Araucaria

Araucaria ( /ærɔːˈkɛəriə/; original pronunciation: [a.ɾawˈka. ɾja])[4] is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae. There are 20 extant species in New Caledonia (where 14 species are endemic, see New Caledonian Araucaria), Norfolk Island, eastern Australia, New Guinea, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, and northern Uruguay.

Araucaria
Temporal range: Jurassic–Recent[1][2]
Araucaria araucana Lanin
Araucaria araucana growing around a lake in Neuquén, Argentina
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Araucariaceae
Genus: Araucaria
Juss.
Type species
Araucaria araucana [3]
Araucaria Distribtion
Worldwide distribution of Araucaria species.

Description

Araucaria are mainly large trees with a massive erect stem, reaching a height of 5–80 metres (16–262 ft). The horizontal, spreading branches grow in whorls and are covered with leathery or needle-like leaves. In some species, the leaves are narrow, awl-shaped and lanceolate, barely overlapping each other; in others they are broad and flat, and overlap broadly.[5]

The trees are mostly dioecious, with male and female cones found on separate trees,[6] though occasional individuals are monoecious or change sex with time.[7] The female cones, usually high on the top of the tree, are globose, and vary in size among species from 7 to 25 centimetres (2.8 to 9.8 in) diameter. They contain 80–200 large edible seeds, similar to pine nuts, though larger. The male cones are smaller, 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) long, and narrow to broad cylindrical, 1.5–5.0 cm (0.6–2.0 in) broad.

The genus is familiar to many people as the genus of the distinctive Chilean pine or monkey-puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana). The genus is named after the Spanish exonym Araucano ("from Arauco") applied to the Mapuches of central Chile and south-west Argentina, whose territory incorporates natural stands of this genus. The Mapuche people call it pehuén, and consider it sacred.[5] Some Mapuches living in the Andes name themselves Pehuenches ("people of the pehuén") as they traditionally harvested the seeds extensively for food.[8][9]

No distinct vernacular name exists for the genus. Many are called "pine", although they are only distantly related to true pines, in the genus Pinus.

Distribution and paleoecology

Three araucarias
Three members of the genus growing together – left to right, Araucaria columnaris, Araucaria cunninghamii and Araucaria bidwillii

Members of Araucaria are found in Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Australia, and New Guinea. There is also a significant, naturalized population of Araucaria columnaris – "Cook's pine" – on the island of Lanai, in Hawaii, USA.[10] Many if not all current populations are relicts, and of restricted distribution. They are found in forest and maquis shrubland, with an affinity for exposed sites. These columnar trees are living fossils, dating back to early in the Mesozoic age. Fossil records show that the genus also formerly occurred in the northern hemisphere until the end of the Cretaceous period.

By far the greatest diversity exists in New Caledonia, due to the island's long isolation and stability.[5] Much of New Caledonia is composed of ultramafic rock with serpentine soils, with low levels of nutrients, but high levels of metals such as nickel.[11] Consequently, its endemic Araucaria species are adapted to these conditions, and many species have been severely affected by nickel mining in New Caledonia and are now considered threatened or endangered, due to their habitat lying in prime areas for nickel mining activities.

There is evidence to suggest that the long necks of sauropod dinosaurs may have evolved specifically to browse the foliage of the typically very tall Araucaria trees. The global distribution of vast forests of Araucaria during the Jurassic makes it likely that they were the major high energy food source for adult sauropods.[12]

Classification and species list

Juvenile Araucaria Sapling
Araucaria columnaris sapling with distinctive axial bud.
Petrified Araucaria cone from patagonia-Edit3
Petrified cone of Araucaria mirabilis from Patagonia, Argentina dating from the Jurassic Period (approx. 157 mya)

There are four extant sections and two extinct sections in the genus, sometimes treated as separate genera.[5][13][14] Genetic studies indicate that the extant members of the genus can be subdivided into two large clades – the first consisting of the section Araucaria, Bunya, and Intermedia; and the second of the strongly monophyletic section Eutacta. Sections Eutacta and Bunya are both the oldest taxa of the genus, with Eutacta possibly older.[15]

Taxa marked with are extinct.

Araucaria bindrabunensis (previously classified under section Bunya) has been transferred to the genus Araucarites.

Uses

Some of the species are relatively common in cultivation because of their distinctive, formal symmetrical growth habit. Several species are economically important for timber production.

