Archaic Greece

Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC,[1] following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period. The period began with a massive increase in the Greek population[2] and a series of significant changes which rendered the Greek world at the end of the eighth century entirely unrecognisable compared to its beginning.[3] According to Anthony Snodgrass, the Archaic period in ancient Greece was bounded by two revolutions in the Greek world. It began with a "structural revolution" which "drew the political map of the Greek world" and established the poleis, the distinctively Greek city-states, and ended with the intellectual revolution of the Classical period.[4]

The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture. It laid the groundwork for the Classical period, both politically and culturally. It was in the Archaic period that the Greek alphabet developed, that the earliest surviving Greek literature was composed, that monumental sculpture and red-figure pottery began in Greece, and that the hoplite became the core of Greek armies. In Athens, the earliest institutions of the democracy were implemented under Solon, and the reforms of Cleisthenes at the end of the Archaic period brought in Athenian democracy as it was during the Classical period. In Sparta, many of the institutions credited to the reforms of Lycurgus were introduced during the period, the region of Messenia was brought under Spartan control, helotage was introduced, and the Peloponnesian League was founded, making Sparta a dominant power in Greece.

Historiography

Gymnasion and Palaestra in Olympia 2010 2
The gymnasium and palaestra at Olympia, the site of the ancient Olympic games. The Archaic period conventionally dates from the first Olympiad.

The word "archaic" derives from the Greek word archaios, which means "old". It refers to the period in ancient Greek history before the Classical. The period is generally considered to have lasted from the beginning of the eighth century BC until the beginning of the fifth century BC,[5] with the foundation of the Olympic Games in 776 BC and the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC forming notional start and end dates.[6] The Archaic period was long considered to have been less important and historically interesting than the Classical period, and was primarily studied as a precursor to it.[7] More recently, however, Archaic Greece has come to be studied for its own achievements.[4] With this reassessment of the significance of the Archaic period, some scholars have objected to the term "archaic", due to its connotations in English of being primitive and outdated. No term which has been suggested to replace it has gained widespread currency, however, and the term is still in use.[5]

Much of our evidence about the Classical period of ancient Greece comes from written histories, such as Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. By contrast, we have no such evidence from the Archaic period. We have written accounts of life in the period in the form of poetry, and epigraphical evidence, including parts of law codes, inscriptions on votive offerings, and epigrams inscribed on tombs. However, none of this evidence is in the quantity for which we have it in the Classical period.[8] What is lacking in written evidence, however, is made up for in the rich archaeological evidence from the Archaic Greek world. Indeed, where much of our knowledge of Classical Greek art comes from later Roman copies, all of the surviving Archaic Greek art is original.[9]

Other sources for the period are the traditions recorded by later Greek writers such as Herodotus.[8] However, these traditions are not part of any form of history as we would recognise it today; those transmitted by Herodotus he recorded whether or not he believed them to be accurate.[10] Indeed, Herodotus does not even record any dates before 480 BC.[11]

Political developments

Politically, the Archaic period saw the development of the polis (or city-state) as the predominant unit of political organisation. Many cities throughout Greece came under the rule of autocratic leaders, called "tyrants". The period also saw the development of law and systems of communal decision-making, with the earliest evidence for law codes and constitutional structures dating to the period. By the end of the Archaic period, both the Athenian and Spartan constitutions seem to have developed into their classical forms.

Development of the polis

The Sphinx of Naxos, on its 12.5 meters Ionic column (reconstitution), was built in 560 BC next to the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, the religious center of Ancient Greece.

028MAD Sphinx
Naxos Sphinx with humans for size

The Archaic period saw significant urbanisation, and the development of the concept of the polis as it was used in Classical Greece. By Solon's time, if not before, the word "polis" had acquired its classical meaning,[12] and though the emergence of the polis as a political community was still in progress at this point,[13] the polis as an urban centre was a product of the eighth century.[14] However, the polis did not become the dominant form of socio-political organisation throughout Greece in the Archaic period, and in the north and west of the country it did not become dominant until some way into the Classical period.[15]

The urbanisation process in Archaic Greece known as "synoecism" – the amalgamation of several small settlements into a single urban centre – took place in much of Greece in the eighth century BC. Both Athens and Argos, for instance, began to coalesce into single settlements around the end of that century.[14] In some settlements, this physical unification was marked by the construction of defensive city walls, as was the case in Smyrna by the middle of the eighth century BC, and Corinth by the middle of the seventh century BC.[14]

It seems that the evolution of the polis as a socio-political structure, rather than a simply geographical one, can be attributed to this urbanisation, as well as a significant population increase in the eighth century. These two factors created a need for a new form of political organisation, as the political systems in place at the beginning of the Archaic period quickly became unworkable.[14]

Athens

Stele of Aristion
Stele of Aristion, heavy-infantryman or hoplite. 510 BC. Top of helmet and pointed beard missing.

Though in the early part of the Classical period the city of Athens was both culturally and politically dominant,[9] it was not until the late sixth century BC that it became a leading power in Greece.[16]

The attempted coup by Cylon of Athens may be the earliest event in Athenian history which is clearly attested by ancient sources, dating to around 636.[17] At this time, it seems that Athens' monarchy had already been ended and the archonship had replaced it as the most important executive office in the state,[18] though the archonship could only be held by members of the Eupatridae, the families which made up Athens' aristocracy.[19]

The earliest laws of Athens were established by Draco, in 621/0;[20] his law on homicide was the only one to have survived to the Classical period. Draco's law code aimed to replace private revenge as the first and only response of an individual to an offence committed against them.[20] The law code of Draco, however, failed to prevent the tensions between the rich and poor which were the impetus to Solon's reforms.[21]

