Arcadocypriot Greek

Arcadocypriot, or southern Achaean, was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese and in Cyprus. Its resemblance to Mycenaean Greek, as it is known from the Linear B corpus, suggests that Arcadocypriot is its descendant.

Arcadocypriot Greek
RegionArcadia, Cyprus
Erac. 1200 – 300 BC
Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-3
grc-arc
Glottologarca1234[1]
AncientGreekDialects (Woodard) en
Distribution of Greek dialects in Greece in the classical period.[2]
Western group: Central group:
  Aeolic
  Arcado-Cypriot
Eastern group:
  Attic
  Ionic

History

Proto-Arcadocypriot (around 1200 BC) is supposed to have been spoken by Achaeans in the Peloponnese before the arrival of Dorians, so it is also called southern Achaean. The isoglosses of the Cypriot and Arcadian dialects testify that the Achaeans had settled in Cyprus. As Pausanias reported:

Agapenor, the son of Ancaeus, the son of Lycurgus, who was king after Echemus, led the Arcadians to Troy. After the capture of Troy the storm that overtook the Greeks on their return home carried Agapenor and the Arcadian fleet to Cyprus, and so Agapenor became the founder of Paphos, and built the sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaepaphos (Old Paphos).[3]

The establishment happened before 1100 BC. With the arrival of Dorians in the Peloponnese, a part of the population moved to Cyprus, and the rest was limited to the Arcadian mountains.

According to John T Hooker, the preferable explanation for the general historico-linguistic picture is

"that in the Bronze Age, at the time of the great Mycenaean expansion, a dialect of a high degree of uniformity was spoken both in Cyprus and in the Peloponnese but that at some subsequent epoch the speakers of West Greek intruded upon the Peloponnese and occupied the coastal states, but made no significant inroads into Arcadia."[4]

Later developments

After the collapse of the Mycenaean world, communication ended, and Cypriot was differentiated from Arcadian. It was written until the 3rd century BC using the Cypriot syllabary.[5][6]

Tsan was a letter in use only in Arcadia until around the 6th century BC. Arcadocypriot kept many characteristics of Mycenaean, early lost in Attic and Ionic, such as the /w/ sound (digamma).

Glossary

Arcadian

  • ἀμφιδεκάτη amphidekatê 21st of the month ἡ μετὰ εἰκάδα ἡμέρα (ampheikas)(dekatê tenth)
  • ἄνωδα anôda up-side (Attic ἄνωθε anôthe)
  • ἄρμωλα armôla or ἀρμώμαλα armômala (Attic ἀρτύματα artymata ἀρτύω) food Seasoning
  • ἄσιστος asistos nearest (Attic ἄγχιστος anchistos)
  • δάριν darin or dareir (Attic σπιθαμή spithame inch) span of all fingers see Ancient Greek units of measurement
  • Ἑκατόμβαιος Hecatombaios epithet for Apollo in Athens and for Zeus in Gortys (Arcadia) and Gortyna Crete
  • Ϝιστίαυ Wistiau (Attic Hestiou, eponym genitive of Hestios) (Cf.Hestia and gistia)
  • ϝοῖνος woinos (Cypriot, Cretan, Delphic, Magna Graecian also) (Attic oinos) wine
  • ζέλλω zellô (Attic βάλλω ballô "throw, put, let, cast")
  • ζέρεθρον zerethron (Homeric, Attic βέρεθρον berethron pit) (Koine barathron)
  • θύρδα thyrda outside (Attic ἔξω exô, thyra door) (Paphian θόρανδε thorande)
  • ἴν in in, inside (Attic en) (Cypriot also)
  • κάθιδος kathidos water-jug (Attic ὑδρία hydria) (Tarentine huetos)
  • κάς kas and (Attic καί kai) Cypriotic also
  • κίδαρις kidaris Arcadian dance (Athenaeus 14.631d.)[7] and Demetra Kidaria in Arcadia.
  • κόρϝα korwa girl (Attic korê) (Pamphylian name Κορϝαλίνα Korwalina)
  • Κορτύνιοι Kortynioi (Kortys Gortys (Arcadia))
  • κυβήβη kubêbê boot, shoe (Attic hypodema)
  • Λῆναι Lênai Bacchae (Lenaeus Dionysus, Lenaia festival)
  • μωρίαι môriai horses, cattle
  • οὔνη ounê or ounei come on! Go! (Attic δεῦρο, δράμε deuro, drame)
  • πέσσεται pessetai (Attic ὀπτᾶται optatai it is cooked, roasted)
  • πος pos towards, into (Attic προς pros) (Cypriot also) ποσκατυβλάψη[8] poskatublapse (Attic proskatablapsei)
  • σίς[9] sis who, anyone (Attic tis) (Laconian tir) (Thessalian kis)(Cypr. sis (si se)

