souvay, Charles. "Esdras." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 5 Aug. 2013". Newadvent.org. 1909-05-01. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
  15. ^ "Driscoll, James F. "St. Raphael." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 5 Aug. 2013". Newadvent.org. 1911-06-01. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
  16. ^ anaphora, Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom
  17. ^ The World of The Angels Holy Transfiguration Russian Orthodox Church, Baltimore MD
  18. ^ a b Nicholai Velimirovic, November 8 Archived December 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Prologue From Ochrid
  19. ^ Tobit 3:17
  20. ^ 12:15)
  21. ^ Meinardus, Otto F. A. (3 July 2015). "The Heavenly Host in the Coptic Tradition". becomeorthodox.org. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  22. ^ a b "Theology: ANGELS". dgmedhanealem.org. Retrieved 12 April 2019. The notable seven Archangels are: St. Mikael, St. Gebriel, St. Rufael, St. Uriel, St. Ramuel, St. Phanuel, St. Raguel.
  23. ^ a b "Devotions: The Invocation of Angels". ethiopianorthodox.org. Retrieved 12 April 2019. Devoutly are kept the feasts of all Angels including St. Michael, St. Gabriel and St. Raphael. […] Uriel, Regel, Remiel and Phanuel are other revered angels.
  24. ^ Armentrout, Don S. (1 January 2000). An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church. Church Publishing, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 9780898697018.
  25. ^ The Methodist New Connexion Magazine and Evangelical Repository, Volume XXXV., Third Series. London: William Cooke. 1867. p. 493.
  26. ^ Kershaw, Simon. "Exciting Holiness: 29 September". Canterbury Press Norwich. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  27. ^ Graham, Billy (1995). Angels. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 9780849938719. p. PT31.
  28. ^ Graham (1995) p. PT32
  29. ^ "Questions on Doctrine: Christ, and Michael and Archangel". SDAnet. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
  30. ^ What Does the Bible Really Teach?. Watch Tower Society. pp. 218–219.
  31. ^ a b "Archangel". Guide to the Scriptures. LDS Church.
  32. ^ Jude 1:9 KJV (LDS)
  33. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 128:20–21; Petersen, Mark E. (November 1980). "Adam, the Archangel". Ensign..
  34. ^ Skinner, Andrew C (1992), "Noah", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1016–1017, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140.
  35. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 128:21
  36. ^
  37. ^ Quran 2:98
  38. ^ Quran 69:13
  39. ^ The Pagan's Path, Metaphysics 101: The Archangels
  40. ^ Angels in Art on HumanitiesWeb
  41. ^ "On the Lesser Banishing Ritual of the Pentagram" from The Internet Book of Shadows at Sacred-texts.com

Bibliography

  • Boyce, Mary (1984). Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
  • Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D., eds. (1993). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504645-5.

External links

Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (Russian: Арха́нгельск, IPA: [ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk]), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea. The city spreads for over 40 kilometers (25 mi) along the banks of the river and numerous islands of its delta. Arkhangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval and early modern Russia until 1703. A 1,133-kilometer-long (704 mi) railway runs from Arkhangelsk to Moscow via Vologda and Yaroslavl, and air travel is served by the Talagi Airport and a smaller Vaskovo Airport. As of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 348,783, down from 356,051 recorded in the 2002 Census, and further down from 415,921 recorded in the 1989 Census.

Azrael

Azrael (; Biblical Hebrew: עֲזַרְאֵל‎‎ ʿázarʾēl) is an angel in the Abrahamic religions. He is often identified with the Angel of Destruction and Renewal of the Hebrew Bible.The Hebrew name translates to "Angel of God", "Help from God", or "One Whom God Helps". Azrael is the spelling of the Chambers Dictionary.

In Islamic tradition, Azrael is identified with the Quranic Malak al-Mawt (ملك الموت) "angel of death" which corresponds with Hebrew term malach ha-maweth in Rabbinic Literature. The Arabic language adapts the name as ʿAzrāʾīl (عزرائيل). He is responsible for transporting the souls of the deceased after death.

Camael

Camael, also spelled Khamael, Camiel, Cameel and Camniel, is the Archangel of strength, courage and war in Christian and Jewish mythology and angelology.