In 594/3 BC, Solon was appointed "archon and mediator".[22] Exactly what his reforms consisted of is uncertain. He claimed to have taken up the horoi to set the land free, but the exact meaning of horoi is unknown;[22] their removal seems, however, to have been part of the problem of hektemoroi – another word whose meaning is obscure.[23] Solon was also credited with abolishing slavery for debtors,[24] and establishing limits on who could be granted Athenian citizenship.[25]

Solon instituted radical constitutional reform, replacing noble birth as a qualification for office with income.[25] The poorest – called thetes – could hold no offices, although they could attend the Assembly and the law courts, while the richest class – the pentacosiomedimni – were the only people eligible to become treasurer, and possibly archon.[26] He set up the Council of the Four Hundred,[27] responsible for discussing motions which were to come before the Assembly.[28] Finally, Solon substantially reduced the powers of the archon by giving citizens the right of appeal; their case was judged by the Assembly.[29]

Sparta

Altes Museum - Relief mit Heroen und Adoranten
Relief with Heroes and Worshipers, circa 540 BC, Chrysapha (east of Sparta).

Sparta's constitution took on the form it would have in the Classical period during the eighth century BC.[30] According to Thucydides, the Spartan constitution was roughly four-hundred years old, which would place the semi-legendary lawgiver Lycurgus of Sparta as being active during the late 9th century BC.[31][32][33][34] The First Messenian War, probably taking place from approximately 740 to 720 BC,[35] saw the strengthening of the powers of the Gerousia against the assembly,[36] and the enslavement of the Messenian population as Helots.[37] Around the same time, the ephors gained the power to restrict the actions of the kings of Sparta.[30] From around 560 BC, Sparta began to build a series of alliances with other Greek states, which became the Peloponnesian League: by 550, cities such as Elis, Corinth, and Megara would be part of the alliance.[38]

Colonization

Greek Colonization Archaic Period
Areas settled by Greeks by the close of the Archaic period
Agrigente 2008 IMG 1935
Ruins of the Temple of Heracles, Agrigento, Sicily, within the Valle dei Templi, built in the late 6th century BC during the late Archaic period

In the eighth and seventh centuries BC, Greeks began to spread across the Mediterranean, the Sea of Marmara, and the Black Sea.[39] This was not simply for trade, but also to found settlements. These Greek colonies were not, as Roman colonies were, dependent on their mother-city, but were independent city-states in their own right.[39]

Greeks settled outside of Greece in two distinct ways. The first was in permanent settlements founded by Greeks, which formed as independent poleis. The second form was in what historians refer to as emporia; trading posts which were occupied by both Greeks and non-Greeks and which were primarily concerned with the manufacture and sale of goods. Examples of this latter type of settlement are found at Al Mina in the east and Pithekoussai in the west.[40]

The earliest Greek colonies were on Sicily. Many of these were founded by people from Chalcis, but other Greek states, such as Corinth and Megara were also responsible for early colonies in the area.[41] By the end of the eighth century BC, Greek settlements in southern Italy were also well established.[42] In the seventh century, Greek colonists expanded the areas that they settled. In the west, colonies were founded as far afield as Marseilles. In the east, the north Aegean, the Sea of Marmara, and the Black Sea all saw colonies founded.[43] The dominant coloniser in these parts was Miletus.[44] At the same time, early colonies such as Syracuse and Megara Hyblaia began to themselves establish colonies.[43]

In the west, Sicily and southern Italy were some of the largest recipients of Greek colonisers. Indeed, so many Greek settlements were founded in southern Italy that it was known in antiquity as Magna Graecia – "Great Greece". It has been observed that in the last quarter of the eighth century, new Greek settlements were founded in Sicily and southern Italy at an average rate of one every other year, and Greek colonists continued to found cities in Italy until the mid-fifth century BC.[45]

Tyranny

Testa di uomo barbato da una statua funebre o votiva, da atene o egina, 530-540 ac ca
The Sabouroff head, an important example of Late Archaic Greek marble sculpture, and a precursor of true portraiture, ca. 550-525 BCE.[46]

Archaic Greece from the mid-seventh century BC has sometimes been called an "Age of Tyrants". The word τύραννος (tyrannos, whence the English "tyrant") first appeared in Greek literature in a poem of Archilochus, to describe the Lydian ruler Gyges.[47] The earliest Greek tyrant was Cypselus, who seized power in Corinth in a coup in 655 BC.[48] He was followed by a series of others in the mid-seventh century BC, such as Orthagoras in Sicyon and Theagenes in Megara.[49]

Various explanations have been provided for the rise of tyranny in the seventh century BC. The most popular of these explanations dates back to Aristotle, who argued that tyrants were set up by the people in response to the nobility becoming less tolerable.[50] As there is no evidence from the time that the nobility were becoming increasingly arrogant during the period, modern explanations of seventh century tyranny have tried to find other reasons for unrest among the people.[51] Against this position, Drews argues that tyrannies were set up by individuals who controlled private armies, and that early tyrants did not need the support of the people at all,[52] whilst Hammond suggests that tyrannies were established as a consequence of in-fighting between rival oligarchs, rather than between the oligarchs and the people.[53]

However, recently historians have begun to question the existence of a seventh century "age of tyrants". In the Archaic period, the Greek word tyrannos, according to Victor Parker, did not have the negative connotations it had gained by the time Aristotle wrote his Constitution of the Athenians. When Archilochus used the word tyrant, it was synonymous with anax (an Archaic Greek word meaning "king").[54] Parker dates the first use of the word tyrannos in a negative context to the first half of the sixth century, at least fifty years after Cypselus took power in Corinth.[55] It was not until the time of Thucydides that tyrannos and basileus ("king") were consistently distinguished.[56] Similarly, Greg Anderson has argued that Archaic Greek tyrants were not considered illegitimate rulers,[57] and cannot be distinguished from any other rulers of the same period.[58]

Demography

Olympia - Temple of Hera 3
The Temple of Hera at Olympia was built in the Archaic period, circa 590 BC