Cypriot

  • ἀβάθων abathôn teacher (Attic didaskalos)
  • ἁβαριστάν abaristan (γυναικιζομένην) 'effeminate'
  • ἀβαρταί abartai birds, volatile (Attic hai ptênai, ta ptêna πτηνά)
  • ἀβλάξ ablax 'brightly wonderful' (Attic λαμπρῶς lambrôs) (α + βλάξ (blax) "idiot", blapto "harm")
  • ἀβρεμής abremês ἀβλεπής, ἀνάξιος του βλέπεσθαι, 'unworthy of being seen, despicable'
  • ἁγάνα hagana and agana (Attic σαγήνη sagênê 'dragnet')
  • ἄγαν θές (agan thes) (Attic σιώπα siôpa, 'shut up' ( "too much" + "put" (tithemi imp.)
  • ἄγκυρα ankura (Attic τριώβολον triôbolon, "three obols") (Attic ankura anchor)
  • ἀγλαόν aglaon (Attic γλαφυρόν glaphyron, "smooth, sweet, simple, decorated" (Cretan also), (Attic: aglaos "bright")
  • ἀγόρ agor eagle (Attic ἀετός aetos)
  • ἀγχοῦρος anchoûros near the morning (from anchauros anchi + aurion tomorrow )
  • ἄδειὁς adeios (Attic akathartos), "cleanless, impure" (cf. Attic: adeios, adeia = "fearless, safe", Byzantine and Modern: adeios, adeia = "empty")
  • ἄδρυον adryon (ploion dugout canoe) (α + δρῦς)
  • ἀθρίζειν athrizein (Attic ῥιγοῦν rhigoun to shiver)
  • ἀίεις aieis 'you listen' (Attic ἀκούεις akoueis) (aïô only in poetic use)
  • αἰπόλος aipolos (Koine kapêlos wine-seller) (Attic aipolos 'goatherd') (Attic pôleô sell)
  • ἀκεύει akeuei (Attic τηρεῖ terei he observes, maintains, keeps order)
  • ἄκμων akmôn (Attic ἀλετρίβανος aletribanos plough or pestle) (Attic ἄκμων anvil, meteor) (Acmon mythology)
  • ἀκοστή akostê barley (Attic κριθή krithê ) Cypr. according to Hsch., but Thess. for grain of all kinds according to Sch.Il.6.506.)
  • ἅλς hals (Attic oinos wine) (Attic ἅλς hals sea) (ἅλα *θάλασσαν (Α 141) vgAS ἢ οἶνος Κύπριοι)
  • ἀλάβη alabê or alaba (Attic μαρίλη marile charcoal-ember) λιγνύς. σποδός. καρκίνος. ἄνθρακες
  • ἀλειπτήριον aleipterion (Attic γραφεῖον grapheion writing utensil or place of writing and engraving) (Attic ἀλειφω aleiphô smear, rub)
  • ἄλευρον aleuron grave (Attic τάφος taphos )(leuros smooth, level, even )(Attic ἄλευρον wheat flour)
  • ἄλουα aloua gardens (Attic κῆποι kêpoi)
  • ἁλουργά halourga the red things of the sea τὰ ἐκ τῆς θαλάσσης πορφυρᾶ Cypr. according to Hsch.
  • ἄνδα anda she (Attic αὕτη hautê)
  • ἄορον aoron lever μοχλός gateway πυλῶν door-keeper θυρωρός (Aeolic aoros unsleeped)
  • ἀούματα aoumata chaffs, straws left-overs of barleys τὰ τῶν πτισσομένων κριθῶν ἄχυρα (Cf. loumata, lumata)
  • ἀπέλυκα apelyka (Attic ἀπέῤῥωγα aperrhoga I am broken, crashed)
  • ἀπλανῆ aplanê many, a lot (Attic πολλά) (Laconian ameremera) (Attic aplaneis unmoving, non wandering esp. for stars)
  • ἀποαἵρει apoairei (Attic ἀποκαθαίρει apokathairei he cleans, removes) (ἀπαίρω lead off, set out to sea)
  • ἀπόγεμε apogeme imp. remove out, draw off liquor(Attic ἄφελκε aphelke) (Attic γέμω gemô to be full of)
  • ἀπολοισθεῖν apoloisthein to finish complete (Attic ἀποτελεῖν apotelein)(ὅλος holos whole)
  • ἀπόλυγμα apolugma denudation (Attic ἀπογύμνωσις apogymnôsis)(cf. apolouma)