Food

The edible large seeds of A. araucana, A. angustifolia and A. bidwillii — also known as Araucaria nuts,[22] and often called, although improperly, pine nuts — are eaten as food (particularly among the Mapuche people and Native Australians).[5] In South America Araucaria nuts or seeds are called piñas, pinhas, piñones or pinhões, like pine nuts in Europe.

Pharmacological activity

Pharmacological reports on genus Araucaria are anti- ulcer, antiviral, neuro-protective, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Michael Knapp; Ragini Mudaliar; David Havell; Steven J. Wagstaff; Peter J. Lockhart (2007). "The drowning of New Zealand and the problem of Agathis". Systematic Biology. 56 (5): 862–870. doi:10.1080/10635150701636412. PMID 17957581.
  2. ^ S. Gilmore; K. D. Hill (1997). "Relationships of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) and a molecular phylogeny of the Araucariaceae" (PDF). Telopea. 7 (3): 275–290. doi:10.7751/telopea19971020.
  3. ^ K. D. Hill (1998). "Araucaria". Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
  4. ^ "araucaria". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ a b c d e Christopher J. Earle (12 December 2010). "Araucaria Jussieu 1789". The Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  6. ^ "Practical seedling growing: Growing Araucaria from seeds". Arboretum de Villardebelle. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  7. ^ Michael G. Simpson (2010). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-12-374380-0.
  8. ^ "Araucaria columnaris". National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  9. ^ Francisco P. Moreno (November 2004). "Pehuenches: "The people from the Araucarias forests"". Museo de la Patagonia. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  10. ^ The Pine Trees of Lanai
  11. ^ Plants of New Caledonia. Atlanta botanical gardens
  12. ^ Jürgen Hummel; Carole T. Gee; Karl-Heinz Südekum; P. Martin Sander; Gunther Nogge; Marcus Clauss (2008). "In vitro digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage: implications for sauropod feeding ecology and diet selection" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1638): 1015–1021. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1728. PMC 2600911. PMID 18252667.
  13. ^ Michael Black; H. W. Pritchard (2002). Desiccation and survival in plants: Drying without dying. CAB International. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-85199-534-2.
  14. ^ James E. Eckenwalder (2009). Conifers of the World: the Complete Reference. Timber Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-88192-974-4.
  15. ^ a b Hiroaki Setoguchi; Takeshi Asakawa Osawa; Jean-Cristophe Pintaud; Tanguy Jaffré; Jean-Marie Veillon (1998). "Phylogenetic relationships within Araucariaceae based on rbcL gene sequences" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 85 (11): 1507–1516. doi:10.2307/2446478. JSTOR 2446478. PMID 21680310.
  16. ^ Mary E. Dettmann; H. Trevor Clifford (2005). "Biogeography of Araucariaceae" (PDF). In J. Dargavel. Australia and New Zealand Forest Histories. Araucaria Forests. Occasional Publication 2. Australian Forest History Society. pp. 1–9.
  17. ^ Erich Götz (1980). Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Springer. p. 295. ISBN 978-3-540-51794-8.
  18. ^ Cookson, Isabel C.; Duigan, Suzanne L. (1951). "Tertiary Araucariaceae From South-Eastern Australia, With Notes on Living Species". Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (4): 415–49. doi:10.1071/BI9510415.
  19. ^ Araucaria marensii at Fossilworks.org
  20. ^ Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Kay, Richard F.; Bargo, M. Susana (2012). "Araucaria+marensii" Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-Latitude Paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 9781139576413. Retrieved 2017-10-21.
  21. ^ Pole, Mike (2008). "The record of Araucariaceae macrofossils in New Zealand". Alcheringa. 32 (4): 405–26. doi:10.1080/03115510802417935.
  22. ^ Québec Amerique, ed. (1996). Pine nut. The Visual Food Encyclopedia. p. 280. ISBN 9782764408988.
  23. ^ Aslam, M.S; Ijaz, A.S (2013). "Phytochemical and ethno-pharmacological review of the genus Araucaria". Journal of Tropical Pharmaceutical Research. Review Article. 12 (4): 651–659. doi:10.4314/tjpr.v12i4.31.