Greek population doubled during the eighth century, resulting in more and larger settlements than previously. This was part of a wider phenomenon of population growth across the Mediterranean region at this time, which may have been caused by a climatic shift that took place between 850 and 750, which made the region cooler and wetter. This led to the expansion of population into uncultivated areas of Greece and was probably also a driver for colonisation abroad.[59]

Evidence from human remains shows that average age at death increased over the Archaic period, but there is no clear trend for other measures of health.[60] The size of houses gives some evidence for prosperity within society; in the eighth and seventh centuries, the average house size remained constant around 45–50 m², but the number of very large and very small houses increased, indicating increasing economic inequality. From the end of the seventh century, this trend reversed, with houses clustering closely around a growing average.[61]

Economy

Agriculture

Cratère de Vix 0023
The Vix Krater, an imported Greek wine-mixing bronze vessel found in the Hallstatt/La Tène grave of the "Lady of Vix", Burgundy, France, c. 500 BC

Not all arable land in Greece was yet under cultivation in the Archaic period. Farms appear to have been small, cohesive units, concentrated near settlements. They were highly diversified, growing a wide variety of crops simultaneously, in order to make consistent use of human resources throughout the year and to ensure that the failure of any one crop was not too much of a disaster. Crop rotation was practiced, alternating between legumes and cereals (barley and durum), and the land was left fallow every other year. Alongside these, farmers cultivated vines, olives, fruit, and vegetables as cash crops for sale in local centres and abroad.[62] Livestock were of secondary importance. Sheep and goats, in particular, were kept for meat, milk, wool, and fertiliser, but they were difficult to sustain and large herds were a sign of exceptional wealth.[63] A team of oxen could increase agricultural output significantly, but were expensive to maintain.[64] Horses and large herds of cattle were the preserve of the mega-rich.

This pattern had probably developed before the beginning of the period and remained relatively consistent throughout it. The idea that it was preceded by a period of pastoralism and that agriculture only became dominant in the course of the Archaic period is not supported by the archaeological or literary evidence.[65] No technological innovations in agriculture appear to have occurred, except possibly the increased use of iron tools and more intensive use of manure.[66]

The main source for the practice of agriculture in the period is Hesiod's Works and Days, which gives the impression of very small subsistence holdings in which the owner performed most of the labour personally; close reading reveals that much of the produce is to be sold for profit, much of the work to be performed by slaves (douloi or dmoes), and much of the owner's time to be spent away from the farm.[67] Slaves' labour was supplemented by labourers who worked for a wage, as sharecroppers (called hektemoroi at Athens), or to pay off debts; this practice seems to have increased in the eighth century as the growth of the population increased the number of workers available, and intensified in the seventh century with the development of legally enforced debts and the status of the labourers increasingly becoming a source of social strife.[68][59]

Trade

By the late eighth century BC, the Archaic Greek world had become involved in an active trade network around the Aegean.[69] It was this trade network which was the source of the orientalizing influence on Greek art in the early part of the Archaic period. Meanwhile, to the west, trade between Corinth and Magna Graecia in Southern Italy and Sicily was booming.[70]

The eastern trade mainly involved the Greek islands, with Aegina, for instance, acting as an intermediary between the east and the Greek mainland.[71] East Greek states would go on to become extremely prosperous through the sixth century due to the trade with Asia and Egypt.[72] Of the mainland cities, those on the coast were the biggest recipients of trade from the east, especially Corinth.[71]

In the early part of the Archaic period, Athens does not seem to have been particularly actively involved in this eastern trade, and very few examples of eastern imports have been found in Athens from the eighth or early seventh centuries.[73] By contrast, nearby Euboea had trade-links with the east as early as the first half of the eighth century,[74] and the earliest pottery from the Greek islands found at Al Mina in modern Syria is from Euboea.[75]

By the sixth century, Greece was part of a trade network spanning the entire Mediterranean. Sixth century Laconian pottery has been found as far afield as Marseilles and Carthage to the west, Crete to the south and Sardis to the East.[76]

Coinage

Aegina Stater achaic
Silver stater of Aegina, 550–530 BC.

At the beginning of the Archaic period, coinage had not yet been invented. The Greeks measured the value of objects or fines using certain valuable objects, such as oxen, tripods, and metal spits, as units of account. As in the Near East, precious metal bullion was used as a medium of exchange, principally gold at first, but mainly silver by the beginning of the sixth century. The weight of this bullion (often known as hacksilber) was measured using standard units, named for their value in terms of metal spits (obeloi) and handfuls (drachmai) of metal spits; these terms would later be used as names for Greek coin denominations.[77]

ATTICA, Athens. Circa 545-525-15 BC
The earliest coinage of Athens, circa 545–525/15 BC

Coinage was invented in Lydia around 650 BC. It was quickly adopted by Greek communities in western Asia Minor, although the older system of bullion remained in use as well.[78] The island of Aegina began to issue its distinctive "turtle" coins before 550 BC, and from there coinage spread to Athens, Corinth and the Cycladic Islands in the 540s BC,[79] Southern Italy and Sicily before 525 BC,[80] and Thrace before 514 BC.[81] Most of these coinages were very small and were mostly only used within the community that issued them, but the "turtles" of Aegina (from 530 or 520 BC) and the "owls" of Athens (from 515 BC) were issued in great quantity and exported throughout the Greek world.[82]

The images on coins initially changed rapidly, but increasingly each community settled on a single image or set of images.[83] Some of these were the symbol or image of an important deity in the city or visual puns on the city's name,[84] but in many cases their meaning is obscure and may not have been chosen for any special reason.[85]

Athens coin discovered in Pushkalavati
A late Achaic coin of Athens (circa 500/490–485 BC) discovered in Pushkalavati in Ancient India. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east.[86]