  • ἀρὰς ἐπισπεῖραι aras epispeirai Cypriot cursing custom sowing barley with water σπειρόντων κριθὰς μεθ' ἁλὸς καταρᾶσθαί τισιν
  • ἄριζος arizos grave (Attic taphos) (α + ῥίζα rhiza root)
  • ἄρμυλα armula shoes (Attic ὑποδήματα hypodemata)
  • ἀρμώατος armôatos (Attic σπασμός spasmos spasm)
  • ἄρουρα aroura 'heap of wheat with straws' σωρὸς σίτου σὺν ἀχύροις (Homeric, Ionic ἄρουρα aroura earth)
  • ἄρπιξ arpix harpix or aprix acanthus "species of thorn", εἶδος ἀκάνθης (Attic aprix fast, tight)
  • αὔγαρος augaros (Attic ἄσωτος asôtos unsaved, wasteful, prodigal)
  • αὐεκίζειν auekizein (Attic σφακελίζειν sphakelizein produce gangrene)
  • Ἀχαιομάντεις Achaiomanteis seers, priests in Cyprus (Hesychius)
  • βᾶλλαι ballai (Attic βαθμοί bathmoi grades, steps, stages) (Aeolic arrows)
  • βλάστα blasta (Attic βλάστησις blastesis Vegetation)
  • βομβοία bomboia (Attic κολυμβὰς ἐλαία kolumbas elaia pickled olive, swimming in brine)(Attic kolumbaô dive, swim)
  • βορβορίζει borborizei γογγύζει. μολύνει it groans, pollutes
  • βουκανῆ boukanê anemone flower ἀνεμώνη (bukanê trumpet)
  • βουνός bounos (Attic στιβάς stibas bed of straw, reeds, leaves) (Koine bounos hill, mountain)
  • βοώνητα boôneta (Attic 'purchased things in the price of cows') τιμῆς βοῶν ἠγορασμένα (Cypriot unholy things)
  • βρένθιξ brenthix (Attic θριδακίνη thridakine lettuce)
  • βρίγκα brinka small (Attic μικρόν mikron)
  • βριμάζειν brimazein orgasmize ὀργᾷν εἰς συνουσίαν (Brimô mythology) (brimaomai freak, be enraged)
  • βροῦκα brouka green locust χλωρὰν ἀκρίδα (Ionic broukos)
  • βρούχετος brouchetos frog (Attic βάτραχος bathrachos) (Hsch. brouchetos pit βάραθρον)
  • βύβλιοι byblioi gravekeepers
  • γάνος ganos garden pl. ganea (Hebrew gan 'garden')
  • γέμοις νυ gemois nu lit."you may be full, filled now" Hsch. λαβέ καὶ κάθιζε take and sit
  • γένεσις genesis libation (Attic σπονδή sponde)
  • γοᾶναι goanai (Attic κλαίειν klaiein to cry) (goaô moan)
  • γρᾶ gra or grasthi "eat (imp)" (Attic φάγε phage) (Attic graô gnaw) (Sanskrit grasate eat) (PIE *gres- devour) (Salaminian καγρᾶkagra kata + graô Koine kataphagas gluttonous)
  • δαματρίζειν damatrizein τὸ συνάγειν τὸν Δημητριακὸν καρπόν "collect the fuits of Demeter"
  • δεῖν dein 'turn' (Attic στρέφειν strephein (cf. Attic: deo tie)
  • δίπτυον diptuon (Attic hemimedimnos, a dry measure) (Aeolic kammarpsis)
  • διφθεραλοιφός diphtheraloiphos elementary teacher γραμματοδιδάσκαλος grammatodidaskalos ( aleiphô "smear" + diphthera "goatskin, writing-material, parchment"
  • δρόσος drosos ἀχρείος achreios "needless, useless" (Attic drosos dew)
  • δύσεα dusea (the things around the wall) τοῦ τοίχου τὰ πέριξ
  • ἔαρ ear (Attic αἷμα haima blood) (Attic Ear Spring (season))
  • Ἔγχειος Encheios Ἀφροδίτη
  • ἔλαψα elapsa (Attic διέφθειρα diephtheira I harmed)
  • ἔλφος elphos butter (Attic βούτυρον boutyron)
  • ἔναυὁν enauon ἔνθες put in, ignite εναύοντες ἀνάπτοντες πυρί. τὰ γὰρ σμήνη τῶν μελισσῶν διώκουσι διὰ πυρὸς καὶ καπνοῦ A (n)
  • ἔπιξα epixa (Attic ὄρνεα ornea birds)
