Arcade (architecture)

An arcade is a succession of contiguous arches, with each arch supported by columns, piers. Exterior arcades are designed to provide a sheltered walkway for pedestrians. The walkway may be lined with retail stores.[1] An arcade may feature arches on both sides of the walkway. Alternatively, a blind arcade superimposes arcading against a solid wall.[2] Blind arcades are a feature of Romanesque architecture that influenced Gothic architecture. In the Gothic architectural tradition, the arcade can be located in the interior, in the lowest part of the wall of the nave, supporting the triforium and the clerestory in a cathedral,[3] or on the exterior, in which they are usually part of the walkways that surround the courtyard and cloisters.

Many medieval arcades housed shops or stalls, either in the arcaded space itself, or set into the main wall behind. From this, "arcade" has become a general word for a group of shops in a single building, regardless of the architectural form.

The word "arcade" comes from French arcade from Provençal arcada or Italian arcata, based on Latin arcus, ‘bow’ (see arc and arch).[4]

Great Mosque of Kairouan gallery
Arcades inside the Mosque of Uqba, also known as the Great Mosque of Kairouan, located in Kairouan, Tunisia.
S95NormanArcadeEly
Norman blind arcade, Ely Cathedral
Metz - Place Saint-Louis -622
Arcade with shops behind, running along a row of originally High Medieval houses in Metz, France.
Umayyad Mosque - courtyard
Courtyard of the Great Mosque of Damascus

History

Arcades go back to at least the Ancient Greek architecture of the Hellenistic period, and were much used by the Romans, for example at the base of the Colosseum. Church cloisters very often use arcading. Islamic architecture very often uses arcades in and outside mosques in particular. In Renaissance architecture elegant arcading was often used as a prominent feature of facades, for example in the Ospedale degli Innocenti (commissioned 1419) or the courtyard of the Palazzo Bardi, both by Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence.

Shopping arcades

The French architect, Bertrand Lemoine, described the period, 1786 to 1935, as l’Ère des passages couverts (the Arcade Era).[5] He was referring to the grand shopping "arcades" that flourished across Europe during that period. A shopping arcade refers to a multiple-vendor space, operating under a covered roof. Typically, the roof was constructed of glass to allow for natural light and to reduce the need for candles or electric lighting.[6] The 18th and 19th century arcades were designed to attract the genteel middle classes. In time, these arcades became to be the place to shop and to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, dirty streets; a warm, dry space away from the harsh elements, and a safe haven where people could socialise and spend their leisure time. As thousands of glass covered arcades spread across Europe, they became grander and more ornately decorated. By the mid-nineteenth century, they had become prominent centres of fashion and social life. Promenading in these arcades became a popular nineteenth-century pastime for the emerging middle classes.[7]

Firenze, loggia del Mercato Nuovo (03)
Loggia del Mercato Nuovo, Florence, Italy

The inspiration for the grand shopping arcades may have derived from the fashionable open loggias of Florence however medieval vernacular examples known as 'butterwalks' were traditional jettied colonnades in British and North European marketplaces; examples remain for example in Totnes and Dartmouth in Devon. During the 16th-century, a pattern of market trading using mobile stalls under covered arcades was established in Florence, from where it spread throughout Italy. Examples of the earliest open loggias include: Mercato Nuovo (1547) by Giovanni Battista del Tasso (and funded by the Medici family); Mercato Vecchio, Florence by Giorgio Vasari (1567) and Loggia del Grano (1619) by Giulio Parigi.[8]

Arcades soon spread across Europe, North America and the Antipodes. Examples of these grand shopping arcades include: Palais Royal in Paris (opened in 1784); Passage de Feydeau in Paris (opened in 1791); London's Piccadilly Arcade (1810) and Milan's Galleria Vittorio Emanuele (1878).[9] Other notable nineteenth century grand arcades include the Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert in Brussels which was inaugurated in 1847 and Istanbul's Çiçek Pasajı opened in 1870. Shopping arcades were the precursor to the modern shopping mall, and the word "arcade" is now often used for malls which do not use the architectural form at all.