The reasons for the rapid and widespread adoption of coinage by the Greeks are not entirely clear and several possibilities, which are not mutually exclusive, have been suggested. One possibility is the increased ease of commerce which coinage allowed. Coins were of standardised weights, which meant that their value could be determined without weighing them. Furthermore, it was not necessary for users of coinage to spend time determining whether the silver was pure silver; the fact that the coin had been issued by the community was a promise that it was worth a set value.[87] Another possibility is that coinage was adopted specifically to enable communities to make payments to their citizens, mercenaries and artisans in a transparent, fair and efficient way. Similarly, when wealthy members of the community were required to contribute wealth to the community for festivals and the equipment of navies, coinage made the process more efficient and transparent.[88] A third possibility, that coinage was adopted as an expression of a community's independence and identity, seems to be anachronistic.[89]

Art

006MAD Frieze
Frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, depicting a Gigantomachy, c. 525 BC, Delphi Archaeological Museum

In the visual arts, the Archaic period is characterised by a shift towards representational and naturalistic styles. It was the period in which monumental sculpture was introduced to Greece, and in which Greek pottery styles went through great changes, from the repeating patterns of the late geometric period to the earliest red figure vases. The early part of the Archaic period saw distinctive orientalizing influences,[90] both in pottery and in sculpture. The period was also an innovative period in Greek literature, with the development of the Greek alphabet, and the composition of the earliest surviving Greek poetry.

Sculpture

The kore known as the Dedication of Nikandre is probably the oldest to survive. 180 years after it was made, the genre was at an end, and Greek sculpture was recognisably Classical.

Statue of Nicandre NAMA1 Athens Greece
009MA Kritios

Life-size human sculpture in hard stone began in Greece in the Archaic period.[91] This was inspired in part by ancient Egyptian stone sculpture:[92] the proportions of the New York Kouros exactly correspond to Egyptian rules about the proportion of human figures.[93] In Greece, these sculptures best survive as religious dedications and grave markers, but the same techniques would have also been used to make cult images.[91]

The best-known types of Archaic sculpture are the kouros and kore, near life-size frontal statues of a young man or woman,[94] which were developed around the middle of the seventh century BC in the Cyclades.[95] Probably the earliest kore produced was the Dedication of Nikandre, which was dedicated to Artemis at her temple on Delos between 660 and 650 BC,[96] while kouroi began to be created shortly after this.[97] Kouroi and korai were used to represent both humans and divinities.[98] Some kouroi, such as the Colossus of the Naxians from around 600 BC, are known to represent Apollo,[95] while the Phrasikleia Kore was meant to represent a young woman whose tomb it originally marked.[99] Early in the seventh century around 650 BC when kore are widely introduced, Daedalic style made an appearance in Greek sculpture.[100] This style consisted most noticeably of a geometric pattern of female subjects' hair framing their face. On male sculptures they were often posed with one foot in front, as if in motion.[100]

Over the course of the sixth century, kouroi from Attica become more lifelike and naturalistic. However, this trend does not appear elsewhere in the Greek world.[101] The genre began to become less common over the last part of the sixth century as the elites who commissioned kouroi declined in influence, and by around 480 kouroi were no longer made.[102]

Pottery

The Archaic period saw a shift in styles of pottery decoration from the repeating patterns of the geometric period, through the eastern-influenced orientalizing style to the more representational black-figure and red-figure techniques.

Attic late geometric Jug undulating linie 730 BC, Prague Kinsky, NM-H10 2500, 140739
Loutrophoros Analatos Louvre CA2985 n2
Amphora warriors Louvre E866
Andokides, anfora con scena di palestra, attica 530-525 ac ca., da vulci 01

The period saw a shift in the decoration of Greek pottery from abstract to figurative styles.[103] During the Greek Dark Ages, following the fall of the Mycenaean civilisation, Greek pottery decoration had been based around increasingly elaborate geometrical patterns.[104] Human figures first appeared on Greek pots in Crete in the early part of the ninth century BC, but did not become common on mainland Greek pottery until the middle of the eighth century BC.[105]

The eighth century saw the development of the orientalizing style, which signalled a shift away from the earlier geometric style and the accumulation of influences derived from Phoenicia and Syria. This orientalizing influence seems to have come from goods imported to Greece from the Near East.[106]

At the beginning of the seventh century BC, vase painters in Corinth began to develop the black figure style. At the same time, potters began to use incisions in the clay of vases in order to draw outlines and interior detailing.[107] This adoption of incision, probably taken from eastern metalwork, allowed potters to show fine details of their decorations.[108]

As the Archaic period drew to a close, red-figure pottery was invented in Athens, with the first examples being produced about 525 BC, probably by the Andokides painter.[109] The invention of the red-figure technique in Athens came at around the same time as the development of other techniques such as the white ground technique and Six's technique.[110]

Literature

NAMA Alphabet grec
Attic Black figure vessel with double alphabet inscription, showing new letters ΥΧ[Φ]Ψ, and ΥΧΦΨΩ. Probably early 6th c. BC

The earliest extant Greek literature comes from the Archaic period. Poetry was the predominant form of literature in the period.[111] Alongside the dominant lyric and epic traditions, tragedy began to develop in the archaic period, borrowing elements from the pre-existing genres of archaic Greek poetry.[112] By the sixth century BC the first written prose in Greek literature appeared.[111]

Though there would certainly have been a pre-existing literary tradition in Greece, the earliest surviving works are by Homer.[113] Homer's poetry, though it dates to around the time that the Greeks developed writing, would have been composed orally – the earliest surviving poetry to have certainly been composed in writing is that of Archilochus, from the mid-seventh century BC.[114] In contrast with the Classical period, in which the literary culture of Athens dominated the Greek world, Archaic poetic tradition was geographically spread out. Sappho and Alcaeus, for instance, were from Lesbos, while Pindar came from Thebes, and Alcman from Sparta.[115]