  • ἐροῦντες erountes (Attic λέγοντες legontes the saying) (Attic erountes the ones who will say)
  • ἐρούα eroua walk and rest πορεύου,αναπαύου (cf. Homeric erôeô)
  • ἔστη estê (Attic στολή stolê, equipment, garment) (cf. esthês clothing)
  • ζάει zaei (Attic κινεῖ καὶ πνεῖ it moves and blows) (zaei binei, inire, coïre, of illicit intercourse)
  • θᾶτες thates or thutes manual labourers (Attic θῆτες thêtes) (see Timocracy)
  • θεῖον theiοn (Attic ἴγδιον igdion mortar) (Aristophanes θυεία thyeia igdion mortar)
  • θίβων thibôn (Koine thibis ark, basket) (Hebrew tēbhāh ark, from Egyptian tebt 'box')
  • θρόδαξ throdax (Attic θρίδαξ thridax lettuce)
  • θύα thua flavourings ἀρτύματα. Κύπριοι. ἔνιοι τὰ ἀρώματα. Καλλίμαχος (fr.564). Εὔπολις (fr. 108,2) τὰ πέμματα. λέγεται δὲ καὶ τὰ θυόμενα ταῖν θεαῖν
  • ἵγα higa shut up (Attic σιώπα siôpa) (Cretan iga)
  • ἱμονιά himonia strap (Attic ἵμας himas)
  • ἳν hin dat. and acc. of the old pers. Pron. hi (q.v.). in, Arc., Cypr., and Cret. for en (q.v.)[10]
  • καλίνδινα kalindina intestines (Attic ἔντερα entera) (PIE: ghel-ond-, ghol-n•d- stomach; bowels) (Homeric cholades) (Macedonian gola)
  • καχίλα kachila flowers (Attic ἄνθη anthê)
  • κενεά (Attic ἀναδενδράδες anadendrades climbing vineyards) (Attic kena kenea vain
  • κίβισις kibisis bag (Attic πήρα pêra) (Aetolian kibba)
  • κίλλος killos morning cicada ( τέττιξ πρωϊνὸς tettix proinos) (Hesychius killos donkey)
  • Κινυράδαι Kinyradai priests of Aphrodite ἱερεῖς Ἀφροδίτης
  • κίρις kiris or kirris (cypriotic epithet for Adonis) (Laconian kirris λύχνος lychnos light, lamp)
  • κίτταρις kittaris Cypriot Diadem.Κίτταροι Kittaroi, the ones who wear it
  • κιχητός kichêtos the vessel or the substance where the censer(Attic libanôtos) is being dyed εἰς ὃ ἐμβάπτεται ὁ λιβανωτός
  • κυνύπισμα kunupisma drink from pomace (stemphyla), i.e. left-overs of pressed grapes.
  • λήνεα lênea or λείνα leina (Attic ἔρια eria wools)
  • μόψος mopsos 'stain on the clothes' (Attic kêlis κηλὶς ἡ ἐν τοῖς ἱματίοις) (Mopsus mythology) (Mopsopia old name of Attica and Attic tales of Euphorion of Chalcis)
  • μύθα mytha voice (Attic φωνή phonê mythos μυθέομαι mytheomai speak narrate)
  • μυλάσασθαι mulasasthai cleanse with oil (Attic σμήξασθαι smêxasthai σμήχω smêchô)
  • ὄλινοι olinoi sheaves of barley ὄλινοι κριθῆς δέσμαι. καὶ ὤλενος παρὰ Κυπρίοις
  • ὀρτός ortos (Attic βωμός bômos altar)
  • οὐάραι ouarai we (Attic ἡμεῖς hemeis)
  • οὔαρον ouaron olive oil (Attic ἔλαιον elaion)
  • οὖνον ounon or ounos road (Attic odos) (Koine dromos)
  • πέσσον pesson (Attic ὄρος mountain or χωρίον village)
  • πιλνόν pilnon (Attic φαιόν phaion obscure brown, πελιδνόν pelidnon livid (blue, green/ dark)
  • πρέπον prepon beast (Attic τέρας teras beast)(prepôn -ontos, a fish) (Attic prepon -ntos suitable)
  • Πυγμαίων Pygmaion Ἄδωνις Adonis
  • ῥύεινα rhueina lamb, accusative (Attic ἄρνα arna)(nom. rhuein, arên from Wrêna)
  • σί βόλε si bole? (Attic τί βούλει; ti boulei? what do you want?)
  • σίγυνον sigunon (Attic ἀκόντιον akontion spear)[11]