Camael is probably an alternate spelling of either Chamuel חַמּוּאֵל (from chammah חַמָּה: "heat", "rage"—"anger/wrath of God") or Qemuel קְמוּאֵל (from qum קוּם: "to arise", "to stand up"—"God is risen", "raised by God", "one who sees/stands before God").According to poet Gustav Davidson's popular work A Dictionary of Angels, Including the Fallen Angels (1967), he is known as one of the ten Kabbalah angels, assigned to the sephira Gevurah. Camael's name is also included in Pseudo-Dionysius' 5th or 6th century AD, Corpus Areopagiticum as one of the seven Archangels along with Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Jophiel, and Zadkiel. He is claimed to be the leader of the forces that expelled Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden holding a flaming sword. But in iconography he is often depicted holding a cup.

Camael is not recognized by mainstream Christians, as was included in the Catholic Church in the Vatican's ban on the veneration of angels not mentioned in the Bible in the Directory of Public Piety (2002).

Gabriel

Gabriel (; Hebrew: גַּבְרִיאֵל‎, lit. 'Gavri'el "God is my strength"', Ancient Greek: Γαβριήλ, lit. 'Gabriel', Coptic: Ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, Aramaic: ܓܒܪܝܝܠ‎, Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل Jibrāʾīl), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel. He was first described in the Hebrew Bible and was subsequently developed by other traditions.

In the Hebrew Bible, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel, to explain his visions (Daniel 8:15–26, 9:21–27). Gabriel the archangel is also a character in other ancient Jewish writings such as the Book of Enoch. Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations.In the Gospel of Luke, there is the story of the Annunciation, where the angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively (Luke 1:11–38). In many Christian traditions including Anglican, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, Gabriel is also referred to as a saint.In Islam, Gabriel is an archangel whom God sent with revelation to various prophets, including Muhammad. The first five verses of the 96th chapter of the Quran, the Clot, is believed by Muslims to have been the first verses revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad.

In the Latter Day Saint movement, the angel Gabriel is the same individual as the prophet Noah in his mortal ministry.

In Yazidism, Gabriel is one of the Seven Mysteries, the Heptad to which God entrusted the world and sometimes identified with Melek Taus.

Haniel

Haniel (Hebrew: הניאל, "Joy of God" or Hebrew: חַנִּיאֵל, "Grace of God,"; Coptic: ⲁⲛⲁⲛⲓⲏⲗ; Arabic: عنيائيل‎, 'Anya'il), also known as Anael, Hanael or Aniel, is an angel in Jewish lore and angelology, and is often included in lists as being one of the seven archangels. Haniel is generally associated with the planet Venus, and he is the archangel of the sephirah Netzach. The name Haniel probably derives from Hebrew hana'ah, "joy," "pleasure" (qualities associated with Venus) + the suffix -el, "God." Haniel is one of the archangels encrypted in the Sigillum Dei Aemeth of Dr. John Dee and Edward Kelly.

Iron Guard

The Iron Guard (Romanian: Garda de fier pronounced [ˈɡarda de ˈfjer] (listen)) is the name most commonly given to a fascist movement and political party in Romania founded in 1927 by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu as the Legion of the Archangel Michael (Legiunea Arhanghelului Mihail) or the Legionnaire movement (Mișcarea Legionară). The League was ultra-nationalist, antisemitic, antiziganist, anti-communist, anti-capitalist and promoted Eastern Orthodox Christianity. In March 1930 Codreanu formed the "Iron Guard" as a paramilitary political branch of the Legion, and in 1935, the Legion changed its official name to the "Totul pentru Ţară" party (literally "Everything For the Country" Party). It existed into the early part of World War II. Its members were called "Greenshirts" because of the predominantly green uniforms they wore.When Marshal Ion Antonescu came to power in September 1940, he brought the Iron Guard into the government, creating the National Legionary State. In January 1941, however, following the Legionnaires' rebellion, Antonescu used the army to suppress the movement, destroying the organization, but its then commander, Horia Sima, and some other leaders escaped to Germany.