Writing

After the end of the Mycenaean period, the art of writing was lost in Greece: by the ninth century probably no Greeks understood the Bronze Age Linear B writing system.[116] From the ninth century BC, however, objects inscribed with Phoenician writing began to be brought into the Greek world, and it was from this Phoenician script that the Greek alphabet developed in the eighth century BC. By the middle of the eighth century BC, pottery inscribed in Greek begins to occur in the archaeological record.[117]

The earliest known inscriptions in Greek tend to identify or explain the object on which they are inscribed.[118] Possibly the earliest known Greek inscription is found on a jug from the first half of the eighth century BC, discovered in Osteria dell'Osa in Latium.[119] Most early inscriptions were written in verse, though some from Ionia were in prose, influenced by the prose traditions of Ionia's eastern neighbours.[118] From the beginning of the seventh century, curses and dedications began to be inscribed on objects,[119] and by the sixth century, surviving inscriptions include public records such as law codes, lists of officials, and records of treaties.[118]

Military developments

Vix crater hoplite circa 500 BCE
A Hoplite (probably Spartan), on the Vix Crater, circa 500 BC.
Ancient Greek bronze cuirass
An archaic Greek cuirass, dated to the late 7th century BC.

In the Archaic period, the most significant military development was the adoption of hoplite warfare by the Greek states. This occurred in the early part of the seventh century BC.[120] The panoply, or hoplite's armour, began to appear in the eighth century,[121] and the earliest known example comes from Argos in the late eighth century.[122]

While the pieces which made up the panoply were all in use in Greece by the end of the eighth century, our first evidence for it being worn as a complete set of armour does not come until around 675 BC, where it is depicted on a Corinthian vase painting.[123] The adoption of the phalanx tactics which would be used by hoplites in the Classical period does not appear to have taken place until the mid-seventh century;[123] before this point, the older style of combat in which spears were thrown at the enemy before closing quarters was still used.[124]

In the naval sphere, the Archaic period saw the development of the trireme in Greece. In the eighth century, Greek navies began to use ships with two banks of oars, and the three banked trireme seems to have become popular in the seventh century.[125] Corinth was probably the first place in the Greek world to adopt the trireme in the mid seventh century BC.[125] It was not until the mid-sixth century, however, that the trireme became the most popular design for Greek battleships, due to its expense.[125] According to Thucydides, the period saw the first Greek naval battles; he dates the first to around 664 BC.[126]