Paphian

  • ἐπίκορον epicoron (Attic ἐπίκοπον epikopon) cutting, re-stamped coin (from keirô and koptô cut)
  • ἐς πόθ' ἕρπες es poth' herpes? (Attic πόθεν ἥκεις pothen hekeis? where do you come from?) (Attic ἕρπειν herpein to creep, to crawl, move slowly like a serpent
  • εὐτρόσσεσθαι eutrossesthai (Attic ἐπιστρέφεσθαι epistrephesthai return)
  • θόρανδε thorande (Attic ἔξω exo outside) θύρα thyra door
  • ἵγγια hingia one (Cypr. ingia) (εἷς heis) (Cretan itton hen one)
  • ἰμίτραιον imitraion (Hsch.ὑπόζωστον hypozoston under-girdle, rope of ship
  • ἰμπάταὁν impataon (Attic ἔμβλεψον emblepson look inside -imperative) (Hsch. inkapathaon enkatablepson)
  • κάβειος kabeios young (Attic νέος neos)
  • καβλή kablê (Koine μάνδαλος mandalos latch)
  • κακκέρσαι kakkersai (Attic κατακόψαι katakopsai to cut, slay) (kata + keirô cut)
  • καλέχεο kalecheo (Attic κατάκεισο katakeiso lay down -imperative) (Homeric λέχος lechos bed)
  • καπατάξεις kapataxeis (Attic κατακόψεις katakopseis you will cut, slay)
  • κάῤῥαξον karrhaxon (Attic κατάραξον kataraxon strike -imperative) (kata + arassô
  • κατέρεαι katereai (Atticκάθισαι kathisa sit)
  • κίβος kibos (Attic kibôtos ark or ἐνεός eneos speechless)
  • κιδνόν kidnon here (Attic ἐνθάδε enthade)
  • κόρζα korza or korzia heart ( Attic καρδία kardia ) ( Ionic kardiê )( Homeric kradiê ) ( Aeolic karza )
  • κύβος kubos saucer bowl dish (Attic τρύβλιον trublion) (Attic kubos cube)
  • λιμήν limên ἀγορά and (ἐνδιατριβή endiatribê delay, abide, stay) (Attic λιμήν limên port, harbour)
  • μοχοῖ mochoi inside (Attic ἐντός entos)(cf.muchos innermost part, nook, corner)
  • σάπιθος sapithos sacrifice (Attic θυσία thysia)
  • σάσαι sasai to sit (Attic καθίσαι kathisai) (cf. Poetic thassô sit, thôkos backless throne)
  • σές ses (Attic ἔλαθες elathes you were hidden, escaped notice see λανθάνω lanthano)
  • σίαἱ sihai to spit (Attic πτύσαι ptusai to spit, cast out)
  • σοάνα soana (Attic ἀξίνη axinê axe)
  • στροπά stropa (Attic ἀστραπή astrapê) (Homeric sterope, lightning flash)
  • ὕεσι huesi (Koine στολή stolê "garment", (Attic ἀμφίεσις amphiesis clothing, Hsch. ὑεστάκα huestaka)
  • Φάπη Phapê Παφία Paphia (Paphian Aphrodite)