Israfil

Israfil (Arabic: إِسْـرَافِـيْـل‎, translit. Isrāfīl, alternate spellings: Israfel, Esrafil) is the angel who blows into the trumpet before Armageddon and sometimes depicted as the angel of music. Though unnamed in the Quran, he is one of the four Islamic archangels, the others being long with Mikhail, Jibrail and Azrael. It is believed that Israfil will blow the trumpet from a holy rock in Jerusalem to announce the Day of Resurrection. He is commonly thought as the counterpart of the Judeo-Christian archangel Raphael.

List of Mobile Suit Gundam SEED characters

This is a list of fictional characters featured in the Cosmic Era (CE) timeline of the Gundam anime metaseries. These characters appear in the Mobile Suit Gundam SEED and Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny anime television series, as well as in the manga and OVA spinoffs. Both series focus on the raging conflict between Naturals and Coordinators, the former being regular humans and the latter being genetically-enhanced ones.

Mobile Suit Gundam SEED begins when the neutral space colony Heliopolis is attacked by ZAFT, a military organization composed of Coordinators. Coordinator Kira Yamato pilots the mobile suit GAT-X105 Strike to protect his friends on the Naturals' ship Archangel from potential enemies as they head towards Earth. Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny continues two years after Mobile Suit Gundam SEED and follows the teenager Shinn Asuka and his duties in ZAFT.

Michael (archangel)

Michael (Hebrew pronunciation: [mixaˈʔel]; Hebrew: מִיכָאֵל‎, translit. Mîkhā'ēl, lit. 'Who is like God?'; Greek: Μιχαήλ, translit. Mikhaḗl; Latin: Michahel; Coptic: ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ; Arabic: ميخائيل ، مِيكَالَ ، ميكائيل‎, translit. Mīkā'īl, Mīkāl or Mīkhā'īl, lit. 'Man Ka El? = من كإيل/كإله/كالله؟') is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran systems of faith, he is called "Saint Michael the Archangel" and "Saint Michael". In the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox religions, he is called "Saint Michael the Taxiarch".Michael is mentioned three times in the Book of Daniel. The idea that Michael was the advocate of the Jews became so prevalent that, in spite of the rabbinical prohibition against appealing to angels as intermediaries between God and his people, Michael came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish liturgy.

In the New Testament Michael leads God's armies against Satan's forces in the Book of Revelation, where during the war in heaven he defeats Satan. In the Epistle of Jude Michael is specifically referred to as "the archangel Michael". Catholic sanctuaries to Michael appeared in the 4th century, when he was first seen as a healing angel, and then over time as a protector and the leader of the army of God against the forces of evil.

Michaelmas

Michaelmas (; also known as the Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, the Feast of the Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels) is a Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September. In some denominations a reference to a fourth angel, usually Uriel, is also added. Michaelmas has been one of the four quarter days of the financial year. The Serbian Orthodox Church observes the feast, whereas most Eastern Orthodox Churches do not. The Greek and Romanian Orthodox honour the archangels on 8 November instead, honouring the Cherubim and Seraphim also.

In Christian angelology, the Archangel Michael is the greatest of all the Archangels and is honored for defeating Satan in the war in heaven. He is one of the principal angelic warriors, seen as a protector against the dark of night, and the administrator of cosmic intelligence. Michaelmas has also delineated time and seasons for secular purposes as well, particularly in Britain and Ireland as one of the quarter days.

Raphael (archangel)

Raphael (; Hebrew: רָפָאֵל, translit. Rāfāʾēl, lit. 'It is God who heals', 'God Heals', 'God, Please Heal'; Ancient Greek: Ραφαήλ, Coptic: ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, Arabic: رفائيل‎ or إسرافيل) is an archangel responsible for healing in the traditions of most Abrahamic religions. Not all branches of these religions consider the identification of Raphael to be canonical.

In Christianity, Raphael is generally associated with an unnamed angel mentioned in the Gospel of John, who stirs the water at the healing pool of Bethesda. Raphael is also an angel in Mormonism, as he is briefly mentioned in the Doctrine and Covenants. Raphael is also mentioned in the Book of Tobit, which is accepted as canonical by Catholics, Orthodox, and some Anglicans. Raphael is a venerated angel within the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran traditions, and he is often given the title "Saint Raphael".

In Islam, Raphael is the fourth major angel; and in the Muslim tradition, he is known as Isrāfīl. Though unnamed in the Quran, hadith identifies Israfil with the angel of Quran 6:73. Within Islamic eschatology, Israfil is traditionally attributed to a trumpet, which is poised at his lips, and when God so commands he shall be ready to announce the Day of Resurrection.