See also

References

Citations
  1. ^ Shapiro 2007, pp. 1–2
  2. ^ Snodgrass 1980, p. 19
  3. ^ Shapiro 2007, p. 2
  4. ^ a b Snodgrass 1980, p. 13
  5. ^ a b Shapiro 2007, p. 1
  6. ^ Davies 2009, pp. 3–4
  7. ^ Snodgrass 1980, p. 11
  8. ^ a b Shapiro 2007, p. 5
  9. ^ a b Shapiro 2007, p. 6
  10. ^ Osborne 2009, p. 4
  11. ^ Osborne 2009, p. 5
  12. ^ Hall 2007, p. 41
  13. ^ Hall 2007, p. 45
  14. ^ a b c d Hall 2007, p. 43
  15. ^ Hall 2007, p. 40
  16. ^ Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. xv
  17. ^ Andrewes 1982, pp. 368–9
  18. ^ Andrewes 1982, pp. 364–5
  19. ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 368
  20. ^ a b Cantarella 2005, p. 239
  21. ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 371
  22. ^ a b Andrewes 1982, p. 377
  23. ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 378
  24. ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 382
  25. ^ a b Andrewes 1982, p. 384
  26. ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 385
  27. ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 365
  28. ^ Andrewes 1982, p. 387
  29. ^ Andrewes 1982, pp. 388–9
  30. ^ a b Hammond 1982, p. 329
  31. ^ Burn, A. R. (1982). The Pelican History of Greece. London: Penguin. pp. 116–117.
  32. ^ Bury, J. B.; Meiggs, Russell (1956). A History of Greece to the death of Alexander the Great (3 ed.). London: Macmillan. pp. 135–136.
  33. ^ Thucydides 1.18.1
  34. ^ Hammond, N. G. L. (1967). A history of Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 103.
  35. ^ Hammond 1982, p. 323
  36. ^ Hammond 1982, pp. 329–330
  37. ^ Hammond 1982, p. 328
  38. ^ Hammond 1982, p. 356
  39. ^ a b Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. xiii
  40. ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 203
  41. ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 206
  42. ^ Antonaccio 2007, pp. 206–207
  43. ^ a b Antonaccio 2007, p. 207
  44. ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 208
  45. ^ Antonaccio 2007, p. 202
  46. ^ CAHN, HERBERT A.; GERIN, DOMINIQUE (1988). "Themistocles at Magnesia". The Numismatic Chronicle (1966-). 148: 20 & Plate 3. JSTOR 42668124.
  47. ^ Parker 1998, p. 150
  48. ^ Drews 1972, p. 132
  49. ^ Drews 1972, p. 135
  50. ^ Drews 1972, p. 129
  51. ^ Drews 1972, p. 130
  52. ^ Drews 1972, p. 144
  53. ^ Hammond 1982, p. 343
  54. ^ Parker 1998, p. 152
  55. ^ Parker 1998, p. 155
  56. ^ Parker 1998, p. 164
  57. ^ Anderson 2005, pp. 173–174
  58. ^ Anderson 2005, p. 177
  59. ^ a b Morris 2009, pp. 66–67
  60. ^ Morris 2009, pp. 69
  61. ^ Morris 2009, pp. 70
  62. ^ Osborne 2009, pp. 26–28; van Wees 2009, p. 450
  63. ^ van Wees 2009, pp. 450–451
  64. ^ Osborne 2009, p. 34
  65. ^ Osborne 2009, p. 27; van Wees 2009, pp. 450–451
  66. ^ Morris 2009, pp. 67
  67. ^ van Wees 2009, pp. 445–450
  68. ^ van Wees 2009, pp. 451–452
  69. ^ Markoe 1996, p. 54
  70. ^ Markoe 1996, p. 60
  71. ^ a b Markoe 1996, p. 55
  72. ^ Boardman & Hammond 1982, p. xiv
  73. ^ Markoe 1996, pp. 55–57
  74. ^ Jeffery 1982, p. 823
  75. ^ Jeffery 1982, p. 282
  76. ^ Cook 1979, p. 153
  77. ^ Kroll 2012, pp. 33–37
  78. ^ Konuk 2012, pp. 48–49
  79. ^ Sheedy 2012, pp. 106, 110; Van Alfen 2012, p. 89; Psoma 2012, p. 166ff.
  80. ^ Rutter 2012, p. 128ff.; Fischer-Bossert 2012, p. 143ff.
  81. ^ Psoma 2012, p. 157ff.
  82. ^ Sheedy 2012, p. 107; Van Alfen 2012, p. 89
  83. ^ Konuk 2012, pp. 43–48
  84. ^ For instance, the city of Phocaea issued coins depicting a seal (phoke, in Greek)
  85. ^ Spier 1990, pp. 115–124
  86. ^ "A Truly International Currency", Triton XV, Lot: 1163, ATTICA, Athens, CNG Coins
  87. ^ Kroll 2012, p. 38
  88. ^ Martin 1996, pp. 267–280
  89. ^ Martin 1996, p. 261; in more detail: Martin 1986
  90. ^ Boardman 1982, p. 448
  91. ^ a b Boardman 1982, p. 450
  92. ^ Boardman 1982, p. 447
  93. ^ Osborne 1998, p. 76
  94. ^ Hurwit 2007, pp. 269–70
  95. ^ a b Hurwit 2007, p. 274
  96. ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 271
  97. ^ Osborne 1998, p. 75
  98. ^ Hurwit 2007, pp. 271–2
  99. ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 272
  100. ^ a b Ashmole, Bernard (December 1936). "Review: Daedalic Art". The Classical Review. 50 (6): 233–235. doi:10.1017/s0009840x00078057. JSTOR 705500.
  101. ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 276
  102. ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 277
  103. ^ Boardman 1982, p. 451
  104. ^ Osborne 1998, p. 29
  105. ^ Osborne 1998, p. 30
  106. ^ Markoe 1996, p. 50
  107. ^ Markoe 1996, p. 53
  108. ^ Osborne 1998, p. 46
  109. ^ Hurwit 2007, pp. 278–9
  110. ^ Hurwit 2007, p. 279
  111. ^ a b Power 2016, p. 58
  112. ^ Power 2016, p. 60
  113. ^ Kirk 1985, p. 44
  114. ^ Kirk 1985, p. 45
  115. ^ Kurke 2007, p. 141
  116. ^ Snodgrass 1980, p. 15
  117. ^ Osborne 2009, p. 101
  118. ^ a b c Jeffery 1982, p. 831
  119. ^ a b Osborne 2009, p. 104
  120. ^ Hunt 2007, p. 108
  121. ^ Hunt 2007, p. 111
  122. ^ Hunt 2007, figure 5.1
  123. ^ a b Snodgrass 1965, p. 110
  124. ^ Snodgrass 1965, p. 111
  125. ^ a b c Hunt 2007, p. 124
  126. ^ Snodgrass 1965, p. 115
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Further reading

External links

Amphictyonic League

In the Archaic period of Greek history, an amphictyony (Greek: ἀμφικτυονία), a "league of neighbors", or Amphictyonic League was an ancient religious association of Greek tribes formed in the dim past, before the rise of the Greek polis. The six Dorian cities of coastal southwest Asia Minor, or the twelve Ionian cities to the north, a dodecapolis forming an Ionian League emerging in the aftermath of a faintly remembered "Meliac war" in the mid-7th century BC, were already of considerable antiquity when the first written records emerge.

A Delian amphictyony, of polities under the aegis of Apollo's shrine at Delos, was apparently well-established in the 7th century, as the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo of that approximate date lists them, those cities and islands that trembled and refused to offer themselves for the birthplace of Apollo when pregnant Leto went to each in turn; the Homeric hymn presents an aition, or founding myth, for the cult of Apollo on Delos. The joint Ionian festival celebrated there was the Delia. A Delian amphictyony was recreated in the 4th century, as an instrument of Athenian hegemony.

Archaic Greek alphabets

Many local variants of the Greek alphabet were employed in ancient Greece during the archaic and early classical periods, until they were replaced by the classical 24-letter alphabet that is the standard today, around 400 BC. All forms of the Greek alphabet were originally based on the shared inventory of the 22 symbols of the Phoenician alphabet, with the exception of the letter Samekh, whose Greek counterpart Xi (Ξ) was used only in a sub-group of Greek alphabets, and with the common addition of Upsilon (Υ) for the vowel /u, ū/. The local, so-called epichoric, alphabets differed in many ways: in the use of the consonant symbols Χ, Φ and Ψ; in the use of the innovative long vowel letters (Ω and Η), in the absence or presence of Η in its original consonant function (/h/); in the use or non-use of certain archaic letters (Ϝ = /w/, Ϙ = /k/, Ϻ = /s/); and in many details of the individual shapes of each letter. The system now familiar as the standard 24-letter Greek alphabet was originally the regional variant of the Ionian cities in Asia Minor. It was officially adopted in Athens in 403 BC and in most of the rest of the Greek world by the middle of the 4th century BC.