See also

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arcadocypriot". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
  3. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 8.5.1
  4. ^ John T Hooker, Mycenaean Greece (Routledge Revivals). Routledge, 2014 ISBN 1317751221 p164
  5. ^ Kypros, Salamis, c. 600 BC [1]
  6. ^ Kypros — Kourion ~320 BC [2]
  7. ^ Mortals and Immortals [3] by Jean-Pierre Vernant
  8. ^ Arkadia — Tegea — 4th century BC IG V,2 6 38
  9. ^ Arkadia — Mantineiastoichedon. — 5th century BC [4]
  10. ^ LSJ
  11. ^ Aristotle, Poetics, XXI [5]

Bibliography

  • A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity- Arcado-Cypriot by A.Panayotou
  • C. M. Bowra Homeric Words in Arcadian Inscriptions
  • Yves Duhoux. Introduction aux dialectes grecs anciens. Lounain-la-Neuve: Cabay, 1983 ISBN 2-87077-177-0
  • Rüdiger Schmitt. Einführung in die griechischen Dialekte. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1977 ISBN 3-534-05672-8
  • Markus Egetmeyer. Le dialecte grec ancien de Chypre. 2 vols., vol. 1: Grammaire; vol. 2: Répertoire des inscriptions en syllabaire chypro-grec. Berlin–NY: De Gruyter, 2010.

Further reading

  • Bakker, Egbert J., ed. 2010. A companion to the Ancient Greek language. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Christidis, Anastasios-Phoivos, ed. 2007. A history of Ancient Greek: From the beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Colvin, Stephen C. 2007. A historical Greek reader: Mycenaean to the koiné. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Palmer, Leonard R. 1980. The Greek language. London: Faber & Faber.
Agapenor

In Greek mythology, Agapenor (Ancient Greek: Ἀγαπήνωρ, gen. Ἀγαπήνορος) was a leader of the Arcadians in the Trojan war.

Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period (Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE).

It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek.

Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage on its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects.

Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language.

Arcadia

Arcadia (Greek: Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Peloponnese. It is situated in the central and eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. It takes its name from the mythological figure Arcas. In Greek mythology, it was the home of the god Pan. In European Renaissance arts, Arcadia was celebrated as an unspoiled, harmonious wilderness.

Arcadian

Arcadian may refer to:

Arcadian, a resident of the Ancient Greek region of Arcadia or of the modern Greek region of Arcadia

Arcadocypriot Greek, the dialect spoken in ancient Arcadia

SS Arcadian, formerly the 1899 ship, SS Ortona, she was torpedoed and sunk in 1917

RMSP Asturias (1907), renamed RMSP Arcadian in 1923 and scrapped in 1933

HMS Arcadian, a projected Amphion-class submarine, the order for which was cancelled in 1945

Belonging to the Accademia degli Arcadi, the Italian literary academy founded in Rome

Bebearia arcadius, a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae

Arcadian ecology, an environmentalist perspective

Arcadian (Star Trek), a race in Star TrekThe Arcadian, an American science fiction film

Cypriot Greek

Cypriot Greek (Greek: Κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and Greek Cypriot diaspora. It is considered a divergent variety as it differs from Standard Modern Greek in various aspects of its lexicon, phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and even pragmatics, not only for historical reasons, but also because of geographical isolation, different settlement patterns, and extensive contact with typologically distinct languages.