External links

Araucaria (software)

Araucaria is an argument mapping software tool developed in 2001 by Chris Reed and Glenn Rowe, in the Argumentation Research Group at the School of Computing in the University of Dundee, Scotland. It is designed to visually represent arguments through diagrams that can be used for analysis and stored in Argument Markup Language (AML), based on XML. As a free software, it is available under the GNU General Public License and may be downloaded for free on the internet.

Araucaria angustifolia

Araucaria angustifolia, the Paraná pine, Brazilian pine or candelabra tree (pinheiro-do-paraná, araucária or pinheiro brasileiro), is a critically endangered species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Although the common names in various languages refer to the species as a "pine", it does not belong in the genus Pinus.

Araucaria araucana

Araucaria araucana (commonly called the monkey puzzle tree, monkey tail tree, piñonero, or Chilean pine) is an evergreen tree growing to 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height. It is native to central and southern Chile, western Argentina. Araucaria araucana is the hardiest species in the conifer genus Araucaria. Because of the longevity of this species, it is described as a living fossil. It is also the national tree of Chile. Its conservation status was changed to Endangered by the IUCN in 2013 due to the dwindling population caused by logging, forest fires, and grazing.

Araucaria bidwillii

Araucaria bidwillii, the bunya pine, is a large evergreen coniferous tree in the plant family Araucariaceae. It is found naturally in south-east Queensland Australia and two small disjunct populations in north eastern Queensland's World Heritage listed Wet Tropics. There are many old planted specimens in New South Wales, and around the Perth, Western Australia metropolitan area. They can grow up to 30–45 m (98–148 ft). The tallest presently living is one in Bunya Mountains National Park, Queensland which was reported by Robert Van Pelt in January 2003 to be 169 feet (51.5 m) in height.The bunya pine is the last surviving species of the Section Bunya of the genus Araucaria. This section was diverse and widespread during the Mesozoic with some species having cone morphology similar to A. bidwillii, which appeared during the Jurassic. Fossils of Section Bunya are found in South America and Europe. The scientific name honours the botanist John Carne Bidwill, who came across it in 1842 and sent the first specimens to Sir William Hooker in the following year.

Araucaria columnaris

Araucaria columnaris, the coral reef araucaria, Cook pine, New Caledonia pine, Cook araucaria, or columnar araucaria, is a species of conifer in the family Araucariaceae.

Araucaria cunninghamii

Araucaria cunninghamii is a species of Araucaria known as hoop pine. Other less commonly used names include colonial pine, Queensland pine, Dorrigo pine, Moreton Bay pine and Richmond River pine. The scientific name honours the botanist and explorer Allan Cunningham, who collected the first specimens in the 1820s.

Araucaria heterophylla

Araucaria heterophylla (synonym A. excelsa) is a vascular plant in the ancient and now disjointly distributed conifer family Araucariaceae. As its vernacular name Norfolk Island pine (or Norfolk pine) implies, the tree is endemic to Norfolk Island, a small island in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, about 1440 km east of Sydney, Australia. The genus Araucaria occurs across the South Pacific, especially concentrated in New Caledonia (about 700 km due north of Norfolk Island) where 13 closely related and similar-appearing species are found. It is sometimes called a star pine, Polynesian pine, triangle tree or living Christmas tree, due to its symmetrical shape as a sapling, although it is not a true pine.

Araucaria mirabilis

Araucaria mirabilis is an extinct species of coniferous tree from Patagonia, Argentina. It belongs to the section Bunya (the only living species of which is Araucaria bidwillii from Australia) of the genus Araucaria.

A. mirabilis are known from large amounts of very well preserved silicified wood and cones from the Cerro Cuadrado Petrified Forest, including tree trunks that reached 100 m (330 ft) in height in life. The site was buried by a volcanic eruption during the Middle Jurassic, approximately 160 million years ago.

Araucaria moist forests

The Araucaria moist forests, officially classified as mixed ombrophilous forest (Portuguese: "Floresta Ombrófila Mista") in Brazil, are a coniferous forest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest Biome. The forest ecosystem is located in southern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. The ecorregion also includes select areas of open field called "campos de cima da serra" or "coxilhas" (highland fields).

Araucaria tit-spinetail

The Araucaria tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura setaria) is a species of bird in the Furnariidae family.

It is found in Argentina and Brazil.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and plantations. It is tightly associated with Araucaria angustifolia ("parana pine") forests.

It is becoming rare due to habitat loss.