Azoria

Azoria is an archaeological site on a double-peaked hill overlooking the Gulf of Mirabello in eastern Crete in the Greek Aegean. "Azoria" (o Αζοριάς or (c. 1900) Μουρί τ' Αζωργιά) is a local toponym, not apparently an ancient place name or epigraphically-attested Greek city. Located about 1 km southeast of the modern village of Kavousi, and 3 km from the sea, the site occupies a topographically strategic position (c. 365 m above sea level) between the north Isthmus of Ierapetra and the Siteia Mountains.

Catherine Morgan

Catherine Anne Morgan, (born 1961) is a British academic specialising in the history and archaeology of Early Iron Age and Archaic Greece. Since 2015, she has been a Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford. She was Professor of Classical Archaeology at King's College London from 2005 to 2015, and Director of the British School at Athens from 2007 to 2015.

Corinthian helmet

The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth. It was a helmet made of bronze which in its later styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes and mouth. A large curved projection protected the nape of the neck.

Out of combat, a Greek hoplite would wear the helmet tipped upward for comfort. This practice gave rise to a series of variant forms in Italy, where the slits were almost closed, since the helmet was no longer pulled over the face but worn cap-like. Although the classical Corinthian helmet fell out of use among the Greeks in favour of more open types, the Italo-Corinthian types remained in use until the 1st century AD, being used, among others, by the Roman army.

Croesus

Croesus ( KREE-səs; Ancient Greek: Κροῖσος, Kroisos; 595 BC – c. 546 BC) was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC (sometimes given as 547 BC).

Croesus was renowned for his wealth; Herodotus and Pausanias noted that his gifts were preserved at Delphi. The fall of Croesus had a profound impact on the Greeks, providing a fixed point in their calendar. "By the fifth century at least," J. A. S. Evans has remarked, "Croesus had become a figure of myth, who stood outside the conventional restraints of chronology."

Eteocretan language

Not to be confused with Minoan, the language written in Linear A a millennium earlier than Eteocretan.Eteocretan ( from Greek: Ἐτεόκρητες, translit. Eteókrētes, lit. "true Cretans", itself composed from ἐτεός eteós "true" and Κρής Krḗs "Cretan") is the non-Greek language of a few alphabetic inscriptions of ancient Crete.

In eastern Crete about half a dozen inscriptions have been found which, though written in Greek alphabets, are clearly not Greek. These inscriptions date from the late 7th or early 6th century down to the 3rd century BC. The language, which is not understood, is probably a survival of a language spoken on Crete before the arrival of Greeks and is probably derived from the Minoan language preserved in the Linear A inscriptions of a millennium earlier. Since that language remains untranslated, it is not certain that Eteocretan and Minoan are related, although this is very likely.

Ancient testimony suggests that the language is that of the Eteocretans, i.e. "true Cretans". The term Eteocretan is sometimes applied to the Minoan language (or languages) written more than a millennium earlier in so-called Cretan 'hieroglyphics' (almost certainly a syllabary) and in the Linear A script. Yves Duhoux, a leading authority on Eteocretan, has stated that "it is essential to rigorously separate the study of Eteocretan from that of the 'hieroglyphic' and Linear A inscriptions".

Greek colonisation

The Greek colonisation was an organised colonial expansion by the Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea in the period of the 8th–6th centuries B.C (750 and 550 B.C)

This colonisation differed from the migrations of the Greek Dark Ages in that it consisted of organised direction by the originating metropolis instead of the simple movement of tribes which characterized the earlier migrations. Many colonies that were founded in this period evolved into strong city-states and became independent of their metropoleis.

Hellenion (Naucratis)

Hellenion (Greek: Ἑλλήνιον) was an Ancient Greek sanctuary in Naucratis (Egypt), founded by the cities Rhodes, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, Phaselis, Chios, Teos, Phocaea, Clazomenae and Mytilene in the reign of Amasis (6th century BC).

Illyrian type helmet

The "Illyrian type helmet" (or "Greco-Illyrian" type helmet) is a style of bronze helmet, which in its later variations covered the entire head and neck, and was open-faced in all of its forms. It originated in Peloponnese, ancient Greece, and was developed during the 8th and 7th centuries BC (700–640 BC). Accurate representations on Corinthian vases are sufficient to indicate that the "Illyrian" type helmet was developed before 600 BC. The helmet was misleadingly named as an "Illyrian" type due to a large number of early finds coming from Illyria.

Lemnian language

The Lemnian language was a language spoken on the island of Lemnos in the 6th century BC. It is mainly attested by an inscription found on a funerary stele, termed the Lemnos stele, discovered in 1885 near Kaminia. Fragments of inscriptions on local pottery show that it was spoken there by a community. In 2009, a newly discovered inscription was reported from the site of Hephaistia, the principal ancient city of Lemnos. Lemnian is largely accepted as being closely related to Etruscan. After the Athenians conquered the island in the latter half of the 6th century BC, Lemnian was replaced by Attic Greek.

Muscle cuirass

In classical antiquity, the muscle cuirass (Latin: lorica musculata), anatomical cuirass or heroic cuirass is a type of cuirass made to fit the wearer's torso and designed to mimic an idealized human physique. It first appears in late Archaic Greece and became widespread throughout the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Originally made from hammered bronze plate, boiled leather also came to be used. It is commonly depicted in Greek and Roman art, where it is worn by generals, emperors, and deities during periods when soldiers used other types.

In Roman sculpture, the muscle cuirass is often highly ornamented with mythological scenes. Archaeological finds of relatively unadorned cuirasses, as well as their depiction by artists in military scenes, indicate that simpler versions were worn in combat situations. The anatomy of muscle cuirasses intended for use might be either realistic or reduced to an abstract design; the fantastically illustrated cuirasses worn by gods and emperors in Roman statues usually incorporate realistic nipples and the navel within the scene depicted.