Cypriot syllabary

The Cypriot or Cypriote syllabary is a syllabic script used in Iron Age Cyprus, from about the 11th to the 4th centuries BCE, when it was replaced by the Greek alphabet. A pioneer of that change was king Evagoras of Salamis. It is descended from the Cypro-Minoan syllabary, in turn a variant or derivative of Linear A. Most texts using the script are in the Arcadocypriot dialect of Greek, but also one bilingual (Greek and Eteocypriot) inscription was found in Amathus.

Eteocypriot language

Eteocypriot was a pre-Indo-European language spoken in Iron Age Cyprus. The name means "true" or "original Cypriot" parallel to Eteocretan, both of which names are used by modern scholarship to mean the pre-Greek languages of those places. Eteocypriot was written in the Cypriot syllabary, a syllabic script derived from Linear A (via the Cypro-Minoan variant Linear C). The language was under pressure from Arcadocypriot Greek from about the 10th century BC and finally became extinct in about the 4th century BC.

The language is as yet unknown except for a small vocabulary attested in bilingual inscriptions. Such topics as syntax and possible inflection or agglutination remain a mystery. Partial translations depend to a large extent on the language or language group assumed by the translator, but there is no consistency. It is conjectured by some linguists to be related to the Etruscan and Lemnian languages, and by others to be Northwest Semitic. Those who do not advocate any of those theories often adopt the default of an unknown pre-Greek language. Due to the small number of texts found, there is currently much unproven speculation.

Evagoras I

Evagoras or Euagoras (Ancient/Modern Greek: Εὐαγόρας) was the king of Salamis (411–374 BC) in Cyprus, known especially from the work of Isocrates, who presents him as a model ruler.

The spelling "Evagoras" reflects the Latin transliteration of the name, and it comprises one of the rather rare cases that the Greek prefix εὐ- was rendered as ev- (instead of eu-) in Latin, which fact also results in "Evagoras" being closer to modern Greek pronunciation.

Greek Dark Ages

The Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time),

is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis (city states) in the 9th century BC.

The archaeological evidence shows a widespread collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean world at the outset of the period, as the great palaces and cities of the Mycenaeans were destroyed or abandoned. At about the same time, the Hittite civilization suffered serious disruption and cities from Troy to Gaza were destroyed and in Egypt the New Kingdom fell into disarray that led to the Third Intermediate Period.

Following the collapse, fewer and smaller settlements suggest famine and depopulation. In Greece, the Linear B writing of the Greek language used by Mycenaean bureaucrats ceased. The decoration on Greek pottery after about 1100 BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler, generally geometric styles (1000–700 BC).

It was previously thought that all contact was lost between mainland Hellenes and foreign powers during this period, yielding little cultural progress or growth, but artifacts from excavations at Lefkandi on the Lelantine Plain in Euboea show that significant cultural and trade links with the east, particularly the Levant coast, developed from c. 900 BC onwards. Additionally, evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al-Mina.

Index of Cyprus-related articles

This page list topics related to Cyprus.

Jason (given name)

Jason is a common given name for a male. It comes from Greek Ἰάσων (Iásōn), meaning "healer", from the verb ἰάομαι (iáomai), "heal", "cure", cognate with Ἰασώ, Iasō, the goddess of healing and ἰατρός, iatros, "healer", "physician". Forms of related words have been attested in Greek from as far back as Mycenaen (in Linear B) and Arcadocypriot (in the Cypriot syllabary) Greek: 𐀂𐀊𐀳, i-ja-te and i-ja-te-ra-ne, respectively, both regarded as standing for inflected forms of ἰατήρ, "healer".The name was borne in Greek mythology by Jason, the great Thessalian hero who led the Argonauts in the quest for the Golden Fleece.