Araucariaceae

Araucariaceae – also known as araucarians – is a very ancient family of coniferous trees. The family achieved its maximum diversity during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, when it was distributed almost worldwide.

Most of the Araucariaceae in the Northern Hemisphere vanished in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, and are now largely confined to the Southern Hemisphere, except for a few species of Agathis in Southeast Asia.

Araucária

Araucária is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Paraná. The population in 2010 was 119,207 inhabitants.

Azure jay

The azure jay (Cyanocorax caeruleus) (Brazilian Portuguese: Gralha-azul - blue crow) is a passeriform bird of the crow family, Corvidae. It is found in the Atlantic Forest, especially with Araucaria angustifolia, in south-eastern Brazil (São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul), far eastern Paraguay and far north-eastern Argentina. It is the state bird of Paraná.

Clonostachys rosea f. rosea

Clonostachys rosea f. rosea, also known as Gliocladium roseum, is a species of fungus in the family Bionectriaceae. It colonizes living plants as an endophyte, digests material in soil as a saprophyte and is also known as a parasite of other fungi and of nematodes. It produces a wide range of volatile organic compounds which are toxic to organisms including other fungi, bacteria, and insects, and is of interest as a biological pest control agent.

Flag of Norfolk Island

The flag of Norfolk Island was approved by the Norfolk Island Council on 6 June 1979. It became the official flag on the commencement date of the Norfolk Island Flag and Public Seal Act 1979 on 17 January 1980. The flag depicts the Norfolk Island Pine (Araucaria heterophylla) in a central white stripe between two green stripes.

The flag's geometry is a triband, with a height-to-length ratio of 1:2. The central stripe is wider than the two outer stripes, the ratio being 7:9:7.

John Galbraith Graham

The Reverend John Galbraith Graham MBE (16 February 1921 – 26 November 2013) was a British crossword compiler, best known as Araucaria of The Guardian. He was also, like his father Eric Graham, a Church of England priest.

Pehuenche

Pehuenche (or Pewenche, people of the "pehuen" or "pewen" in Mapudungun) are an indigenous people of South America. They live in the Andes, primarily in present-day south central Chile and adjacent Argentina. Their name derives from their dependence for food on the seeds of the pehuen or monkey-puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana). In the 16th century, the Pehuenche lived in the mountainous territory from approximately 34 degrees to 40 degrees south. Later they became Araucanized and partially merged with the Mapuche peoples. In the 21st century, they still retain some of their ancestral lands.

Pinheiros

Pinheiros (Portuguese pronunciation: [pĩˈɲejɾus], “pine trees”) is a district in the subprefecture of the same name in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prior to development, the land which this borough occupies was dominated by the dense forest which contained a Brazilian subtropical species of pine, Araucaria angustifolia, which is also the symbol of the Paraná state.

The district comprises the neighborhoods of Jardim das Bandeiras, Jardim Viana, Jardim das Rosas, Pinheiros, Vila Madalena, Sumarezinho, Jardim Europa, and Jardim Paulistano, the last two being part of the Jardins upper class region. The HDI of the borough was 0.960, the second highest of the city of São Paulo.

Rayon d'Or

Rayon d'Or (1876–1896) was a French Thoroughbred racehorse and Champion sire in the United States. Bred by Frédéric de Lagrange at his Haras de Dangu stud farm in Dangu, Eure, he was sired by Flageolet whose wins included the Prix Morny (1872), Goodwood Cup (1873) and Jockey Club Cup (1873) and whom Rayon d'Or would help make the Leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland in 1879. Rayon d'Or's dam was the good producing mare Araucaria, sired by Ambrose. Araucaria was the last foal of the mare Pocahontas whom Thoroughbred Heritage says is "one of the most influential thoroughbreds of all time, male or female."

Rayon d'Or was conditioned for racing by Tom Jennings, Sr., a member of the pioneering English Racing Colony at Chantilly, Oise. Jennings was the trainer of Gladiateur, winner of the British Triple Crown in 1865.

Rayon d'Or raced from age two through four, winning important races in England and France at distances of one mile to mile and a quarter such as the Sussex and Champion Stakes, and at endurance distances such as the 4,000 meter Prix du Cadran at Longchamp Racecourse and the Prix Rainbow at 5,000 meters. Rayon d'Or's most important win came in the Classic St. Leger Stakes.

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