Nine Lyric Poets

The Nine Lyric or Melic Poets were a canonical group of ancient Greek poets esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria as worthy of critical study. In the Palatine Anthology it is said that they established lyric song. They were:

Alcman of Sparta (choral lyric, 7th century BC)

Sappho of Lesbos (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)

Alcaeus of Mytilene (monodic lyric, c. 600 BC)

Anacreon of Teos (monodic lyric, 6th century BC)

Stesichorus of Metauros (choral lyric, 7th century BC)

Ibycus of Rhegium (choral lyric, 6th century BC)

Simonides of Ceos (choral lyric, 6th century BC)

Bacchylides of Ceos (choral lyric, 5th century BC)

Pindar of Thebes (choral lyric, 5th century BC)In most Greek sources the word melikos (from melos, "song") is used to refer to these poets, but the variant lyrikos (from lyra, "lyre") became the regular form in both Latin (as lyricus) and in modern languages. The ancient scholars defined the genre on the basis of the musical accompaniment, not the content. Thus, some types of poetry which would be included under the label "lyric poetry," in modern criticism are excluded—namely, the elegy and iambus which were performed with flutes.

The Nine Lyric Poets are traditionally divided among those who primarily composed choral verses, and those who composed monodic verses. This division is contested by some modern scholars.Antipater of Thessalonica proposes an alternative canon of nine female poets.

Olympiad

An Olympiad (Greek: Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games.

By extrapolation to the Julian calendar, the

3rd year of the 699th Olympiad will begin in (Northern-Hemisphere) mid-summer 2019.

A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports. The first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, and so on (the 31st began in 2016: see the Olympic Charter).

The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD. But as the Julian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.

Pederasty in ancient Greece

Pederasty in ancient Greece was a socially acknowledged romantic relationship between an adult male (the erastes) and a younger male (the eromenos) usually in his teens. It was characteristic of the Archaic and Classical periods. The influence of pederasty on Greek culture of these periods was so pervasive that it has been called "the principal cultural model for free relationships between citizens."Some scholars locate its origin in initiation ritual, particularly rites of passage on Crete, where it was associated with entrance into military life and the religion of Zeus. It has no formal existence in the Homeric epics, and seems to have developed in the late 7th century BC as an aspect of Greek homosocial culture, which was characterized also by athletic and artistic nudity, delayed marriage for aristocrats, symposia, and the social seclusion of women.

Pederasty was both idealized and criticized in ancient literature and philosophy. The argument has recently been made that idealization was universal in the Archaic period; criticism began in Athens as part of the general Classical Athenian reassessment of Archaic culture.Scholars have debated the role or extent of pederasty, which is likely to have varied according to local custom and individual inclination. The English word "pederasty" in present-day usage might imply the abuse of minors in certain jurisdictions, but Athenian law, for instance, recognized consent but not age as a factor in regulating sexual behavior.

Polis

Polis (; Greek: πόλις pronounced [pólis]), plural poleis (, πόλεις [póleːs]) literally means city in Greek. It can also mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state". These cities consisted of a fortified city centre (asty) built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land (khôra).

The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity. The term "city-state", which originated in English (alongside the German Stadtstaat), does not fully translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather political entities ruled by their bodies of citizens. The traditional view of archaeologists—that the appearance of urbanization at excavation sites could be read as a sufficient index for the development of a polis—was criticised by François Polignac in 1984 and has not been taken for granted in recent decades: the polis of Sparta, for example, was established in a network of villages. The term polis, which in archaic Greece meant "city", changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify "state" (which included its surrounding villages). Finally, with the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, it came to describe the entire body of citizens. The ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and other poleis as such; they often spoke instead of the Athenians, Lacedaemonians, Thebans and so on. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the term polis in ancient Greece.

The Greek term that specifically meant the totality of urban buildings and spaces is asty (ἄστυ).

Sostratos of Aegina

Sostratos of Aegina (Greek: Σώστρατος ὁ Αιγινήτης), son of Laodamus, is reported by Herodotus as a famous merchant in the sixth century BC Hellenic world - indeed to have gained "the biggest profit any Greek trader we have reliable information about has ever made from his cargo".

Temple of Hera, Mon Repos

The Temple of Hera or Heraion is an archaic temple in Corfu, Greece, built around 610 BC in the ancient city of Korkyra (or Corcyra), in what is known today as Palaiopolis, and lies within the ground of the Mon Repos estate. The sanctuary of Hera at Mon Repos is considered a major temple, and one of the earliest examples of archaic Greek architecture.Large terracota figures such as lions, gorgoneions, and Daidala maidens, created and painted in vivid colour by artisans, who were inspired by myth traditions across the Mediterranean, decorated the roof of the temple, making it one of the most intricately adorned temples of Archaic Greece and the most ambitious roof construction project of its time. Built at the top of Analipsis Hill, Hera's sanctuary was highly visible to ships approaching the waterfront of the ancient city of Korkyra.

Thetis

Thetis (; Greek: Θέτις [tʰétis]), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles. She mainly appears as a sea nymph, a goddess of water, or one of the 50 Nereids, daughters of the ancient sea god Nereus.When described as a Nereid in Classical myths, Thetis was the daughter of Nereus and Doris, and a granddaughter of Tethys with whom she sometimes shares characteristics. Often she seems to lead the Nereids as they attend to her tasks. Sometimes she also is identified with Metis.

Some sources argue that she was one of the earliest of deities worshipped in Archaic Greece, the oral traditions and records of which are lost. Only one written record, a fragment, exists attesting to her worship and an early Alcman hymn exists that identifies Thetis as the creator of the universe. Worship of Thetis as the goddess is documented to have persisted in some regions by historical writers such as Pausanias.

In the Trojan War cycle of myth, the wedding of Thetis and the Greek hero Peleus is one of the precipitating events in the war which also led to the birth of their child Achilles.

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