The Palais-Royal, which opened in 1784 and became one of the most important marketplaces in Paris, is generally regarded as the earliest example of the grand shopping arcades.[10] Originally, a royal palace, the complex consisted of gardens, shops and entertainment venues situated under the original colonnades. The area boasted some 145 boutiques, cafés, salons, hair salons, bookshops, museums, and numerous refreshment kiosks as well as two theatres. The retail outlets specialised in luxury goods such as fine jewellery, furs, paintings and furniture designed to appeal to the wealthy elite. Retailers operating out of the Palais complex were among the first in Europe to abandon the system of bartering, and adopt fixed-prices thereby sparing their clientele the hassle of bartering. Stores were fitted with long glass exterior windows which allowed the emerging middle-classes to window shop and indulge in fantasies, even when they may not have been able to afford the high retail prices. Thus, the Palais-Royal became one of the first examples of a new style of shopping arcade, frequented by both the aristocracy and the middle classes. It developed a reputation as being a site of sophisticated conversation, revolving around the salons, cafés, and bookshops, but also became a place frequented by off-duty soldiers and was a favourite haunt of prostitutes, many of whom rented apartments in the building.[11]

One of the earliest British examples of a shopping arcade, the Covered Market, Oxford, England was officially opened on 1 November 1774 and is still active today. The Covered Market was started in response to a general wish to clear "untidy, messy and unsavoury stalls" from the main streets of central Oxford. John Gwynn, the architect of Magdalen Bridge, drew up the plans and designed the High Street front with its four entrances. In 1772, the newly formed Market committee, half of whose members came from the town and half from the university, accepted an estimate of nine hundred and sixteen pounds ten shillings, for the building of twenty butchers' shops. Twenty more soon followed, and after 1773 meat was allowed to be sold only inside the market. From this nucleus the market grew, with stalls for garden produce, pig meat, dairy products and fish.

Gostiny Dvor in St Petersburg, Russia is another early shopping arcade. Sprawling at the intersection of Nevsky Prospekt and Sadovaya Street for over one kilometer and embracing the area of 53,000 m2 (570,000 sq ft), the indoor complex of more than 100 shops took twenty-eight years to construct. Building commenced in 1757 to an elaborate design by Bartolomeo Rastrelli, but that subsequently was discarded in favour of a less expensive and more functional Neoclassical design submitted by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (1729–1800).

Throughout the following century, Gostiny Dvor was augmented, resulting in ten indoor streets and as many as 178 shops by the 20th century. During the post-World War II reconstructions, its inner walls were demolished and a huge shopping mall came into being. This massive 18th-century structure got a face-lift recently and entered the 21st century as one of the most fashionable shopping centres in Eastern Europe.[12]

An early French arcade is the Passage du Caire created in 1798 as a tribute to the French campaign in Egypt and Syria. It was appreciated by the public for its protection from the weather, noise and filth of the streets.[13] A year later American architect William Thayer created the Passage des Panoramas with a row of shops passing between two panorama paintings. Shopping arcades increasingly were built in the second Bourbon Restoration.[14] Upper levels of arcades often contained apartments[15] and sometimes brothels.[16]

Notable arcades

Religious buildings

Shopping "arcades"

Gallery

Covered Market Inside

Inside the Covered Market, Oxford, England.

Cleveland Arcade, 1966

The Cleveland Arcade in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States, built 1890

Ouarzazate souk

Ouarzazate souk, Morocco

(1) The Strand (b)

The Strand Arcade in Sydney CBD, Australia, opened 1892

Passage des Panoramas Paris

The Passage des Panoramas, Paris, France

Arcade of Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca, Bologna, Italy

Arcade of Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca, Bologna, Italy. 2016

Royal Arcade, Melbourne, Australia - April 2004

Royal Arcade in Melbourne, Australia, opened 1870

Bonne-Esperance Cloitre est

Arcades inside the Bonne-Espérance Abbey.

Carpet Bazaar of Tabriz

Mozaffarieh: Tabriz Bazaar, Iran, devoted to carpet selling.