Russian Blue

The Russian Blue is a cat breed that comes in colors varying from a light shimmering silver to a darker, slate grey. They develop close bonds with their owners and are sought out as pets due to their personalities, beauty and coat. It is their short, dense coat which has been the hallmark of the Russian breed for more than a century. The dense coat stands out from the body and one can draw patterns in the coat that will stay until one smoothes them out again. They are also considered to be hypoallergenic.

Saint Michael in the Catholic Church

Saint Michael the Archangel is referenced in the Old Testament and has been part of Christian teachings since the earliest times. In Catholic writings and traditions he acts as the defender of the Church, and chief opponent of Satan; and assists souls at the hour of death.

A widely used "Prayer to Saint Michael" was brought into official use by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and was recommended by Pope John Paul II in 1994. The feast day of the archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael is September 29.

Samael

Samael (Hebrew: סַמָּאֵל Sammāʾēl, "Venom of God", "Poison of God", or "Blindness of God"; rarely "Smil", "Samil", or "Samiel") is an important archangel in Talmudic and post-Talmudic lore, a figure who is the accuser (Ha-Satan), seducer, and destroyer (Mashhit), and has been regarded as both good and evil. Rabbinical writings describe Samael as the guardian angel of Esau and a patron of Edom.

He is considered in Talmudic texts to be a member of the heavenly host (with often grim and destructive duties). One of Samael's greatest roles in Jewish lore is that of the main archangel of death. He remains one of God's servants even though he condones the sins of man. As an angel, Samael resides in the seventh heaven, although he is declared to be the chief angel of the fifth heaven, the reason for this being the presence of the throne of glory in the seventh heaven.

Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo

The Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo sul Gargano is a Catholic sanctuary on Mount Gargano, Italy, part of the commune of Monte Sant'Angelo, in the province of Foggia, northern Apulia.

It is the oldest shrine in Western Europe dedicated to the archangel Michael and has been an important pilgrimage site since the early Middle Ages. The historic site and its environs are protected by the Parco Nazionale del Gargano.

In 2011, it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of a group of seven inscribed as Longobards in Italy: Places of Power (568-774 A.D.).

Seven Archangels

The concept of Seven Archangels is found in some works of early Jewish literature.

Uriel

Uriel (; Hebrew: אוּרִיאֵל "El/God is my light", Standard Hebrew Uriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Ûrîʾēl; Greek: Ουριήλ; Coptic: ⲟⲩⲣⲓⲏⲗ) is one of the archangels of post-exilic rabbinic tradition, and also of certain minor Christian traditions.

In apocryphal, kabbalistic, and occult works, Uriel has been equated (or confused) with Urial, Nuriel, Uryan, Jeremiel, Vretil, Sariel, Suriel, Puruel, Phanuel, Jacob, Azrael, and Raphael.

War in Heaven

The Book of Revelation describes a war in heaven between angels led by the Archangel Michael against those led by "the dragon", identified as the devil or Satan, who are defeated and thrown down to the earth. Revelation's war in heaven is related to the idea of fallen angels, and possible parallels have been proposed in the Hebrew Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Warren Worthington III

Warren Kenneth Worthington III, originally known as Angel and later as Archangel, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics and is a founding member of the X-Men. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The X-Men #1 (September 1963).

Angel is a member of a subspecies of humans known as mutants, who are born with superhuman abilities. The character originally possesses a pair of large feathered wings extending from his back, enabling him to fly. He is the heir of the Worthington family fortune, and this privileged background results in Warren being stereotyped as self-absorbed and unable to deal with hardships during his early years with the X-Men. This personality was ultimately replaced with a more introspective and brooding personality in the late 1980s, when the character was changed into the darker "Archangel" persona. While Angel's wings were originally feathered, his transition to Archangel resulted in metallic wings and newfound powers.

As one of the original X-Men, Archangel has had a frequent presence in X-Men-related comic books throughout the years and also appeared occasionally in X-Men animated series and video games. Ben Foster played the role of Angel in the 2006 film X-Men: The Last Stand and Ben Hardy portrays him in the 2016 film X-Men: Apocalypse.

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