The name is also found in the New Testament, as the house of a man named Jason was used as a refuge by Paul and Silas.Its adoption in the United Kingdom peaked during the 1970s, when it was among the top 20 male names, but it had fallen out of the top 100 by 2003.Jason is the most common spelling; however, there are many variant spellings such as Jaison, Jayson, and Jacyn. Jay and Jace are the common diminutives.

A feminine name that sounds similar is Jacin, derived from the Portuguese-Spanish name Jacinta or the Anglicized version Jacinda, meaning Hyacinth.

Klirou

Klirou (Greek: Kλήρου, Turkish: Kliru) is a Historic Mining District and covers an area of 18.7 square kilometers. Situated in the northern foothills of the Troodos Mountains, 26 km southwest of Nicosia. The area was inhabited from the Late Bronze Age, by Arcadocypriot Greek settlers

List of extinct languages of Europe

This is a list of extinct languages of Europe, languages which have undergone language death, have no native speakers and no spoken descendant. As the vast majority of Europeans speak Indo-European languages, a result of the westward portion of the prehistoric Indo-European migrations, the bulk of the indigenous languages of Europe became extinct thousands of years ago without leaving any record of their existence as they were superseded by Celtic, Italic, Germanic, Balto-Slavic, Hellenic, and Iranian Indo-European languages. A small minority of these extinct languages, however, survived long enough to be attested.

On the other hand, many European Indo-European languages themselves, such as Gothic, have also become extinct. In some cases however, it is not known whether a language has a spoken descendant or not. For example, because of the uncertain origin of the Albanian language — aside from its being an Indo-European language — and because little remains of the ancient languages in question, it is disputed whether Dacian, Thracian or Illyrian have a spoken descendant, Albanian. And because of the scarcity of the evidence, it is not known whether Basque is a descendant of the Aquitanian language.

Although the Pomeranian language has a spoken descendant, the Kashubian language, the other dialects of Pomeranian are extinct.

Mycenaean Greek

Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos, in the southwest of the Peloponnese. Other tablets have been found at Mycenae itself, Tiryns and Thebes and at Chania, in Western Crete. The language is named after Mycenae, one of the major centres of Mycenaean Greece.

The tablets long remained undeciphered, and many languages were suggested for them, until Michael Ventris deciphered the script in 1952.

The texts on the tablets are mostly lists and inventories. No prose narrative survives, much less myth or poetry. Still, much may be glimpsed from these records about the people who produced them and about Mycenaean Greece, the period before the so-called Greek Dark Ages.

Pamphylia

Pamphylia (Ancient Greek: Παμφυλία, Pamphylía, modern pronunciation Pamfylía ) was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey). It was bounded on the north by Pisidia and was therefore a country of small extent, having a coast-line of only about 120 km (75 miles) with a breadth of about 50 km (30 miles). Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of Phrygia and Lycaonia, and in this wider sense it is employed by Ptolemy.

Pamphylian Greek

Pamphylian is a little-attested and isolated dialect of Ancient Greek that was spoken in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor. Its origins and relation to other Greek dialects are uncertain. A number of scholars have distinguished in Pamphylian dialect important isoglosses with Arcadocypriot which allow them to be studied together. Pamphylia means "land of all phyles (tribes)". The Achaeans may have settled the region under the leadership of Amphilochus, Calchas, and Mopsus. However, other cities in Pamphylia were established by different Greek tribes: Aspendos was a colony of Argos, Side was a colony of Aeolian Cyme, Sillyon was a colony of an unknown Greek mother city, and Perga was a colony established by a wave of Greeks from northern Anatolia. The isolation of the dialect took place even before the appearance of the Greek article. Pamphylian is the only dialect that does not use articles other than Mycenean Greek and poetic language.

San (letter)

San (Ϻ) was an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. Its shape was similar to modern M, or to a modern Greek Sigma (Σ) turned sideways, and it was used as an alternative to Sigma to denote the sound /s/. Unlike Sigma, whose position in the alphabet is between Rho and Tau, San appeared between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetic order. In addition to denoting this separate archaic character, the name "San" was also used as an alternative name to denote the standard letter Sigma.

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