See also

References

  1. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary
  2. ^ James Bettley and Nikolaus Pevsner (2007), Essex. The buildings of England, Yale University Press, page 865
  3. ^ William Chambers (1973), Chambers's encyclopaedia, Volume 1, International Learning Systems Corp, p. 534
  4. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary
  5. ^ Lemoine, B., Les Passages Couverts, Paris: Délégation à l'action artistique de la ville de Paris [AAVP], 1990. ISBN 9782905118219.
  6. ^ Mitchell, I., Tradition and Innovation in English Retailing, 1700 to 1850, Routledge, Oxon, p. 140
  7. ^ Byrne-Paquet, L., The Urge to Splurge: A Social History of Shopping, ECW Press, Toronto, Canada, pp. 92–95
  8. ^ Pevsner, N., A History of Building Types, Princeton University Press, 1979, p. 235; Goy, R.J., Florence: A Walking Guide to Its Architecture, Yale University Press, 2015; Codini, E.K. (ed), Architettura a Pisa nel Primo Periodo Mediceo, Gangemi, 2003, p.213
  9. ^ Sassatelli, R., Consumer Culture: History, Theory and Politics, Sage, 2007, p. 27; Although the author specifically names Piccadilly Arcade, it is possible that she intended Burlington Arcade in Piccadilly.
  10. ^ Mitchell, I., Tradition and Innovation in English Retailing, 1700 to 1850, Routledge, Oxon, p. 140
  11. ^ Byrne-Paquet, L., The Urge to Splurge: A Social History of Shopping, ECW Press, Toronto, Canada, pp. 90–93
  12. ^ Bogdanov, I.A. , Bolshoi Gostiny dvor v Peterburge. SPb, 2001
  13. ^ p. 174 Desmons, Gilles Walking Paris New Holland Publishers, 2008
  14. ^ p. 386 Ayers, Andrew The Architecture of Paris: An Architectural Guide Edition Axel Menges, 2004
  15. ^ p. 32 Benjamin, Walter & Tiedemann, Rolf The Arcades Project Harvard University Press, 1999
  16. ^ p. 88 Rabaté, Jean-Michel Given: 10 Art 20 Crime : Modernity, Murder and Mass Culture Sussex Academic Press, 2007
Arcade (architecture magazine)

ARCADE is a quarterly magazine about architecture and design in the Northwestern United States. The magazine was established in 1981. It is published by the Northwest Architectural League. The mission of ARCADE is to provide dialogue about design and the built environment. The magazine is based in Seattle, Washington.

Arcade (village), New York

Arcade is a village in Wyoming County, New York. The population was 2,071 at the 2010 census.

The Village of Arcade in located in the southwest part of the Town of Arcade. The village is the location of the principal station of the Arcade and Attica Railroad and is located at the junction of NYS 39 and NYS 98.

A branch of Genesee Community College is located in Arcade.

The Prestolite Electric Leece-Neville division at 400 Main Street in the former Motorola plant serves as a primary employer in the village. Other large employers include: Tops Friendly Markets, Pioneer Credit Recovery and Koike Aronson.

Camayo Arcade

The Camayo Arcade is a historic shopping arcade located along Winchester Avenue in downtown Ashland, Kentucky. It opened in July 1926 and was the first indoor shopping mall built in the state of Kentucky. The building is part of the Ashland Commercial Historic District.

Church of Jesus Christ the Redeemer (Alcamo)

The church of Jesus Christ the Redeemer ( chiesa Gesù Cristo Redentore) is a Catholic church in Alcamo, in the province of Trapani, Italy.

Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II

The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II (Italian: [ɡalleˈriːa vitˈtɔːrjo emanuˈɛːle seˈkondo]) is Italy's oldest active shopping mall and a major landmark of Milan, Italy. Housed within a four-story double arcade in the center of town, the Galleria is named after Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of the Kingdom of Italy. It was designed in 1861 and built by architect Giuseppe Mengoni between 1865 and 1867.

James Keys Wilson

James Keys Wilson (April 11, 1828 – October 21, 1894) was a prominent architect in Cincinnati, Ohio. He studied with Charles A. Mountain in Philadelphia and then Martin E. Thompson and James Renwick in New York (Renwick designed the Smithsonian Museum), interning at Renwick's firm. Wilson worked with William Walter at the Walter and Wilson firm, before establishing his own practice in Cincinnati. He became the most noted architect in the city. His Old Main Building for Bethany College and Plum Street Temple buildings are National Historic Landmarks. His work includes many Gothic Revival architecture buildings, while the synagogue is considered Moorish Revival and Byzantine Architecture.

Wilson was the first president of the Cincinnati chapter of the American Institute of Architects (1870 to 1871 and again from 1872 to 1873). He is known for his design of the Old Main buildings on the campus of Bethany College; his work on Isaac M. Wise's Plum Street Temple (now known as Isaac M. Wise Temple), is celebrated both for its design and as a location important as a fount of reform Judaism in the United States. His son, H[enry] Neill Wilson, worked in his father's firm (and is credited with the design of the Rookwood Pottery building [1891–1892] at

1077 Celestial in Mount Adamsand); he then established his own practice in Minneapolis, Minnesota, before moving to Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

Loggia del Mercato Nuovo

The Loggia del Mercato Nuovo (Italian pronunciation: [ˈlɔddʒa del merˈkaːto ˈnwɔːvo]), popularly known as the Loggia del Porcellino (IPA: [ˈlɔddʒa del portʃelˈliːno]), is a building in Florence, Italy. It is so called to distinguish it from the Mercato vecchio (IPA: [merˈkaːto ˈvɛkkjo]; "old market") that used to be located in the area of today's Piazza della Repubblica.

NEC V60

NEC V60 is a CISC microprocessor once manufactured by NEC started in 1986. It has MMU, and RTOS supports both for Unix-based user-application-oriented systems and for I‑TRON based hardware-control-oriented embedded systems. This article also describes V70 and V80 because these have the same ISA as V60. In addition, dedicated co-FPP,

multi-cpu lockstep fault-tolerant mechanism named FRM, development tools including Ada certified system MV‑4000, and ICE are described. At last, their successor the V800 Series product families are briefly introduced.

V60/V70/V80's application covered much wide area, including: circuit switching telephone exchanges, minicomputers, aerospace guidance systems, word processors, industrial computers, and various game arcades.

Nowadays, CPU simulator software has been kept providing by the MAME development team, to emulate old games for enthusiasts. The latest open-source code is available from GitHub repository ().

Ocean Center Building

The Ocean Center Building is a 14-story, 197-foot-tall office building in downtown Long Beach, California built in 1929 by architect Raymond M. Kennedy.The Ocean Center Building has two ground floors, an entrance above the shoreline on the bluff level to take advantage of its address on 110 West Ocean Boulevard and an east entrance at the base of the Pine Avenue incline providing beach access and accommodating the Walk of a Thousand Lights of The Pike amusement zone . The building houses a collection of shops, offices and parking. At beach level there is a shopping arcade (architecture) archway key-stoned a restaurant (later converted to a penny arcade) and an immense menswear store (later converted to the Hollywood on the Pike cabaret,) and several small shops up the sidewalk incline of Pine St. There is a monthly rental parking space above the shops. The rest of the building is reserved for retail and office space. The office space above the lobby is divided by varying heights of the roof, allowing outdoor roof-top balcony space to select offices, turrets and a tower. The roofline is different when viewed from the east or west. Battlements along the different roof heights give the observer the impression of the building as being a castle.

Though originally built next to the shoreline, a number of geological and engineering changes have made it so today there is a long walk to seawater from the Ocean Center Building. When the Long Beach Harbor and breakwater were developed, and the Los Angeles River straightened and levied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the Pacific Ocean no longer swept the alluvial granite sand away and the deposits of sandy beach continued to widen. By the 1950s the sand of the beach had grown so wide that the space between the shoreline and the Ocean Center Building was paved as a parking lot and is now Seaside Way. Coastal landfill continued, the beach filled in, then Shoreline Drive and Shoreline Village were built upon the fill.

Ocean Center has made use of frontage which had originally been a boardwalk placed onto the sand easing access from Pine St. and the shore end of the Long Beach Pier to the bathhouse (1902), later named The Plunge. The low-tech boardwalk was originally known as The Pike, which later changed context to include the entire entertainment zone of rides, snack stands and midway games. The area has been featured in thousands of tourist photographs and several television shows and motion pictures, such as It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World. The boardwalk was paved in concrete and illuminated by strings of lights hung across it from the roofs of its shops and games, then was renamed The Walk of 1000 lights. The Ocean Center Building arcade presented the first impression to many visitors as a grand gateway to fun.

Old Main (Bethany College)

Old Main, Bethany College is a historic building group on the Bethany College campus in Bethany, West Virginia.

Passage (department store)

The Passage, from the French word passage, is

an élite department store on Nevsky Avenue in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which was founded in 1848. The Passage premises have long had associations with the entertainment industry and houses the Komissarzhevskaya Theatre.

Piccadilly Arcade

The Piccadilly Arcade runs between Piccadilly and Jermyn Street in central London. It was opened in 1909, having been designed by Thrale Jell, and is a Grade II listed building.Among the shops in the arcade are the Royal Warrant holder Benson & Clegg, who moved here in 1976 from their previous location in Jermyn Street.

SSV

SSV may refer to:

SSV, an acronym for Sailing School Vessel, a type of Tall ship.

SSV (band), a German techno music group

Soviet command ship SSV-33

Special Service Vehicles (SSVs), police vehicles in the U.S. and Canada

Society for the Suppression of Vice

Small saphenous vein

SSV (game architecture), arcade architecture named after its developers SETA Corporation, Sammy Corporation, and Visco Corporation

SSV Helsinki, a Finnish floorball team

Side-by-Side Vehicle is a motorsport class for lightweight all-terrain vehicles

Strategic Sealift Vessel, a Philippine Navy military vessel type based on a Landing Platform Dock

Simian sarcoma virus (SSV), a synonym for the Woolly monkey sarcoma virus (WMSV) of family Retroviridae

Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus (SSV), a set of viruses belonging to different genera of the Fuselloviridae family

SSV, an acronym for Server-Side Validation

Stoa

A stoa (; plural, stoas, stoai, or stoae ), in ancient Greek architecture, is a covered walkway or portico, commonly for public use. Early stoas were open at the entrance with columns, usually of the Doric order, lining the side of the building; they created a safe, enveloping, protective atmosphere.

Later examples were built as two storeys, and incorporated inner colonnades usually in the Ionic style, where shops or sometimes offices were located. These buildings were open to the public; merchants could sell their goods, artists could display their artwork, and religious gatherings could take place. Stoas usually surrounded the marketplaces or agora of large cities and were used as a framing device. The name of the Stoic school of philosophy derives from "stoa".

Tong lau

The term tong lau or qi lou (Chinese: 唐樓 / 騎樓) is used to describe tenement buildings built in late 19th century to the 1960s in Southern China, Taiwan and South East Asia. Designed for both residential and commercial uses, they are similar in style and function to the shophouses with five foot way of Southeast Asia.

Window shopping

Window shopping, sometimes called browsing, refers to an activity in which a consumer browses through or examines a store's merchandise as a form of leisure or external search behaviour without a current intent to buy. Depending on the individual, window shopping can be used as a pastime or to obtain information about a product's development, brand differences, or sale prices.The development of window shopping, as a form of recreation, is strongly associated with the rise of the middle classes in seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe. Glazing was a central feature of the grand shopping arcades that spread across Europe from the late 18th century. Promenading in these arcades became a popular nineteenth-century pastime for the emerging middle classes.

Traditionally, window shopping involves visiting a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but is also done online in recent times due to the availability of the internet and e-commerce. A person who enjoys window shopping is known as a window shopper.

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